Statins associate with better clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis B patients with HBsAg seroclearance
ConclusionPatients with HBsAg seroclearance have favorable long-term survival. However, liver-related adverse outcomes still develop, necessitating further investigations on beneficial effects of statins. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 14, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A community of portal hypertension
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prediction of overt hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt treatment: a cohort study
AbstractBackground/purposeOvert hepatic encephalopathy (HE) risk should be preoperatively predicted to identify patients suitable for curative transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) instead of palliative treatments.MethodsA total of 185 patients who underwent TIPS procedure were randomised (130 in the training dataset and 55 in the validation dataset). Clinical factors and imaging characteristics were assessed. Three different models were established by logistic regression analyses based on clinical factors (ModelC), imaging characteristics (ModelI), and a combination of both (ModelCI). Their discrimination, ...
Source: Hepatology International - May 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prognosis prediction or treatment allocation?
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Combined computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging improves diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma  ≤ 3.0 cm
AbstractBackground/purposeImaging diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important, but the diagnostic performance of combined computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) v2018 is not fully understood. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of combined CT and MRI for diagnosing HCC  ≤ 3.0 cm using LI-RADS.MethodsIn 222 patients at risk of HCC who underwent both contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in 2017, 291 hepatic nodules  ≤ 3.0 cm were retrospectively analyzed. Tw...
Source: Hepatology International - May 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Endothelial dysfunction markers predict short-term mortality in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis
ConclusionsIn this study we show that advanced ALD and particularly severe AH is associated with an increase of ED biomarkers, which correlate with patient outcomes. These results suggest that ED may be a pathogenic event in AH and highlight endothelial factors as potential biomarkers in AH. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The  Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver clinical practice guidance: the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune hepatitis
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - May 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A novel evidence of serial changes of bone mineral density in chronic hepatitis B patients treated with entecavir
ConclusionsThis study suggested CHB patients treated with TDF may experience increased risks of bone loss and renal deficits compared to those treated with ETV. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The main reasons for finite Nuc therapy in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

No additive effects of peginterferon on the short-term improvement of liver histology by entecavir monotherapy in chronic hepatitis B patients
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 26, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Targeting the ileal bile salt transporter in the treatment of non ‑alcoholic fatty liver disease
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10179-6 (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Combined viral quasispecies diversity and hepatitis B core-related antigen predict off-nucleos(t)ide analog durability in HBeAg-negative patients
This study aimed to investigate the HBV quasispecies evolution and its relationship with durability of off-therapy responses in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who stopped NA therapy.MethodsFifty-four HBeAg-negative CHB patients who stopped NAs, including 19 virological controllers (VC) who maintained serum HBV DNA  
Source: Hepatology International - April 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Lenvatinib in combination with transarterial chemoembolization for treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC): a retrospective controlled study
AbstractPurposeTo compare the efficacy and safety of combined treatment with lenvatinib and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) versus TACE only in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC).MethodsOf the 120 patients enrolled in this study, 60 patients received treatment with TACE only, and 60 patients received TACE plus lenvatinib. We retrospectively compared the clinical outcomes including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and tumor response between the two groups. Both PFS and tumor response were based on the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Adver...
Source: Hepatology International - April 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

HBx promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by enhancing phosphorylation and blocking ubiquitinylation of UHRF2
ConclusionsThese results suggest that HBx-ETS1-CDK2-UHRF2 pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HBV-associated HCC and represents new therapeutic targets for human HCC.Clinical Trials RegistrationChiCTR2000041416. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Human fascioliasis presenting as liver abscess: clinical characteristics and management
ConclusionsHuman fascioliasis presents with a wide clinical spectrum; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required to establish a correct diagnosis. Clinicians need to be aware of hepatic fascioliasis when patients in such endemic areas present as hypereosinophilia and typical liver imaging. Prompt specific treatments will contribute towards a satisfactory outcome in patients. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Paris II and Rotterdam criteria are the best predictors of outcomes in patients with primary biliary cholangitis in Japan
ConclusionsThis study highlights the best prediction criteria and pre-treatment parameters that facilitate the prognosis of PBC patients. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The longitudinal outcomes of applying non-selective beta-blockers in portal hypertension: real-world multicenter study
AbstractBackground/AimWe investigated the effect of non-selective β-blockers (NSBB) in real-world situations and whether low-dose NSBB is beneficial compared to maximally tolerated doses.MethodsWe performed a retrospective study of 740 patients with cirrhosis requiring prophylactic treatment of esophageal varices: 473 primary prophylaxis (PP: NSBB  = 349, non-NSBB = 124) and 267 secondary prophylaxis (SP: NSBB = 200, non-NSBB = 67). The NSBB group was divided into low-dose (≤ 80 mg/day) and high-dose (>  80 mg/day).ResultsIn the PP g...
Source: Hepatology International - April 16, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Predicting the available space for liver transplantation in cirrhotic patients: a computed tomography-based volumetric study
ConclusionsAdditional anthropometric characteristics (right anteroposterior diameter, body mass index) clinical (number of portosystemic shunts), and biological (MELD, albumin) factors might influence the overall volume available for liver graft implantation. Knowledge of these factors might be helpful during the donor –recipient matching. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

A new horizon in risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma by integrating vessels that encapsulate tumor clusters and microvascular invasion
AbstractBackgroundVessels that encapsulate tumor clusters (VETC) is a novel described vascular pattern different from microvascular invasion (MVI) for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The prognostic value of integrating VETC and MVI (VETC-MVI model) in HCC patients after resection remains unclear.MethodsFrom January 2013 to December 2016, 498 HCC patients who underwent curative resection were enrolled from five academic centers and stratified into different groups according to their VETC and MVI statuses. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and early and late recurrence rates were evaluated.Res...
Source: Hepatology International - April 9, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Anlotinib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: an open-label phase II study (ALTER-0802 study)
ConclusionAnlotinib showed promising efficacy and safety as a first- or second-line treatment with a continuous TKIs treatment strategy in aHCC. The plasma CXCL1 might be a predictor for the efficacy of anlotinib. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk factors and outcomes for acute-on-chronic liver failure in COVID-19: a large multi-center observational cohort study
AbstractObjectiveCoronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] infection in patients with chronic liver disease [CLD] may precipitate acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]. In a large multi-center cohort of COVID-19-infected patients, we aim to analyze (1) the outcomes of patients with underlying CLD [with and without cirrhosis] and (2) the development and impact of ACLF on in-hospital mortality.DesignWe identified 192 adults with CLD from among 10,859 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (admitted to any of 12 hospitals in a New York health care system between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020). ACLF was defined using the EASL...
Source: Hepatology International - April 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Clinical and economic burden of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait
ConclusionsNASH, especially AF-NASH, should be considered a higher priority in ME Public Health policy. Our analyses should inform health policy makers to mitigate the enormity of this escalating regional burden. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Actual long-term survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients with microvascular invasion: a multicenter study from China
ConclusionsOne-third of HCC patients with MVI reached the long-term survival milestone of 5  years after resection. Anatomical hepatectomy, controlling intraoperative blood loss, a wide resection margin, and postoperative adjuvant TACE should be considered for patients to achieve better long-term survival outcomes. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiotherapy versus intensity-modulated radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis
ConclusionsWhen high-precision tracking technology is available, SBRT appears to be a safe and more time-efficient treatment, achieving comparable OS, PFS, IC and LC to IMRT for local advanced HCC with PVTT. A BED10 ≥ 100 Gy is recommended if tolerated by normal tissue.Graphic abstract (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 5, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Predicting liver cyst severity by mutations in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease
ConclusionPKD1 nonsense mutations were associated with liver cyst severity, which along with maximum diameter index as a simple clinical indicator for liver cysts, may improve the treatment of polycystic liver disease associated with ADPKD. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - April 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Correction to: Immunosuppressive regimens for adult liver transplant recipients in real-life practice: consensus recommendations from an Italian Working Group
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10178-7 (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The characteristics of the immune cell profiles in peripheral blood in cholangiocarcinoma patients
ConclusionsThe ICP in CCA are specifically attributable to cholangiocarcinoma, and may be biomarkers for therapeutic effects and prognoses.Graphical abstract (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Neonatal hepatitis B vaccination protects mature adults from occult virus infection
AbstractBackgroundAmong elder children/young adults who received hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination during infancy, the serological status of HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc-positive [HBsAg( –)/anti-HBc(+)] was frequently reported, indicating potential occult HBV infection (OBI). It is required to define the long-term protection of neonatal vaccination against OBI in their mature adulthood.MethodsBuilding upon the 1983 –1990 established Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study, we sampled 10% of the 28–35-year-old participants, who remained in the cohort by 2012. Each participant was tested for serological mark...
Source: Hepatology International - March 22, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Liver fibrosis scores and coronary atherosclerosis: novel findings in patients with stable coronary artery disease
AbstractBackgroundAlthough non-invasive liver fibrosis scores (LFSs) have already been considered as effective tools for estimating cardiovascular risk, their roles in predicting disease severity and cardiovascular event (CVEs) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are not comprehensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NAFLD-FS) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) are associated with CVEs in a large cohort with long-term follow-up.MethodsA cohort of 5143 patients with angiography-proven stable CAD were consecutively enrolled and follow...
Source: Hepatology International - March 19, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Risk factors of poor prognosis in patients with pyrrolidine alkaloids induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Toward a new landscape for the mechanism of immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Primary prophylaxis of gastric variceal bleeding: endoscopic obturation, radiologic intervention, or observation?
ConclusionsEVO and BRTO are effective and safe primary prophylactic treatments for preventing bleeding from GV. In particular, BRTO is better than EVO in complete eradication of GV.Graphic abstract (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 11, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Does the risk of cardiovascular events differ between biopsy-proven NAFLD and MAFLD?
ConclusionPatients with both NAFLD and MAFLD had intermediate/high CVR, with a high rate of CVD. Patients with MAFLD and concomitant viral infection showed significantly increased CVR and CVD compared to those without viral infection. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Comparison of fibrosis regression of entecavir alone or combined with pegylated interferon alpha2a in patients with chronic hepatitis B
ConclusionsPeg-IFN- α-2a add-on therapy did not yield additional fibrosis regression and virologic response than ETV alone therapy. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 7, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection and compensated liver disease: real-world data in Taiwan
ConclusionsSOF/VEL for 12  weeks is efficacious and well-tolerated by chronic HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease in Taiwan. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Combining end-of-treatment HBsAg and baseline hepatitis B core-related antigen reduce HBV relapse rate after tenofovir cessation
AbstractBackground/purposeThe study investigated the role of hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) relapse after stopping tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in HBeAg-negative patients.MethodsA total of 185 HBeAg-negative patients without cirrhosis who had stopped TDF treatment for at least 6  months were recruited. All patients fulfilled the stopping criteria proposed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver 2012.ResultsThe 3-year cumulative incidences of virological relapse, clinical relapse, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss were 72, 60.1 and 14.5%, respe...
Source: Hepatology International - March 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Gut-liver axis modulation of Panax notoginseng saponins in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
ConclusionPNS exerted hepatoprotection against NAFLD in both ob/ob and HFD-induced obese mice, primarily by mediating the gut-liver axis in a TLR4-dependent manner.Graphic abstractPanax notoginseng saponins (PNS) ameliorated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and gut-liver axis-mediated pathogenesis of NAFLD is proposed to occur in a TLR4-dependent manner. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - March 3, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Drug-induced liver injury: Asia Pacific Association of Study of Liver consensus guidelines
AbstractIdiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury mimics acute and chronic liver disease. It is under recognized and underrecognised because of the lack of pathognomonic diagnostic serological markers. Its consequences may vary from being asymptomatic to self-limiting illness to severe liver injury leading to acute liver failure. Its incidence is likely to be more common in Asia than other parts of the world, mainly because of hepatotoxicity resulting from the treatment of tuberculosis disease and the ubiquitous use of traditional and complimentary medicines in Asian  countries. This APASL consensus guidelines on DILI i...
Source: Hepatology International - February 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Partial splenic embolization combined with endoscopic therapies and NSBB decreases the variceal rebleeding rate in cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism: a multicenter randomized controlled trial
AbstractBackgroundGlobal research on endoscopic therapies in combination with partial splenic embolization (PSE) for variceal hemorrhage (VH) is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopy plus PSE (EP) treatment in comparison to endoscopic (E) treatment for the secondary prophylaxis of VH in cirrhosis patients with hypersplenism.MethodsCirrhosis patients with hypersplenism (platelet count  
Source: Hepatology International - February 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Chronic hepatitis B: the demise of the ‘inactive carrier’ phase
AbstractChronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains a global healthcare burden. Although the recent developments in the field have led to a reduction in incidence, the morbidity and mortality including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain a formidable challenge. Advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of CHB have led to a recent change in clinical categorization. EASL introduced the term hepatitis B ‘e’ antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic infection, to replace the historical term ‘inactive carrier’ disease phase, the commonest CHB phase. Although this disease phase is associated wit...
Source: Hepatology International - February 27, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

High-normal alanine aminotransferase is an indicator for liver histopathology in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B
AbstractObjectiveWe aimed to assess liver histological changes of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal ALT, and determined the association between significant liver injury and age, ALT, and HBV DNA levels.MethodsWe retrospectively examined 327 patients who underwent liver biopsy from 2009 to 2018. Significant liver histological change is defined as liver necroinflammation  ≥ G2 and/or liver fibrosis ≥ F2.ResultsThe proportion of patients with significant liver necroinflammation or fibrosis in the high-normal ALT group (ALT  >  20 U/L) was higher th...
Source: Hepatology International - February 26, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Checkpoint inhibitor induced hepatitis and the relation with liver metastasis and outcome in advanced melanoma patients
ConclusionIncidence of hepatitis in a real-world cohort is 1.8% for PD-1 inhibitor, 2.6% for ipilimumab and 20.7% for combination therapy. Checkpoint inhibitor-induced hepatitis had no relation with liver metastasis and had no negative effect on the outcome. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - February 25, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Dynamic Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter (ONSD) guided management of raised intracranial pressure in pediatric acute liver failure
The objectives were to evaluate the role of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) to detect raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in pediatric acute liver failure (PALF), study the variations in ONSD with ICP-lowering measures and to evaluate its prognostic role.MethodsPALF with clinical evidence of raised ICP were enrolled as cases, while those without raised ICP were control group A. ONSD was measured at admission and repeated regularly. It was also measured at time of each new episode of raised ICP and 2  h after the management of such episode.Results31 PALF with raised ICP were included as cases and 15 without as contro...
Source: Hepatology International - February 24, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The prevalence of occult HBV infection in immunized children with HBs Ag positive parents: a hospital based analysis
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - February 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Weight fluctuation and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a nationwide population-based 8-million-subject study
ConclusionWeight fluctuation is an independent predictor of HCC. In the absence of liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis, the impact of weight fluctuation on HCC is further emphasized. These results suggest maintaining steady weight is recommended to reduce the risk of HCC. (Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Author ’s reply to “Thromboelastometry in patients with advanced chronic liver disease: a complex interplay”
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - February 17, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The epidemiology of NAFLD and lean NAFLD in Japan: a meta-analysis with individual and forecasting analysis, 1995 –2040
AbstractBackgroundNAFLD is increasing in Asia including Japan, despite its lower obesity rate than the West. However, NAFLD can occur in lean people, but data are limited. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of NAFLD in Japan with a focus on lean NAFLD.MethodsWe searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (inception to 5/15/2019) and included 73 eligible full-text original research studies (n = 258,531). We used random-effects model for pooled estimates, Bayesian modeling for trend and forecasting, contacted authors for individual patient data and an...
Source: Hepatology International - February 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

C1QTNF1-AS1 regulates the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating miR-221-3p/SOCS3
(Source: Hepatology International)
Source: Hepatology International - February 10, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

How does hepatic lipid accumulation lead to lipotoxicity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?
AbstractBackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized as excess lipid accumulation in the liver which is not due to alcohol use, has emerged as one of the major health problems around the world. The dysregulated lipid metabolism creates a lipotoxic environment which promotes the development of NAFLD, especially the progression from simple steatosis (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).Purposeand AimThis review focuses on the mechanisms of lipid accumulation in the liver, with an emphasis on the metabolic fate of free fatty acids (FFAs) in NAFLD and presents an update on the relevant cellular ...
Source: Hepatology International - February 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Implications of liver injury in risk-stratification and management of patients with COVID-19
This study aimed to assess the effects of liver injuries on the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19.MethodsA total of 1520 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 from Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, were enrolled. Chronic liver disease (CLD) was confirmed by consensus diagnostic criteria. Laboratory test results were compared between different groups. scRNA-seq data and bulk gene expression profiles were used to identify cell types associated with liver injury.ResultsA total of 10.98% of patients with severe or critical COVID-19 developed liver injury after admission that was associated with significantly higher ra...
Source: Hepatology International - February 6, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research