Learning curve of liver stiffness measurement using a new hybrid machine composed of transient elastography interfaced with ultrasound
ConclusionTE interfaced with ultrasound in this hybrid machine presents no learning curve effect. After a short initial training session, a novice observer is able to perform high rates of reliable and very reliable TE measurements.Key Points• When performing liver stiffness measurements using a new hybrid machine composed of transient elastography interfaced with ultrasound, the rate of failures of measurements is very low, below 5%.• After a short training session and using ultrasound planning, a novice operator, whatever its expertise in ultrasound imaging, is capable of performing high rates of reliable and v...
Source: European Radiology - October 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automated multiparametric localization of prostate cancer based on B-mode, shear-wave elastography, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound radiomics
ConclusionsIn this paper, technical feasibility of multiparametric machine learning to improve upon single US modalities for the localization of PCa has been demonstrated. Extended datasets for training and testing may establish the clinical value of automatic multiparametric US classification in the early diagnosis of PCa.Key Points• Combination of B-mode ultrasound, shear-wave elastography, and contrast ultrasound radiomics through machine learning is technically feasible.• Multiparametric ultrasound demonstrated a higher prostate cancer localization ability than single ultrasound modalities.• Computer-aid...
Source: European Radiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cortical quantitative MRI parameters are related to the cognitive status in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
ConclusionsMicrostructural changes are distributed heterogeneously across the cortex in RRMS/CIS. QMRI has the potential to provide surrogate parameters for the assessment of cognitive impairment in these patients for clinical studies. The characteristics of cognitive impairment in RRMS might depend on the distribution of cortical changes.Key Points• The goal of the presented study was to investigate cortical changes in RRMS/CIS and their relation to the cognitive status, using multiparametric quantitative MRI.• Cortical T2, T2*, and PD increases observed in patients appeared heterogeneous across the cortex and t...
Source: European Radiology - October 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning –based image restoration algorithm for coronary CT angiography
AbstractObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) subjected to deep learning –based image restoration (DLR) method with images subjected to hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR).MethodsWe enrolled 30 patients (22 men, 8 women) who underwent coronary CTA on a 320-slice CT scanner. The images were reconstructed with hybrid IR and with DLR. The image noise in the ascending aorta, left atrium, and septal wall of the ventricle was measured on all images and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal coronary arteries was calculated. We also...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cervical necrotic lymphadenopathy: a diagnostic tree analysis model based on CT and clinical findings
ConclusionsThe DTA model based on CT imaging and clinical findings may be helpful for the diagnosis of cervical necrotic lymphadenopathy.Key Points• The diagnostic tree analysis model based on CT may be useful for differential diagnosis of cervical necrotic lymphadenopathy.• Perinodal infiltration, number of necrotic foci, percentage of necrotic lymph nodes, degree of necrosis, margin and shape of necrotic portion, lymph node shape, and enhancement ratio were the most significant predictors. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Acetabular coverage differs between standing and supine positions: model-based assessment of low-dose biplanar radiographs and comparison with CT
Conclusions2D and 3D acetabular coverages can be calculated with very good reliability based on BPR. The impact of standing position on acetabular coverage can be quantified with BPR on an individual basis.Key Points• 2D and 3D acetabular coverages can be calculated with very good reliability based on biplanar radiographs in comparison with CT.• The impact of standing position on anterior and posterior acetabular coverages can be quantified with BPR on an individual basis. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multiparametric MRI of the bladder: inter-observer agreement and accuracy with the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) at a single reference center
ConclusionsVI-RADS is accurate in differentiating MIBC from NMIBC. Inter-reader agreement is overall good.Key Points• Traditionally, the local staging of bladder cancer relies on transurethral resection of bladder tumor.• However, transurethral resection of bladder tumor carries a significant risk of understaging a cancer; therefore, more accurate, faster, and non-invasive staging techniques are needed to improve outcomes.• Multiparametric MRI has proved to be the best imaging modality for local staging; therefore, its use in suitable patients has the potential to expedite radical treatment when necessary an...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Preoperative assessment of parietal pleural invasion/adhesion of subpleural lung cancer: advantage of software-assisted analysis of 4-dimensional dynamic-ventilation computed tomography
ConclusionSoftware-assisted 4D dynamic-ventilation CT can be considered as a novel imaging approach for accurate preoperative analysis of pleural invasion/adhesion of peripheral lung cancer.Key Points•4D dynamic-ventilation CT can correctly assess parietal pleural invasion/adhesion of peripheral lung cancer.•A unique color map clearly demonstrates parietal pleural invasion/adhesion.•Our technique can be expanded to diagnose “benign” pleural adhesions for safer thoracoscopic surgery. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cortical cerebral blood flow in ageing: effects of haematocrit, sex, ethnicity and diabetes
AbstractObjectivesCerebral blood flow (CBF) estimates from arterial spin labelling (ASL) show unexplained variability in older populations. We studied the impact of variation of haematocrit (Hct) on CBF estimates in a tri-ethnic elderly population.Materials and methodsApproval for the study was obtained from the Fulham Research Ethics Committee and participants gave written informed consent. Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling was performed on 493 subjects (age 55 –90) from a tri-ethnic community-based cohort recruited in London. CBF was estimated using a simplified Buxton equation, with and without correction ...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intrahepatic dynamic contrast MR lymphangiography: initial experience with a new technique for the assessment of liver lymphatics
ConclusionsIH-DCMRL is a cross-sectional technique which successfully evaluated hepatic lymphatic flow disorders and warrants further investigation.Key Points• Intrahepatic dynamic contrast magnetic resonance lymphangiography (IH-DCMRL) is a new imaging technique to evaluate hepatic lymphatic flow disorders such as protein-losing enteropathy.• In comparison to conventional liver lymphangiography, IH-DCMRL offers a 3D imaging technique and better distal lymphatic contrast distribution and does not use ionizing radiation. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Renal cell carcinoma: predicting RUNX3 methylation level and its consequences on survival with CT features
AbstractPurposeTo investigate associations between CT imaging features, RUNX3 methylation level, and survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).Materials and methodsPatients were divided into high RUNX3 methylation and low RUNX3 methylation groups according to RUNX3 methylation levels (the threshold was identified by using X-tile). The CT scanning data from 106 ccRCC patients were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between RUNX3 methylation level and overall survivals was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox regression analysis (univariate and multivariate). The relationship between RUNX3 meth...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultralow-dose CT with knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in evaluation of pulmonary tuberculosis: comparison of radiation dose and image quality
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the image quality of ultralow-dose computed tomography (ULDCT) reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB).MethodsThis IRB-approved prospective study enrolled 59 consecutive patients (mean age, 43.9  ± 16.6 years; F:M 18:41) with known or suspected pulmonary TB. Patients underwent a low-dose CT (LDCT) using automatic tube current modulation followed by an ULDCT using fixed tube current. Raw image data were reconstructed with filtered-back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose),...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T 2 mapping of the meniscus is a biomarker for early osteoarthritis
ConclusionIn vivo T2 mapping of the human meniscus correlates strongly with histological degeneration, suggesting that T2 mapping enables the detection and quantification of early compositional changes of the meniscus in knee OA.Key Points• Prospective histology-based study showed that in vivo T2mapping of the human meniscus correlates strongly with histological degeneration.• Meniscal T2mapping allows detection and quantifying of compositional changes, without need for contrast or special MRI hardware.• Meniscal T2mapping provides a biomarker for early OA, potentially allowing early treatment strategies and...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease progression at sequential HRCT in anti-synthetase syndrome
ConclusionsAt the onset of ASS, some clinical features and HRCT pattern of ILD may suggest an unfavorable outcome of lung involvement on HRCT, even with routine therapy. These factors may contribute to the high long-term mortality of ASS.Key Points• Evaluation of lung involvement on HRCT is important in the follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease related to anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS-ILD).• The interstitial lung disease related to ASS responds to the treatment variably.• Some clinical and imaging characteristics are associated with poor prognosis in patients with ASS-ILD, including fever at d...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Image-based biomarkers for solid tumor quantification
AbstractThe last few decades have witnessed tremendous technological developments in image-based biomarkers for tumor quantification and characterization. Initially limited to manual one- and two-dimensional size measurements, image biomarkers have evolved to harness developments not only in image acquisition technology but also in image processing and analysis algorithms. At the same time, clinical validation remains a major challenge for the vast majority of these novel techniques, and there is still a major gap between the latest technological developments and image biomarkers used in everyday clinical practice. Current...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Distinguishing early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma from benign hyperplasia using intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI
This study aimed to determine whether intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM DWI) MRI could distinguish between these two entities.MethodsThirty-four subjects with early-stage NPC and 30 subjects with benign hyperplasia prospectively underwent IVIM DWI. The mean pure diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated for all subjects and compared between the 2 groups using Student ’st test. Receiver operating characteristics with the area under the curve (AUC) was used to identify the optimal thres...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Application of deep learning to the diagnosis of cervical lymph node metastasis from thyroid cancer with CT
ConclusionA deep learning –based CAD system could accurately classify cervical LNM in patients with thyroid cancer on preoperative CT with an AUROC of 0.953. Whether this approach has clinical utility will require evaluation in a clinical setting.Key Points• A deep learning–based CAD system could accurately classify cervical lymph node metastasis. The AUROC for the eight tested algorithms ranged from 0.909 to 0.953.• Of the eight models, the ResNet50 algorithm was the best-performing model for the validation dataset with 0.953 AUROC. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ResNet50 model wer...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of baseline volumetric multiparametric MR imaging in neuroendocrine liver metastases treated with transarterial chemoembolization
ConclusionVolumetric enhancement values and tumor volume of the dominant lesion on baseline MR imaging may act as prognostic factors for OS and HPFS in NELMs patients treated with TACE.Key Points•High volumetric mean AE and VE, and low tumor volume of the dominant lesion on baseline MR imaging were associated with favorable OS and HPFS in NELMs patients treated with TACE.•Evaluation of multiple lesions does not provide additional information as compared to single lesion evaluation. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deteriorated functional and structural brain networks and normally appearing functional –structural coupling in diabetic kidney disease: a graph theory-based magnetic resonance imaging study
This study was conducted in order to investigate the topological organization of functional and structural brain networks in diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and its potential clinical relevance.MethodsTwo hundred two subjects (62 DKD patients, 60 diabetes mellitus [DM] patients, and 80 healthy controls) underwent laboratory examination, neuropsychological test, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Large-scale functional and structural brain networks were constructed and graph theoretical network analyses were performed. The effect of renal function on brain functional and structural networks in DKD patients was further eval...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity after intra-arterial injection of iodinated contrast media: a prospective study in patients with coronary angiography
ConclusionThe incidence rate of immediate and delayed HSR in intra-arterially administered ICM was 3.6% and 15.1%, respectively. Previous exposure to intra-arterially administered contrast media was a significant risk factor for immediate HSR. Compared to ioversol, iodixanol was associated with relatively earlier and more frequent delayed HSR.Key Points• In this prospective study,the incidence of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity in intra-arterial injection of contrast media during coronary angiography was 3.6%and 15.1%,respectively.• Delayed hypersensitivity reactions were more common but less severe than i...
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sigmoid volvulus: identifying patients requiring emergency surgery with the dark torsion knot sign
ConclusionA newly defined CT imaging factor of dark torsion knot sign and a clinical factor of sepsis can predict complicated SV necessitating emergent surgery instead of colonoscopic detorsion as a primary treatment of choice.Key Points•A newly defined CT imaging factor of dark torsion knot sign and a clinical factor of sepsis can be helpful for predicting complicated SV necessitating emergent surgery instead of endoscopic detorsion. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 30, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Improved prediction of incident vertebral fractures using opportunistic QCT compared to DXA
ConclusionsOpportunistic screening of mainly neurosurgical and oncologic patients in CT performed for indications other than densitometry allows for better risk assessment of imminent vertebral fractures than dedicated DXA.Key Points• Opportunistic QCT predicts osteoporotic vertebral fractures better than DXA reference standard in mainly neurosurgical and oncologic patients.• More than every second patient (56%) with an incident vertebral fracture was misdiagnosed not having osteoporosis according to DXA.• Standard ACR QCT-cutoff values for osteoporosis (
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can we ablate liver lesions close to large portal and hepatic veins with MR-guided HIFU? An experimental study in a porcine model
ConclusionsAblations yielding coagulative necrosis of liver tissue can be performed adjacent to large hepatic vessels while keeping the vessel walls intact. This indicates that perivascular tumor ablation in the liver is feasible using MRgHIFU.Key Points•High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is a non-invasive treatment modality that can be used for treatment of liver tumors.•This study shows that ablations of liver tissue can be performed adjacent to large hepatic vessels in an experimental setting.•Liver tumors close to large vessels can potentially be treated using this modality. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of TIPS alone and combined with partial splenic embolization (PSE) for the management of variceal bleeding
ConclusionsConcomitant PSE may help increase the long-term primary shunt patency rate, but not the overall survival of TIPS-treated patients. Further prospective studies are needed to validate these retrospective findings and to investigate the potential mechanisms.Key Points• Combined therapy using TIPS and PSE is associated with higher primary patency rates than TIPS alone.• Combined therapy using TIPS and PSE is associated with similar rates of secondary patency and overall survival of patients than TIPS alone.• Group (TIPS alone or TIPS+PSE), PVD, and baseline PVT are three independent predictors for shu...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fat-free muscle area measured by magnetic resonance imaging predicts overall survival of patients undergoing radioembolization of colorectal cancer liver metastases
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the clinical potential of fat-free muscle area (FFMA) to predict outcome in patients with liver-predominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) undergoing radioembolization (RE) with90Yttrium microspheres.MethodsPatients with mCRC who underwent RE in our center were included in this retrospective study. All patients received liver magnetic resonance imaging including standard T2-weighted images. The total erector spinae muscle area and the intramuscular adipose tissue area were measured at the level of the origin of the superior mesenteric artery and subtracted to calculate FFMA. Cutoff val...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Machine learning classifiers can predict Gleason pattern 4 prostate cancer with greater accuracy than experienced radiologists
ConclusionsMachine learning classifiers predict Gleason pattern 4 in prostate tumors better than radiologists.Key Points• Predictive models developed from quantitative multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging regarding the characterization of prostate cancer grade should be zone-specific.• Classifiers trained differently for peripheral and transition zone can predict a Gleason 4 component with a higher performance than the subjective opinion of experienced radiologists.• Classifiers would be particularly useful in the context of active surveillance, whereby decisions regarding whether to biopsy are necessi...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison of CT angiography collaterals for predicting target perfusion profile and clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke
AbstractObjectivesTo compare collateral status on single-phase CT angiography (sCTA) and multiphase CT angiography (mCTA) and their ability to predict a target mismatch on CT perfusion (CTP) and clinical outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).MethodsSeventy-three AIS patients with stroke onset between 5 and 15  h or with unclear onset time and occlusions in the M1/M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery and/or intracranial internal carotid artery underwent head non-contrast CT and CTP. Simulated sCTA and mCTA were reconstructed from CTP data and were compared for collaterals assessment. The ability to p...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A “one-stop-shop” 4D CTA protocol using 320-row CT for advanced imaging in acute ischemic stroke: a technical note
AbstractThis technical note describes a novel CT scan protocol that includes a non-enhanced CT, dynamic CTA, and perfusion of the whole brain and CTA of the carotid arteries using a 320-row area detector CT scanner, with a unique contrast injection and acceptable radiation exposure dose in patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. The acquisition parameters and reconstruction parameters will be discussed including the use of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), time summing (tMIP), and subtraction techniques to optimize the results of this protocol.Key Points• Scanning on a 320-row area detector CT can a...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal evolution of CT and MRI LI-RADS v2014 category 1, 2, 3, and 4 observations
This study assesses the risk of progression of Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) categories, and the effects of inter-exam changes in modality or radiologist on LI-RADS categorization.MethodsClinical LI-RADS v2014 CT and MRI exams at our institution between January 2014 and September 2017 were retrospectively identified. Untreated LR-1, LR-2, LR-3, and LR-4 observations with at least one follow-up exam were included. Three hundred and seventy-two observations in 214 patients (149 male, 65 female, mean age 61  ± 10 years) were included during the study period (715 exams total). Cumu...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians are looking forward to a cross-curricular training
ConclusionsBoth residents and board-certified physicians in Switzerland are highly interested in a cross-curricular training curriculum in radiology and nuclear medicine.Key Points• A systematic survey was conducted to obtain information on interest in cross-curricular training in radiology and nuclear medicine and preferences regarding a future joint training curriculum.• More than half of radiology and nuclear medicine residents would be interested in further training in the other specialty.• There is a strong desire for a shorter training program when combining training in both radiology and nuclear medic...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Age-dependent diagnostic accuracy of clinical scoring systems and D-dimer levels in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism with computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA)
AbstractObjectiveThe aim of this study was to compare the age-dependent diagnostic performance of clinical scores and D-dimer testing to identify patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE).MethodsConsecutive patients with suspected PE referred from the emergency department for computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were retrospectively evaluated. Diagnostic scores (classic Wells score (WS), modified WS, simplified WS, revised Geneva score (GS), simplified GS, and YEARS score) were calculated from medical records. Results of D-dimer testing were retrieved from the laboratory database. CTPA was the diagnostic ...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Feasibility of low-dose CT with spectral shaping and third-generation iterative reconstruction in evaluating interstitial lung diseases associated with connective tissue disease: an intra-individual comparison study
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the feasibility of low-dose CT (LDCT) with tin filtration and third-generation iterative reconstruction (IR) in evaluating interstitial lung diseases associated with connective tissue disease (CTD-ILD).MethodsFifty-three consecutive adult patients with CTD-ILD underwent regular-dose chest CT (RDCT) at 110  kVp followed by LDCT with tin-filtered 100 kVp. RDCT was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE); LDCT was reconstructed with ADMIRE. Image noise, streak artifact, image quality, and visualization of normal and abn...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

DXA-equivalent quantification of bone mineral density using dual-layer spectral CT scout scans
AbstractObjectivesTo develop and evaluate a method for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measurement based on dual-layer spectral CT scout scans.MethodsA post-processing algorithm using a pair of 2D virtual mono-energetic scout images (VMSIs) was established in order to semi-automatically compute the aBMD at the spine similarly to DXA, using manual soft tissue segmentation, semi-automatic segmentation for the vertebrae, and automatic segmentation for the background. The method was assessed based on repetitive measurements of the standardized European Spine Phantom (ESP) using the standard scout scan tube current (30  ...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Percutaneous endovascular tissue sampling of endoluminal tumors using directional atherectomy
ConclusionPreliminary results in a limited number of patients proved directional atherectomy beneficial as a safe and feasible technique for endoluminal tissue sampling of vascular masses. Additional large-scale studies are necessary and worthy for further evaluation in clinical practice.Key Points• Endovascular masses pose a challenge to appropriate clinical management.• Off-label directional atherectomy proved to be a safe and feasible technique for endoluminal tissue sampling of vascular masses. Furthermore, directional atherectomy was superior to aspiration or forceps biopsy in our small study cohort.• D...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fine needle aspiration biopsy indications for thyroid nodules: compare a point-based risk stratification system with a pattern-based risk stratification system
AbstractObjectivesWe aim to compare the diagnostic performance to assess thyroid nodules and reliability for recommending fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) between American College of Radiology thyroid image reporting and data system (ACR TI-RADS) and American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines.MethodsIn total, this retrospective study included 1001 consecutive thyroid nodules in 918 patients from May 2016 to December 2017. US features of the thyroid nodules, including composition, echogenicity, shape, margins, echogenic foci, and size, were reviewed and were classified according to ACR TI-RADS and ATA guidelines, res...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Do multiple system atrophy and Parkinson ’s disease show distinct patterns of volumetric alterations across hippocampal subfields? An exploratory study
ConclusionsThe MSA-MCI patients showed more widespread impairment of hippocampal subfields compared with the PD-MCI group, involving trisynaptic loop and amygdala –hippocampus interactions. The alteration of CA, hippocampus–amygdala transition area, and fimbria still requires further comparison between the two patient groups.Key Points• The atrophy patterns of hippocampal subfields differed between MSA and PD patients.• MSA has widespread change in trisynaptic loop and amygdala–hippocampus interactions.• The atrophy patterns may help to understand the differences of cognitive impairment in ...
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Is the future of breast imaging with AI?
(Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thermal ablation and systemic therapies in the metastatic liver: time for a “glocal” approach
(Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Can dedicated breast PET help to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment by differentiating between indolent and potentially aggressive ductal carcinoma in situ?
ConclusionMetabolic imaging could help to identify the subgroup of indolent lesions from those potentially aggressive ones that may be managed by active surveillance.Key Points• Low- and high-grade DCIS likely arise from two distinct evolutionary paths and when low-grade lesions progress to invasive cancer, the tumor is frequently low grade and well differentiated.• Ongoing clinical trials evaluate whether patients with low-risk DCIS could be safely managed by an active surveillance approach, with avoidance of unnecessary treatments and without impact on ipsilateral invasive breast cancer free survival time.&bull...
Source: European Radiology - August 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI-based radiomics nomogram may predict the response to induction chemotherapy and survival in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma
AbstractObjectivesTo establish and validate a radiomics nomogram for prediction of induction chemotherapy (IC) response and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients.MethodsOne hundred twenty-three NPC patients (100 in training and 23 in validation cohort) with multi-MR images were enrolled. A radiomics nomogram was established by integrating the clinical data and radiomics signature generated by support vector machine.ResultsThe radiomics signature consisting of 19 selected features from the joint T1-weighted (T1-WI), T2-weighted (T2-WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI images (T1-C) showed good prognostic...
Source: European Radiology - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differential diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and nasopharyngeal lymphoma based on DCE-MRI and RESOLVE-DWI
ConclusionDCE-MRI and RESOLVE-DWI are effective in differentiating NPC from NPL.Key Points• RESOLVE offers high image quality in the head and neck regions.• Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and RESOLVE-DWI help clinicians to make the differential diagnosis between NPC and NPL.• The combination of all the DCE-MRI and DWI parameters together demonstrated the highest diagnostic efficiency compared with each parameter alone. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Applicability of two commonly used bone age assessment methods to twenty-first century UK children
AbstractObjectivesTo assess the effect of secular change on skeletal maturation and thus on the applicability of the Greulich and Pyle (G&P) and Tanner and Whitehouse (TW3) methods.MethodsBoneXpert was used to assess bone age from 392 hand trauma radiographs (206 males, 257 left). The paired samplet test was performed to assess the difference between mean bone age (BA) and mean chronological age (CA). ANOVA was used to assess the differences between groups based on socioeconomic status (taken from the Index of Multiple Deprivation).ResultsCA ranged from 2 to 15  years for females and 2.5 to 15 years for males...
Source: European Radiology - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Native T1 mapping of autoimmune pancreatitis as a quantitative outcome surrogate
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the ability of T1 mapping to visualize and quantify the short-term and mid-term response of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) to corticosteroid treatment (CST) and to correlate T1 relaxation time of the pancreas with clinical status and serum IgG4 level.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this prospective study, and all patients provided written informed consent. Pancreatic MRI including native T1 mapping was performed in 39 AIP patients before and during CST, and 40 patients without pancreatic diseases served as control. T1 relaxation time of the pancreatic head, body, and tail was ...
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Standardized assessment of the signal intensity increase on unenhanced T1-weighted images in the brain: the European Gadolinium Retention Evaluation Consortium (GREC) Task Force position statement
AbstractAfter the initial report in 2014 on T1-weighted (T1w) hyperintensity of deep brain nuclei following serial injections of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), a multitude of studies on the potential of the marketed GBCAs to cause T1w hyperintensity in the brain have been published. The vast majority of these studies found a signal intensity (SI) increase for linear GBCAs in the brain —first and foremost in the dentate nucleus—while no SI increase was found for macrocyclic GBCAs. However, the scientific debate about this finding is kept alive by the fact that SI differences do not unequivocall...
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparison between the application of microcoil and hookwire for localizing pulmonary nodules
ConclusionsAlthough the deployment of the microcoil was more complex and required more time than hookwire placement, microcoil localization was associated with fewer complications.Key Points•CT-guided percutaneous localization using a microcoil and that using a hookwire are equally effective for localizing small pulmonary nodules prior to resection with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.•Lung nodule localization using a microcoil was associated with fewer complications than localization using a hookwire. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative neuromuscular ultrasound analysis as biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AbstractObjectivesTo assess the differences in morphological and texture parameters of median nerve (MN) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and controls.MethodsThe cross-sectional area (CSA) of the MN and the muscle thickness (MTh) of APB were measured bilaterally in 59 recently diagnosed ALS patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Echointensity (EI), echovariation (EV) and grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features of both structures were also analysed. Correlations between these parameters and clinical variables (muscle strength and disability) were anal...
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiation dose of coronary CT angiography with a third-generation dual-source CT in a “real-world” patient population
AbstractObjectivesTo assess radiation dose and image quality of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) with a third-generation dual-source scanner in a real-world patient population.MethodsScans of otherwise unselected, consecutive patients referred for clinically indicated cCTA between June 2015 and November 2017 were included for retrospective analysis. Scan protocol was based on heart rate: prospectively ECG-gated high-pitch spiral below 60 beats per minute (bpm), prospectively ECG-gated sequential scan between 61 and 70  bpm, and retrospective spiral above 70 bmp or at irregular heart rates. Objectiv...
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perfusion CT for prediction of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionAlthough various perfusion CT parameters have been used across studies, the current evidence supports the use of perfusion CT to predict hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke.Key Points•High blood-brain barrier permeability and hypoperfusion status derived from perfusion CT were associated with hemorrhagic transformation.•Perfusion CT has moderate diagnostic performance for the prediction of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke.•The pooled sensitivity was 84%, and the pooled specificity was 74%. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identifying perfusion deficits on CT perfusion images using temporal similarity perfusion (TSP) mapping
AbstractObjectivesDeconvolution-derived maps of CT perfusion (CTP) data may be confounded by transit delays. We propose temporal similarity perfusion (TSP) analysis to decrease CTP maps ’ dependence on transit times and investigate its sensitivity to detect perfusion deficits.MethodsCTP data of acute stroke patients obtained within 9  h of symptom onset was analyzed using a delay-insensitive singular value decomposition method and with TSP. The TSP method applies an iterative process whereby a pixel’s highest Pearson’sR value is obtained through comparison of a pixel ’s time-shifted signal dens...
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dose estimation of ultra-low-dose chest CT to different sized adult patients
ConclusionsThe effective doses for a standard-sized male and female examined by ULD-CT are (respectively) ~  6%/~ 11% of SD-CT and ~ 5/~ 10 times higher than DR. ULD-CT gave a lower radiation dosage to larger patients than DR. AEC is warranted in ULD-CT for improved dose consistency.Key Points• For standard-sized patients, ULD-CT dose level is ~ 6%/~ 11% of SD-CT, and ~ 5/~ 10 times higher than DR. For larger patients, ULD-CT is currently being used clinically at lower dose levels than DR.• Using ULD-CT should greatly reduce the risk of late effects from ion...
Source: European Radiology - July 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research