Wallerian degeneration in cervical spinal cord tracts is commonly seen in routine T2-weighted MRI after traumatic spinal cord injury and is associated with impairment in a retrospective study
In this study, occurrence of remote intramedullary signal changes, consistent with WD, and its correlation with clinical and neurophysiological impairment were assessed after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI).MethodsIn 35 patients with tSCI, WD was evaluated by two radiologists on T2-weighted images of serial routine MRI examinations of the cervical spine. Dorsal column (DC), lateral corticospinal tract (CS), and lateral spinothalamic tract (ST) were the analyzed anatomical regions. Impairment scoring according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS, A –D) as well as a scoring system (0&nda...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predictive factors of severe abdominal pain during and after transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractObjectivesTo prospectively assess the frequency of severe abdominal pain during and after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using the visual analog scale (VAS), and to identify predictive factors.MethodsNinety-eight TACE performed in 80 patients (mean 65  ± 12 years old, 60 men) were consecutively and prospectively included. Abdominal pain was considered severe if the VAS ≥ 30/100 after treatment administration, or if opioid analgesic (grades 2–3) intake was required during hospitalization. Patient and tumor characteristics as well as...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early detection of subclinical pathology in patients with stable kidney graft function by arterial spin labeling
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for the identification of kidney allografts with underlying pathologies, particularly those with stable graft function.MethodsA total of 75 patients, including 18 stable grafts with normal histology (normal group), 21 stable grafts with biopsy-proven pathology (subclinical pathology group), and 36 with unstable graft function (unstable graft group), were prospectively examined by ASL magnetic resonance imaging. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to calculate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity.ResultsPati...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI-derived PRECISE scores for predicting pathologically-confirmed radiological progression in prostate cancer patients on active surveillance
AbstractObjectivesTo assess the predictive value and correlation to pathological progression of the Prostate Cancer Radiological Estimation of Change in Sequential Evaluation (PRECISE) scoring system in the follow-up of prostate cancer (PCa) patients on active surveillance (AS).MethodsA total of 295 men enrolled on an AS programme between 2011 and 2018 were included. Baseline multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) was performed at AS entry to guide biopsy. The follow-up mpMRI studies were prospectively reported by two sub-specialist uroradiologists with 10 years and 13 years of experience. PRECISE scores were d...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The accuracy of teleradiologists in diagnosing COVID-19 based on a French multicentric emergency cohort
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the accuracy of diagnoses of COVID-19 based on chest CT as well as inter-observer agreement between teleradiologists during on-call duty and senior radiologists in suspected COVID-19 patients.Materials and methodsFrom March 13, 2020, to April 14, 2020, consecutive suspected COVID-19 adult patients who underwent both an RT-PCR test and chest CT from 15 hospitals were included in this prospective study. Chest CTs were immediately interpreted by the on-call teleradiologist and were systematically blind reviewed by a senior radiologist. Readings were categorised using a five-point scale: (1) norma...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of CT and MRI for differentiation of autoimmune pancreatitis from pancreatic adenocarcinoma
ConclusionMRI might be clinically more useful to evaluate patients with AIP, particularly for differentiating AIP from PDAC.Key Points• MRI had an overall good diagnostic performance to differentiate AIP from PDAC with a meta-analytic summary estimate of 83% for sensitivity and of 97% for specificity.• CT had a very high specificity (99%), but a suboptimal sensitivity (59%) for differentiating AIP from PDAC.• Compared with CT, MRI had a higher sensitivity, but a similar specificity. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Liver trauma: hepatic vascular injury on computed tomography as a predictor of patient outcome
ConclusionHVI in liver trauma is common and is predictive of patient outcome and management.Key Points• Hepatic vascular injury occurs commonly (25%) with liver trauma.• Hepatic vascular injury is associated with increased length of hospital stay and angioembolization.• High-grade liver injury is associated with failure of non-operative management and with angioembolization. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Survival among women diagnosed with screen-detected or interval breast cancer classified as true, minimal signs, or missed through an informed radiological review
ConclusionsWe did not observe a statistical difference in the risk of death for women diagnosed with true or missed SDC or IC; however, the number of cases reviewed and follow-up time limited the precision of our estimates.Key Points• An informed radiological review classified screen-detected and interval cancers as true, minimal signs, or missed based on prior screening and diagnostic mammograms.• It has been hypothesised that true cancers, not visible on the prior screening examination, may be more aggressive than missed cancers.• We did not observe a statistical difference in the risk of death from any ca...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Distinguishing pancreatic cancer and autoimmune pancreatitis with in vivo tomoelastography
AbstractObjectivesTo prospectively investigate the stiffness and fluidity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) with tomoelastography, and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in distinguishing the two entities.MethodsTomoelastography provided high-resolution maps of shear wave speed (c in m/s) and phase angle (φ in rad), allowing mechanical characterization of the stiffness and fluidity properties of the pancreas. Forty patients with untreated PDAC and 33 patients with untreated AIP who underwent diagnostic pancreatic MRI at 3-T together with multifrequency MR elastography and ...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic value of tumoral and peritumoral magnetic resonance parameters in osteosarcoma patients for monitoring chemotherapy response
ConclusionsIn OS, DWI and DCE-MRI parameters in both tumoral and peritumoral areas can reflect the chemotherapy response and prognosticate EFS and overall survival.Key Points• Peritumoral MRI parameters can reflect the chemotherapy response in OS patients.• Peritumoral MRI parameters can predict EFS and overall survival in OS patients.• MRI parameters may be predictive factors for evaluating chemotherapy efficacy and EFS. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Is the EOS imaging system as accurate as conventional radiography in grading osteoarthritis of the knee?
AbstractObjectivesThe EOS imaging system allows for the acquirement of long-leg radiographic images in a standing position without stitching artifacts or projection bias and at a comparatively low-radiation-dose exposure. The aim of our study was to compare the accuracy of EOS images of the lower limb to conventional radiographs (CR) of the knee in a.p. view for the grading of osteoarthritis (OA).MethodsOne hundred forty-two patients who had undergone EOS of the lower limb and radiography of the knee on the same day were included. For the grading of OA, the Kellgren and Lawrence score (KL) score and the Osteoarthritis Rese...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Frequency and risk factors for major complications after stereotactic radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors in 1235 ablation sessions: a 15-year experience
ConclusionSRFA of liver tumors is safe and can extend the treatment spectrum of conventional RFA. Adaptations over time combined with increasing experience resulted in a significant decrease in complications.Key Points•In 1235 ablation sessions in 793 patients over 15 years, we found a mortality rate of 0.5% (6/1235) and an overall major complication rate of 7.4%, which fell from 11.5 (36/314) to 6.0% (55/921, p = 0.001) after January 2011, likely due to procedural adaptations.•History of bile duct surgery/intervention (p = 0.013, OR = 3.290), number of coaxial needles (p = 0.026, OR = 1.052), and location of tum...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Risk assessment of acute pulmonary embolism utilizing coronary artery calcifications in patients that have undergone CT pulmonary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography
ConclusionCAC is frequent in acute PE patients and associated with short-term mortality. Visual assessment of CAC may serve as an easy, readily available tool for early risk stratification in those patients.Key Points• Coronary artery calcification assessed on computed tomography pulmonary angiography is frequent in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.• Coronary artery calcification assessed on computed tomography pulmonary angiography is associated with 30-day overall and PE-related mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.• Coronary artery calcification assessed on computed tomography pulmona...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT and clinical assessment in asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients with early SARS-CoV-2 in outbreak settings
AbstractObjectivesThe early infection dynamics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 are not well understood. We aimed to investigate and characterize associations between clinical, laboratory, and imaging features of asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2.MethodsSeventy-four patients with RT-PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection were asymptomatic at presentation. All were retrospectively identified from 825 patients with chest CT scans and positive RT-PCR following exposure or travel risks in outbreak settings in Japan and China. CTs were obtained for every patient within a day of admission and were reviewed for infilt...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prospective study of Lipiodol distribution as an imaging marker for doxorubicin pharmacokinetics during conventional transarterial chemoembolization of liver malignancies
ConclusionsThis prospective clinical trial provides updated PK data revealing Lipiodol distribution as an imaging marker predictive of DOX-Cmax and tumor response after cTACE in liver cancer.Key Points•Prospective pharmacokinetic analysis after conventional TACE revealed Lipiodol distribution (1 vs.≥ 2 segments vs.lobar) as an imaging marker predictive of doxorubicin peak concentrations (Cmax).•Child-Pugh B class and tumor hypervascularization, measurable as enhancing tumor volume (ETV) at baseline, were identified as additional predictors for higher dose-normalized doxorubicin Cmaxafter conventional TA...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Histological validation of simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage imaging (SNAP) for characterizing carotid intraplaque hemorrhage
This study sought to validate the performance of simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) imaging in characterizing carotid IPH by histology.MethodsThirty-five patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease (symptomatic 50 –70% stenosis or> 70% stenosis) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy underwent 3.0-T carotid MR imaging by acquiring SNAP and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) sequences. Presence and area of IPH were separately evaluated on SNAP and MP-RAGE images. Presence and area of IPH were also assessed on histology. Agreement between SNAP/MP-RAG...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identification of high-risk carotid plaque with MRI-based radiomics and machine learning
ConclusionsOur MRI-based radiomics model can accurately distinguish symptomatic from asymptomatic carotid plaques. It is superior to the traditional model in the identification of high-risk plaques.Key Points• Carotid plaque multi-contrast MRI stores other valuable information to be further exploited by radiomics analysis.• Radiomics analysis can accurately distinguish symptomatic from asymptomatic carotid plaques.• The radiomics model is superior to the traditional model in the identification of high-risk plaques. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Late recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation: a multicenter study of risk factors, patterns, and survival
This study aims to determine the risk factors, patterns, and long-term survival outcomes of late recurrence after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the Milan criteria and develop a nomogram to predict the recurrence-free survival (RFS).Materials and methodsThis retrospective study included patients with HCC within the Milan criteria, who received RFA at three hospitals in China from January 2011 to December 2016. The clinical variables were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.ResultsA total of 398 patients were included. The median follow-up was 58.7  m...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

COVID-19, AI enthusiasts, and toy datasets: radiology without radiologists
(Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Volume-related structures predict UIP pathology in those with a non-IPF pattern on CT
AbstractObjectivesTo determine if a quantitative imaging variable (volume-related structures [VRS]) could identify subjects with a non-IPF diagnosis CT pattern who were highly likely to have UIP histologically.MethodsSubjects with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of interstitial lung disease including surgical lung biopsy and chest CT within 1 year of each other were included in the study. Non-contrast CT scans were analyzed using the Computer-Aided Lung Informatics for Pathology Evaluation and Rating (CALIPER) program, which quantifies the amount of various abnormal CT patterns on chest CT. Quantitative data were analyzed re...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI for patients with suspicious nipple discharge and negative mammography and ultrasound: a prospective study
ConclusionIn patients with suspicious nipple discharge and normal mammogram and ultrasound, MRI demonstrates excellent performance to identify lesions for which excision is required. Normal MRI indicates it is safe to propose follow-up only management, thus avoiding unnecessary duct excision.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT02819362Key Points• Breast MRI can be useful for the management of patients with suspicious nipple discharge and negative mammogram and ultrasound.• MRI detected a lesion requiring excision in 46 participants (45%) with unexplained discharge.• If breast MRI is negative, follow-up i...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics approach for survival prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
This study included 344 patients from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) cohort. External validation was performed on a cohort of 112 patients. In total, 525 chest CT-based radiomics features were semi-automatically extracted. The five most useful features for survival prediction were selected by least absolute shrinkage and selection operation (LASSO) Cox regression analysis and used to generate a RS. The ability of the RS for classifying COPD patients into high or low mortality risk groups was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.ResultsThe five featur...
Source: European Radiology - April 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The prognostic role of CMR using global planimetric criteria in patients with excessive left ventricular trabeculation
ConclusionsPositive global Grothoff ’s criteria and myocardial fibrosis were powerful predictors of CE in patients with a diagnosis of LVNC by CMR Petersen’s criterion. Thus, we strongly suggest a step approach confirming the diagnosis of LVNC by using the global planimetric Grothoff’s criteria, which showed a prognostic impact.Key Points• Positive global Grothoff’s criteria and replacement myocardial fibrosis were powerful predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with a diagnosis of LVNC by CMR Petersen’s criterion.• Positive global Grothoff’s criteria were associated w...
Source: European Radiology - April 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Technical safety and efficacy of a blunt-tip microwave ablation electrode for CT-guided ablation of pulmonary ground-glass opacity nodules
ConclusionsThe blunt-tip MWA electrode is a safe and technically effective tool for ablating GGO lesions.Key Points•A new blunt-tip MWA electrode was used for CT-guided ablation of GGO lesions.•The blunt-tip MWA electrode could improve the safety of GGO ablation.•The technical efficacy of ablation was maintained by using the blunt-tip MWA electrode. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - April 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Uncontrolled hypertension associates with subclinical cerebrovascular health globally: a multimodal imaging study
ConclusionsUncontrolled hypertension was associated with subclinical cerebrovascular injury globally, with both small and medium-to-large arteries being affected.Key Points• In this study, we leveraged the advantage of a series of cutting-edge MR imaging and analysis techniques and found uncontrolled hypertension is associated with subclinical globally compromised cerebrovascular health.• The detrimental consequences of uncontrolled BP affect not only the small vessels but also the medium-to-large arteries, and uncontrolled systolic and diastolic BP are both independently associated with certain types of cerebrov...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Combining high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules
ConclusionsThe combined HIFU and PEI approach with improved administration of intravenous sedation and analgesia was associated with a significantly better 6-month efficacy than HIFU alone in benign thyroid nodules without compromising the safety and comfort of patients.Key Points• Concomitant HIFU and PEI have a better treatment efficacy than HIFU alone.• Concomitant HIFU and PEI have a comparable safety profile as HIFU alone. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Practical applications of deep learning: classifying the most common categories of plain radiographs in a PACS using a neural network
ConclusionsUsing data from one single institution, we were able to classify the most common categories of radiographs with a neural network. The network showed good generalizability on the external validation set and could be used to automatically organize a PACS, preselect radiographs so that they can be routed to more specialized networks for abnormality detection or help with other parts of the radiological workflow (e.g., automated hanging protocols; check if ordered image and performed image are the same). The final AI algorithm is publicly available for evaluation and extension.Key Points• Data from one single i...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identification of pulmonary embolism: diagnostic accuracy of venous-phase dual-energy CT in comparison to pulmonary arteries CT angiography
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of venous-phase dual-energy computed tomography (VP-DECT) in the identification of PE compared with standard CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA).MethodsThis prospective IRB-approved study included 61 consecutive oncology patients (35 females, 26 males, mean age 66.91 years) examined by CTPA and VP-DECT. DECT data were post-processed on a SyngoVia workstation to obtain monoenergetic images (MEI+). The diagnosis of PE was based on the presence of any vascular perfusion defects. DECT images were evaluated independently by two radiologists (8 and 16 years of experience). A cons...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for detecting extranodal extension in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and diagnostic meta-analysis
ConclusionBoth CT and MRI show reasonable diagnostic performance for detecting ENE in HNSCC patients and interobserver agreement was substantial.Key Points• Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 73% and 83% for CT and 60% and 96% for MRI without significant difference.• Pooled specificity was lower for HPV+ OPSCC than for HPV‑ oral cavity cancer or all HNSCC (74% vs. 87%, p = 0.01), likely due to central node necrosis.• Central node necrosis showed higher sensitivity (81% vs. 51%; p = 0.02), while infiltration of adjacent planes showed higher specificity (94% vs. 65%; p&thinsp...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transarterial chemoembolization of colorectal cancer liver metastasis: improved tumor response by DSM-TACE versus conventional TACE, a prospective, randomized, single-center trial
ConclusionDSM-TACE showed a significant difference reducing tumor volume and in tumor response according to RECIST 1.1 compared to cTACE. Thus, patients with CRLM might not only benefit from short embolization effect of DSM-TACE but also from better tumor responses. Apparent diffusion coefficients were not significantly different between both groups and cannot be used as a biomarker for monitoring for therapeutic effect of TACE.Key Points• To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that directly compared cTACE and DSM-TACE in patients with CRLM.• DSM-TACE showed a significant difference reducing tumor ...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A clinical strategy to improve the diagnostic accuracy of 1.5-T non-contrast MR coronary angiography for detection of coronary artery disease: combination of whole-heart and volume-targeted imaging
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the diagnostic performance of 1.5-T non-contrast MR coronary angiography (MRCA) for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) using whole-heart imaging combined with volume-targeted imaging.MethodsForty-five patients scheduled for conventional coronary angiography (CAG) underwent 1.5-T free-breathing non-contrast steady-state free-precession MRCA, including whole-heart and subsequent three-vessel volume-targeted imaging. Coronary stenosis was evaluated as follows: (1) by whole-heart MRCA alone; (2) by combined MRCA (whole-heart plus volume-targeted images). The diagnostic performance for sign...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perfusion defects on dual-energy CTA in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism correlate with right heart strain and lower survival
ConclusionThe presence of a perfusion defect correlates with several parameters evaluating PE severity. A perfusion defect and higher perfusion defect score were associated with a lower survival.Key Points• Detection of perfusion defects on dual-energy CT angiograms and its extent correlates with right heart strain in the setting of pulmonary embolism.• The presence and extent of a perfusion defect in patients with pulmonary embolism are associated with lower survival. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Calcifications with suspicious morphology at mammography: should they all be considered with the same clinical significance?
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the positive predictive values (PPVs) of calcifications with suspicious morphology by incorporating distribution and clinical factors in two separate cohorts to provide more practical guidance for management.MethodsThis retrospective study included 1076 consecutive women from two cohorts (cohort A, 556; cohort B, 520), with calcifications of suspicious morphology seen on mammography that were pathologically confirmed or followed with mammography. Reader-averaged PPVs of the calcifications were analyzed and compared by logistic regression using the generalized estimating equation. Multivariate ...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative distribution of iodinated contrast media in body computed tomography: data from a large reference cohort
ConclusionsDistribution of IC obtained from a large-scale cohort is provided. As significant differences between sexes and age groups were found, this should be taken into account when obtaining quantitative iodine concentrations and applying iodine thresholds.Key Points•Absolute iodine concentration showed a broad variation and differed between body mass index, age groups, and between the sexes in parenchymatous organs, lymph nodes, and vessels.•The iodine perfusion ratios did not show dependency on body mass index while significant differences between sexes and age groups persisted.•Provided guidance value...
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ECR 2020 —current status and trends in genitourinary research
(Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: T1 and T2 MR fingerprinting measurements of prostate cancer and prostatitis correlate with deep learning –derived estimates of epithelium, lumen, and stromal composition on corresponding whole mount histopathology
The original version of this article, published on 02 September 2020, unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comparison between manual and artificial intelligence –based automatic positioning in CT imaging for COVID-19 patients
AbstractObjectiveTo analyze and compare the imaging workflow, radiation dose, and image quality for COVID-19 patients examined using either the conventional manual positioning (MP) method or an AI-based automatic positioning (AP) method.Materials and methodsOne hundred twenty-seven adult COVID-19 patients underwent chest CT scans on a CT scanner using the same scan protocol except with the manual positioning (MP group) for the initial scan and an AI-based automatic positioning method (AP group) for the follow-up scan. Radiation dose, patient positioning time, and off-center distance of the two groups were recorded and comp...
Source: European Radiology - March 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Introducing the Node Reporting and Data System 1.0 (Node-RADS): a concept for standardized assessment of lymph nodes in cancer
A Correction to this paper has been published:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07795-z (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Indication of the prognosis of pulmonary hypertension by using CMR function parameters
This study aimed to compare the cardiac function among different sub-types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to explore the independent predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).MethodsEighty-seven PH patients diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC) were recruited. Patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and RHC examination within 2 weeks. The CMR images were analyzed to calculate the cardiac functional parameters including right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), end-systolic volume index (ESVI), stroke volume index (SVI), ejection fraction (EF), tr...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Robust performance of deep learning for automatic detection and segmentation of brain metastases using three-dimensional black-blood and three-dimensional gradient echo imaging
AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate whether a deep learning (DL) model using both three-dimensional (3D) black-blood (BB) imaging and 3D gradient echo (GRE) imaging may improve the detection and segmentation performance of brain metastases compared to that using only 3D GRE imaging.MethodsA total of 188 patients with brain metastases (917 lesions) who underwent a brain metastasis MRI protocol including contrast-enhanced 3D BB and 3D GRE were included in the training set. DL models based on 3D U-net were constructed. The models were validated in the test set consisting of 45 patients with brain metastases (203 lesions) and 49 pat...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Detection of renal allograft fibrosis with MRI: arterial spin labeling outperforms reduced field-of-view IVIM
AbstractObjectiveTo compare the value of reduced field-of-view (FOV) intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) for assessing renal allograft fibrosis and predicting long-term dysfunction.MethodsThis prospective study included 175 renal transplant recipients undergoing reduced FOV IVIM DWI, ASL, and biopsies. Renal allograft fibrosis was categorized into ci0, ci1, ci2, and ci3 fibrosis according to biopsy results. A total of 83 participants followed for a median of 39 (IQR, 21 –42) months were dichotomized into stable and impaired allograft function groups ba...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

AI detection of mild COVID-19 pneumonia from chest CT scans
AbstractObjectivesAn artificial intelligence model was adopted to identify mild COVID-19 pneumonia from computed tomography (CT) volumes, and its diagnostic performance was then evaluated.MethodsIn this retrospective multicenter study, an atrous convolution-based deep learning model was established for the computer-assisted diagnosis of mild COVID-19 pneumonia. The dataset included 2087 chest CT exams collected from four hospitals between 1 January 2019 and 31 May 2020. The true positive rate, true negative rate, receiver operating characteristic curve, area under the curve (AUC) and convolutional feature map were used to ...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative assessment of HCC wash-out on CT is a predictor of early complete response to TACE
ConclusionsBased on preprocedural CECT, the quantitative assessment of HCC wash-out is useful in predicting early CR after DEB-TACE. Among the different formulas for wash-out quantification, DPAR has the best discriminating ability. When associated, DPAR ≥ 120 and smooth lesion margins are related to relatively high CR rates.Key Points• A high wash-out rate, quantitatively assessed during preprocedural four-phase contrast-enhanced CT (CECT), is a favorable predictor for early radiological complete response of HCC to drug-eluting-bead chemoembolization (DEB-TACE).• The arterial phase of CECT shows great dispers...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimum diameter threshold for lung nodules at baseline lung cancer screening with low-dose chest CT: exploration of results from the Korean Lung Cancer Screening Project
AbstractObjectivesTo explore the optimum diameter threshold for solid nodules to define positive results at baseline screening low-dose CT (LDCT) and to compare two-dimensional and volumetric measurement of lung nodules for the diagnosis of lung cancers.MethodsWe included consecutive participants from the Korean Lung Cancer Screening project between 2017 and 2018. The average transverse diameter and effective diameter (diameter of a sphere with the same volume) of lung nodules were measured by semi-automated segmentation. Diagnostic performances for lung cancers diagnosed within 1 year after LDCT were evaluated using area ...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning –based algorithm to detect primary hepatic malignancy in multiphase CT of patients at high risk for HCC
AbstractObjectivesTo develop and evaluate a deep learning –based model capable of detecting primary hepatic malignancies in multiphase CT images of patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsA total of 1350 multiphase CT scans of 1280 hepatic malignancies (1202 HCCs and 78 non-HCCs) in 1320 patients at high risk for HCC were retrospectively analyzed. Following the delineation of the focal hepatic lesions according to reference standards, the CT scans were categorized randomly into the training (568 scans), tuning (193 scans), and test (589 scans) sets. Multiphase CT information was subjected to m...
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Deep learning –based methods may minimize GBCA dosage in brain MRI
ConclusionsThe proposed DL method is a feasible way to minimize the dosage of GBCAs in brain MRI without sacrificing the diagnostic information. Missing enhancement of small lesions in patients with multiple lesions was observed, requiring improvements in algorithms or dosage design.Key Points•This study evaluated the clinical performance of a DL-based reconstruction method for significant dose reduction in GBCA contrast-enhanced MRI exams.•The proposed DL method has the potential to satisfy the routine radiological diagnosis needs in certain clinical applications. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A clinical-radiomics nomogram may provide a personalized 90-day functional outcome assessment for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage
AbstractObjectivesTo develop and validate a noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) –based clinical-radiomics nomogram to identify spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) patients with a poor 90-day prognosis on admission.MethodsIn this double-center retrospective study, data from 435 patients with sICH (training cohort:n = 244; internal validation cohort:n = 104; external validation cohort:n = 87) were reviewed. The radiomics score (Rad-score) was calculated based on the coefficients of the selected radiomics features. A clinical-radiomics nomogram was developed by using independent predictors of poor outcome at ...
Source: European Radiology - March 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiologic and clinical results of transarterial ethanol embolization for renal angiomyolipoma
ConclusionSelective transarterial embolization using ethanol alone or ethanol with additional embolic materials reduced AML size, alleviated symptoms, and can be performed safely without permanent impairment.Key Points• Percutaneous transarterial ethanol embolization reduces AML size and alleviates symptoms.• Embolization can be performed safely without permanent impairment of renal function. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - March 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics score predicts acute respiratory distress syndrome based on the initial CT scan after trauma
ConclusionsThis study proposes a radiomics-based algorithm for the prediction of ARDS in polytraumatized patients at the time of admission to hospital with an accuracy that competes and surpasses conventional scores despite the heterogeneous, and therefore more realistic, scanning protocols.Key Points• Early prediction of acute respiratory distress syndrome in polytraumatized patients is possible, even when using heterogenous data.• Radiomics-based prediction resulted in an area under the curve of 0.79 compared to 0.66 for the injury severity score, and 0.68 for the abbreviated injury score of the thorax.• H...
Source: European Radiology - March 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interobserver variability in Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System categorisation in subsolid nodule-enriched lung cancer screening CTs
ConclusionThis retrospective study observed variable accuracy and moderate interobserver agreement in radiologist categorisation of subsolid nodules in screening CTs. This inconsistency may affect management recommendations for lung cancer screening.Key Points•Diagnostic performance for Lung-RADS categorisation is variable among radiologists with fair to moderate interobserver agreement in subsolid nodule-enriched CT scans.•Experienced thoracic radiologists showed more accurate and consistent Lung-RADS categorisation than radiology residents.•The relative abundance of part-solid nodules was a potential facto...
Source: European Radiology - March 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research