Lymphocyte to  monocyte ratio-based nomogram for predicting outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib
AbstractBackgroundThe ability of the pretreatment lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) to predict outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) receiving sorafenib is not conclusively determined.MethodsWe retrospectively studied patients treated with sorafenib for HCC in two tertiary referral centres in Asia and North America. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Predictive factors for the outcomes were determined by Cox proportional hazards models. A risk assessment tool was developed.ResultsCompared to the North America cohort, the Asia cohort was more heavily pretrea...
Source: Hepatology International - August 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Effect of COVID-19 on patients with compensated chronic liver diseases
AbstractBackground and AimCytokine storm has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We examine the incidence of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing compensated chronic liver disease (CLD).MethodsFrom 20 Jan 2020 to 7 Feb 2020, we studied 140 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to either Fuyang Second People ’s Hospital (FYSPH), Anhui or the Fifth Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital (PLAGH) in Beijing, China. Pre-existing CLD includes those with liver cirrhos...
Source: Hepatology International - July 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with COVID-19 and their clinical outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractAbnormal liver enzymes are seen in 20% of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The etiology of elevated liver enzymes is thought to be multifactorial including medications and underlying liver disease. The true prevalence and clinical significance of underlying chronic liver diseases (CLD) in COVID-19 remains poorly defined. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included 74 clinical studies that were identified after a thorough literature search across three databases. The prevalence of CLD patients (73 studies, 24,299 patients) was 3% among all COVID-19 patients. The prevalence of CLD patients was simila...
Source: Hepatology International - July 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Liver injury in remdesivir-treated COVID-19 patients
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - July 28, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of abnormal liver biochemical tests in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsAbnormal liver biochemical tests are common in COVID-19 patients. Liver biochemical indicators are closely related to the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - July 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Novel systemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractSystemic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) used to be limited to patients with advanced diseases and multi-kinase inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenesis the major approach of developing new treatment options. In the past 3  years, new data from trials of both molecular targeted therapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) provided many new options of first- and second-line treatment for advanced HCC. Most notably, combination of ICI targeting the program cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway with other novel agents or conven tional anti-cancer therapy may further improve treatment efficacy in different clini...
Source: Hepatology International - July 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Ileal bile acid transporter inhibition as an anticholestatic therapeutic target in biliary atresia and other cholestatic disorders
AbstractBiliary atresia is a rare cholestatic liver disease that presents in infants and rapidly advances to death in the absence of intervention. As a result of blockage or destruction of the biliary tract, bile acids accumulate and drive inflammation, fibrosis, and disease progression. The standard of care, Kasai portoenterostomy (KPE), is typically performed shortly after diagnosis (currently at  ~ 2 months of age) and aims to restore bile flow and relieve cholestasis. Nevertheless, most patients continue to experience liver injury from accumulation of bile acids after KPE, since there are no known ef...
Source: Hepatology International - July 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Consensus recommendations of three-dimensional visualization for diagnosis and management of liver diseases
AbstractThree-dimensional (3D) visualization involves feature extraction and 3D reconstruction of CT images using a computer processing technology. It is a tool for displaying, describing, and interpreting 3D anatomy and morphological features of organs, thus providing intuitive, stereoscopic, and accurate methods for clinical decision-making. It has played an increasingly significant role in the diagnosis and management of liver diseases. Over the last decade, it has been proven safe and effective to use 3D simulation software for pre-hepatectomy assessment, virtual hepatectomy, and measurement of liver volumes in blood f...
Source: Hepatology International - July 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the liver: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThe most frequent abnormality in liver functions was hypoalbuminemia followed by derangements in gamma-glutamyl transferase and aminotransferases, and these abnormalities were more frequent in severe disease. The systematic review was, however, limited by heterogeneity in definitions of severity and liver function derangements.Graphic abstractGraphical depiction of the summary of meta-analytic findings a) pooled prevalence of abnormalities b) Risk ratio of abnormality in severe versus non-severe COVID-19 c) standardized mean difference (SMD) between severe and non-severe group and d) pooled prevalence for paramet...
Source: Hepatology International - July 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pre-existing liver disease is associated with poor outcome in patients with SARS CoV2 infection; The APCOLIS Study (APASL COVID-19 Liver Injury Spectrum Study)
AbstractBackground and aimsCOVID-19 is a dominant pulmonary disease, with multisystem involvement, depending upon comorbidities. Its profile in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) is largely unknown. We studied the liver injury patterns of SARS-Cov-2 in CLD patients, with or without cirrhosis.MethodsData was collected from 13 Asian countries on patients with CLD, known or newly diagnosed, with confirmed COVID-19.ResultsAltogether, 228 patients [185 CLD without cirrhosis and 43 with cirrhosis] were enrolled, with comorbidities in nearly 80%. Metabolism associated fatty liver disease (113, 61%) and viral e...
Source: Hepatology International - July 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Silencing of functional p53 attenuates NAFLD by promoting HMGB1-related autophagy induction
ConclusionThe anti-NAFLD effect of functional p53 silencing is associated with the HMGB1-mediated induction of autophagy.Graphic abstract (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - June 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Maternal –fetal outcome in pregnancies complicated with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension: experience from a Tertiary Centre in South India
ConclusionMultidisciplinary team approach, with optimal and timely intervention with intensive monitoring, can reduce the morbidity and help achieve an optimal maternal –perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated with portal hypertension. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - June 25, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cell cycle regulation in NAFLD: when imbalanced metabolism limits cell division
AbstractCell division is essential for organismal growth and tissue homeostasis. It is exceptionally significant in tissues chronically exposed to intrinsic and external damage, like the liver. After decades of studying the regulation of cell cycle by extracellular signals, there are still gaps in our knowledge on how these two interact with metabolic pathways in vivo. Studying the cross-talk of these pathways has direct clinical implications as defects in cell division, signaling pathways, and metabolic homeostasis are frequently observed in liver diseases. In this review, we will focus on recent reports which describe va...
Source: Hepatology International - June 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Development and validation of a clinical and laboratory-based nomogram to predict nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
AbstractBackground and aimNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the leading cause of chronic liver disease in China. The early identification and management of patients at risk are essential. We aimed to develop a novel clinical and laboratory-based nomogram (CLN) model to predict NAFLD with high accuracy.MethodsWe designed a retrospective cross-sectional study and enrolled 21,468 participants (16,468 testing and 5000 validation). Clinical information and laboratory/imaging results were retrieved. Significant variables independently associated with NAFLD were identified by a logistic regression model, and a ...
Source: Hepatology International - June 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical benefits of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsPD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors showed favorable outcomes concerning response rates and survival periods in advanced HCC. Updated results from high-quality clinical trials are expected to validate these findings. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - June 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Machine learning-based development and validation of a scoring system for progression-free survival in liver cancer
This study aimed to explore the prognostic factors that affect the PFS in HCC and establish an individualized prediction model.MethodsWe included 2890 patients with hepatitis B-related HCC hospitalized at Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University and randomly divided into training and validation cohort. Cox multivariate regression was used to analyze independent risk factors affecting the 1-year PFS of HCC, and an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model was constructed. C-index, calibration curve, and decision curve analysis were used to evaluate the performance of the model.ResultsThe median survival time was 26....
Source: Hepatology International - June 18, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Portal inflammation predicts renal dysfunction in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
AbstractBackgroundThe association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and renal function changes remains inconclusive. We explored whether the histological severity of NAFLD is associated with early deterioration of renal function.MethodsPatients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were prospectively followed for renal function monitoring. A renal outcome was defined as a  ≥ 50% increase in serum creatinine, a
Source: Hepatology International - June 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Spleen stiffness measurement for assessing the response to β-blockers therapy for high-risk esophageal varices patients
AbstractBackgroundNon-selective β-blocker (NSBB) therapy is the treatment of choice for primary prophylaxis of cirrhotic patients with high-bleeding risk esophageal varices (HRV). The hemodynamic response to NSBB is assessed by the measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). Recently, liver and spleen stiffness me asurements (LSM and SSM) were proposed as non-invasive surrogates of HVPG. We aimed to evaluate LSM and SSM changes for assessing hemodynamic response in these patients.MethodsCirrhotic patients with HRV were prospectively enrolled and evaluated at our Department before starting NSBB and afte...
Source: Hepatology International - June 15, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Models for acute on chronic liver failure development and mortality in a veterans affairs cohort
ConclusionWe have developed novel tools for predicting development of ACLF in compensated cirrhosis patients, as well as for ACLF mortality. These tools may be used to proactively guide patient follow-up, prognostication, escalation of care, and transplant evaluation.Graphic abstractReceiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for predicting development of APASL ACLF at 3  months (a), 6 months (b), and 1 year (c) (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - June 9, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Distribution and clinical relevance of phospholipids in hepatocellular carcinoma
ConclusionIt is concluded that alterations of PLs in hepatic tissues play important roles in pathogenesis, progression, and gender disparity of HCC. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - June 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

BCL9/BCL9L in hepatocellular carcinoma: will it or Wnt it be the next therapeutic target?
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - June 1, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Plasma perfusion combined with plasma exchange in chronic hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients
ConclusionsPP  + PE treatment significantly reversed organ failures and ameliorated the development of new organ failures and complications, thus reducing mortality risk of patients with HBV-ACLF. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The prevalence of occult HBV infection in immunized children with HBsAg-positive parents: a hospital-based analysis
ConclusionThere are 3.1% of OBIs and 14.1% of suspected OBI in vaccinated children with HBsAg-positive parents. The potential risk of suspected OBI in children with HBsAg-positive father should not be ignored. Anti-HBc positivity may be a useful seromarker for suspected OBI screening in vaccinated children. To prevent HBV breakthrough infection, accurate and convenient method is needed to detect OBI timely and exhaustively. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical practice guidance for hepatology and liver transplant providers during the COVID-19 pandemic: APASL expert panel consensus recommendations
ConclusionsThis is the first consensus clinical guidance synthesized by APASL for our hepatologist and their allied medical personal. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with pre-existing decompensated cirrhosis: initial report from China
ConclusionThe case series raise the possibility that decompensated cirrhosis may be a risk factor for a poor outcome in patients with COVID-19. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A novel, bedside, etiology specific prognostic model (Peds-HAV) in hepatitis A induced pediatric acute liver failure
ConclusionPeds-HAV model is a simple, bedside, dynamic, etiology (HAV) specific prognostic model based on 3 objective parameters with optimum sensitivity and specificity, hence should be used as liver transplant listing criteria in HAV induced PALF.Graphic abstract (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD): insights into pathogenesis and advances in management
AbstractPremature infants and children with intestinal failure (IF) or short bowel syndrome are susceptible to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD, previously referred to as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, or PNALD). IFALD in children is characterized by progressive cholestasis and biliary fibrosis, and steatohepatitis in adults, and is seen in individuals dependent upon prolonged administration of PN. Many factors have been proposed as contributing to the pathogenesis of IFALD. In recent years, the focus has been on the potential synergistic roles of the intestinal microbiome, increased intes...
Source: Hepatology International - April 30, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antioxidant therapy on ischemic hepatitis: here we are and where do we go?
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 29, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

SARS-Cov-2 (human) and COVID-19: Primer 2020
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Incidence and predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma beyond year 5 of entecavir therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients
ConclusionsThe HCC incidence tended to decrease but did not change significantly within and beyond 5  years of ETV therapy. The FIB-4 index and AFP levels at year 5 were predictive of HCC development beyond year 5 of ETV therapy. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 21, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of the diagnostic performance of imaging criteria for HCCs  ≤ 3.0 cm on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI
AbstractBackground and purposeImaging-based diagnostic systems play important roles in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of recently updated imaging criteria for HCCs  ≤ 3.0 cm on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods493 nodules (399 HCCs, 24 other malignancies, 70 benign) 1.0 –3.0 cm from 400 patients, including 322 male (mean age 59.3 ± 9.4 years) and 78 female (mean age 61.2 ± 9.0 years), at risk for HCC who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI between Ju...
Source: Hepatology International - April 20, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Viscoelastic test-based bleeding risk score reliably predicts coagulopathic bleeding in decompensated cirrhosis and ACLF patients
AbstractBackground and aimsCoagulopathic bleeding risk prediction is challenging in decompensated cirrhosis (DC) by conventional assays. Viscoelastic tests (VETs) are likely to be more useful for assessing coagulation status in these patients. We investigated whether the VET (Sonoclot) parameters with fibrinogen could predict coagulopathic bleeding in these patients.Patients and methodsCoagulation parameters studied in 874 patients [124 compensated cirrhosis (CC), 521 DC, and 229 acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF)] and 190 controls. DC patients were enrolled in derivation (n = 266) and validation (n&thinsp...
Source: Hepatology International - April 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Identification of prognostic claudins signature in hepatocellular carcinoma from a hepatocyte differentiation model
ConclusionsIn the present study, we developed a novel embryonic developmental claudins signature to monitor the extent of tumor dedifferentiation in HCC from an in vitro hepatocyte differentiation model. The claudins signature might present a great potential in predicting prognostic significance in HCC as cell surface biomarkers, and provide novel therapeutic targets for precision oncology further in the clinic. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Stopping oral antiviral treatment to cure chronic hepatitis B, is it in sight?
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Proton pump inhibitors in chronic liver disease: accomplice or bystander?
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Extrahepatic manifestations and healthcare expenditures of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Medicare population
ConclusionNAFLD is associated with a number of EHMs that increases its mortality and increased healthcare expenditure. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 16, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Advanced liver disease outcomes after hepatitis C eradication by human immunodeficiency virus infection in PITER cohort
ConclusionDifferent demographic, clinical and genotype distribution between HIV coinfected vs those monoinfected, was observed in a representative cohort of HCV infected patients in Italy. Once liver cirrhosis is established the disease progression is decreased, but still persists regardless of viral eradication in both coinfected and monoinfected patients. In patients with cirrhosis, HIV coinfection was not associated with a higher probability of liver complications, after viral eradication. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 11, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Management of COVID-19 in patients after liver transplantation: Beijing working party for liver transplantation
AbstractAnnually, around 850 liver transplantation is performed in Beijing, China. Recently, the new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has affected nearly 200 countries worldwide. 2019-nCov can cause severe lung disease, multiple-organ damage, and significant mortalities. Liver transplant recipients, because of long-term oral immunosuppressant effects, may be more susceptible to 2019-nCoV infection and have a worse prognosis than the general population. It is urgent to set up guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients. In th...
Source: Hepatology International - April 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

& quot;Fast, faster, and fastest: science on the run during COVID-19 drama & quot; — & quot;do not forget the liver & quot;
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 10, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Liver transplantation and COVID-19 (Coronavirus) infection: guidelines of the liver transplant Society of India (LTSI)
AbstractThe Liver Transplant Society of India (LTSI) has come up with guidelines for transplant centres across the country to deal with liver transplantation during this evolving pandemic of COVID-19 infection. The guidelines are applicable to both deceased donor as well as living donor liver transplants. In view of the rapidly changing situation of COVID-19 infection in India and worldwide, these guidelines will need to be updated according to the emerging data. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 8, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Antibiotics for prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: systematic review & amp; Bayesian network meta-analysis
ConclusionRifaximin is useful for both primary and secondary prevention of SBP whereas norfloxacin daily and alternate norfloxacin and rifaximin are useful for primary prophylaxis. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Actual long-term survival in HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus after liver resection: a nationwide study
AbstractBackgroundLiver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) offers a chance of cure, although survival is often limited. The actual 3-year survival and its associated prognostic factors have not been reported.MethodsA nationwide database of HCC patients with PVTT who underwent liver resection with ‘curative’ intent was analyzed. The clinicopathologic characteristics, the perioperative, and survival outcomes for the actual long-term survivors were compared with the non-long-term survivors (patients who died within 3 years of surgery). Univariable and ...
Source: Hepatology International - April 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Portal flow in acute hepatitis B flare in non-cirrhotic patients
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 23, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of antiviral therapy for HBV in different trimesters of pregnancy: systematic review and network meta-analysis
ConclusionThis network meta-analysis recommended the earlier use of telbivudine or tenofovir, tends to be better to prevent MTCT of HBV in pregnancy with no increased adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 19, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Long-term outcome of pediatric non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis from the viewpoint of endoscopic profile
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 13, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Abstracts
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 7, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Application of point shear wave elastography in alcohol-related liver disease
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 6, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Acute rejection after liver transplantation is less common, but predicts better prognosis in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients
AbstractBackgroundWith a novel finding of significantly lower incidence of acute rejection (AR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation, compared with those with benign end-stage liver disease (BESLD), in a large national cohort, we analyzed the correlations among the perioperative immuno-inflammation status, postoperative AR, and prognosis in HCC and BESLD patients with same etiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV), who underwent liver transplantation.MethodsPatients who underwent liver transplantation due to HBV-related HCC or BESLD and experienced AR between September 2008 and April 2017 w...
Source: Hepatology International - March 5, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Efficacy of oral antiviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus: a network meta-analysis
ConclusionIn addition to active and passive immunoprophylaxis, lamivudine, telbivudine and tenofovir in highly viremic mothers can further decrease MTCT of HBV. Based on direct and indirect evidence, tenofovir appears to be more effective than the two other drugs in the prevention of HBV MTCT. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The epidemiology of NAFLD in Mainland China with analysis by adjusted gross regional domestic product: a meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe overall prevalence of NAFLD in Mainland China is about 30%. The highest prevalences were found among regions with higher income, North China, the non-Han ethnic minorities, diabetics, and the obese. China ’s NAFLD prevalence is on par with Western countries. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 4, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research