Implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in radiology: hindering and facilitating factors
ConclusionIn order for AI applications to contribute to the improvement of the quality and efficiency of clinical radiology, implementation processes need to be carried out in a structured manner, thereby providing evidence on the clinical added value of AI applications.Key Points•Successful implementation of AI in radiology requires collaboration between radiologists and referring clinicians.•Implementation of AI in radiology is facilitated by the presence of a local champion.•Evidence on the clinical added value of AI in radiology is needed for successful implementation. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early detection of ovarian cancer
AbstractEarly detection is the only way to achieve a high cure rate in women with ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, to date, there is no effective strategy for early detection, despite rapidly emerging biomarkers. The low prevalence of ovarian cancer, low specificity and high rates of false positives have been limitations of screening programs. In the hands of experts, transvaginal sonography and MRI are effective tools to characterise ovarian masses. Currently, ongoing efforts in standardization of technique and analysis are likely to improve diagnostic capabilities in clinical routine, as well as the introduction of predict...
Source: European Radiology - September 7, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-mass lesions detected by breast US: stratification of cancer risk for clinical management
AbstractObjectiveTo develop a classification system using imaging features to interpret breast non-mass lesions (NMLs) detected on US and to stratify their cancer risk.MethodsThis retrospective study included 715 patients with 715 breast NMLs detected on breast US from 2012 to 2016. Each patient underwent mammography at the time of diagnosis. Radiologists assessed US and mammographic features and final BI-RADS categories. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find imaging features associated with malignancy in a development dataset (n = 460). A system to classify BI-RADS categories (3 to 5) was developed based on t...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comparative study of the value of amide proton transfer-weighted imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of breast cancer
AbstractObjectivesTo compare the value of amide proton transfer-weighted imaging (APTWI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions and analyze the correlations between the derived parameters and prognostic factors of breast cancer.MethodsOne hundred thirty-five women underwent breast APTWI and DKI. The magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym (3.5 ppm)), apparent kurtosis coefficient (Kapp), and non-Gaussian diffusion coefficient (Dapp) were calculated according to the histological subtype, grade, and prognostic factors (Ki-67, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone re...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A susceptibility-weighted imaging qualitative score of the motor cortex may be a useful tool for distinguishing clinical phenotypes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
AbstractObjectivesTo distinguish amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its subtypes from ALS mimics and healthy controls based on the assessment of iron-related hypointensity of the primary motor cortex in susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI).MethodsWe enrolled 64 patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging studies with clinical suspicions of ALS. The ALS group included 48 patients; the ALS-mimicking disorder group had 16 patients. The ALS group was divided into three subgroups according to the prevalence of upper motor neuron (UMN) or lower motor neuron (LMN) impairment, with 12 subjects in the UMN-predominan...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Changes in appearance of cortical formation abnormalities in the foetus detected on sequential in utero MR imaging
ConclusionsWe have shown that the extra diagnostic and predicted prognostic yield justifies follow-up studies in the third trimester if a CFA is shown on the second-trimester iuMR imaging.Key Points• Sixty-four foetuses with cortical formation abnormalities had two iuMR studies, for the vast majority the baseline in the second trimester and the sequential in the third.• In three foetuses, the cortical formation abnormality (CFA) was not visible on the first study. In a further 21 foetuses, the categorical description of the CFA changed between the two studies. Prognosis changed in 8% of the cases following the se...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnostic performance of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging for patients with Parkinson ’s disease and factor analysis for its heterogeneity: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionNeuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging had a favorable diagnostic performance in discriminating patients with Parkinson ’s disease from healthy controls. To improve diagnostic accuracy, further investigations directly comparing these heterogeneity-affecting factors and optimizing these parameters are necessary.Key Points• Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI favorably discriminates patients with Parkinson’s disease from healthy controls.•Disease duration,parameters used for comparison,magnetic resonance imaging slice thickness,and segmentation methods affected heterogeneity across the studi...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Extended application of subtraction arterial phase imaging in LI-RADS version 2018: a strategy to improve the diagnostic performance for hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetate disodium –enhanced MRI
ConclusionExtended application of subtraction AP imaging for T1 hypo- or isointense observations on gadoxetate disodium –enhanced MRI can improve sensitivity in the diagnosis of HCC without a significant difference in specificity.Key Points• Modified nonrim arterial phase hyperenhancement (APHE), extended application of subtraction arterial phase imaging for T1 hypo- or isointense observation, outperforms conventional nonrim APHE.• The LR-5 category with modified nonrim APHE provided better sensitivity in diagnosing HCC than the LR-5 with conventional APHE, without a significant decrease in specificity. (So...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnosis of left atrial appendage thrombus in patients with atrial fibrillation: delayed contrast-enhanced cardiac CT
ConclusionA CCT protocol adding a 6-min delayed phase to the angiographic phase can be considered optimized for the diagnosis of LAA thrombi, with a low radiation dose.Key Points• In patients with persistent atrial fibrillation referred for ablation procedures, a cardiac CT examination comprising an angiographic-phase acquisition and, in case of filling defects, a 6-min delayed phase may help reduce the need for transesophageal echocardiography.• Cardiac CT would provide morphological and volumetric data, along with the potential to exclude the presence of thrombi in the left atrial appendage. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hepatobiliary phase enhancement of liver metastases on gadoxetic acid MRI: assessment of frequency and patterns
AbstractObjectivesTo assess for and characterize patterns of hepatobiliary phase (HBP) enhancement in hepatic metastases of various malignancies on gadoxetic acid –enhanced MRI.MethodsEighty gadoxetic acid –enhanced MRI studies performed between July 2012 and November 2019 in patients with hepatic metastases from 13 different primary malignancies were assessed. Most (n = 60) were from colorectal cancer (CRC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), or neuroendocrine tumor (NET) primaries. Two radiologists quantitatively evaluated the dominant lesion on each MRI. A lesion was considered enhancing ...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitation of bladder cancer for the prediction of muscle layer invasion as a complement to the vesical imaging-reporting and data system
ConclusionsVIRADS is a good predictor of muscle layer invasion. As an independent quantitative indicator, tumor-wall interface may complement VIRADS to enhance prediction.Key Points•Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VIRADS) is a promising predictor of muscle invasion of bladder cancer with good reproducibility, as suggested by previous studies.•VIRADS score and the tumor-wall interface (curvilinear contact length between the tumor and the bladder wall) are independent predictors of muscle layer invasion.•As an easy-to-use quantitative indicator, tumor-wall interface is expected to be used as an indi...
Source: European Radiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Normal volumetric and T1 relaxation time values at 1.5  T in segmented pediatric brain MRI using a MP2RAGE acquisition
ConclusionThe 3D MP2RAGE sequence allowed to establish brain volume and T1 relaxation time normative ranges in pediatrics.Key Points• The 3D MP2RAGE sequence provided a reliable quantitative assessment of brain volumes and T1 relaxation times during childhood.• An age-dependent model of normal brain maturation was established.• The normative ranges enable an objective comparison to a normal cohort, which can be useful to further understand, describe, and identify neurodevelopmental disorders in children. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Whole-body MRI versus an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for staging of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: a prospective multicentre study
ConclusionsWB-MRI DWI showed excellent agreement with the FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. The addition of DWI to the WB-MRI protocol improved the staging agreement.Key Points• This study showed excellent agreement between WB-MRI DWI and an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for staging paediatric HL.• Diffusion-weighted imaging is a useful addition to WB-MRI in staging paediatric HL.• Inter-observer agreement for WB-MRI DWI was good for both nodal and extra-nodal staging and determining disease stage. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Association between MRI histogram features and treatment response in locally advanced cervical cancer treated by chemoradiotherapy
AbstractObjectiveTo examine the associations of histogram features of T2-weighted (T2W) images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with treatment response in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).Materials and methodsFifty-eight patients who underwent a 4-week CCRT regimen with MRI prior to treatment (pre-CCRT) and after treatment (post-CCRT) were retrospectively analysed. Histogram features were calculated from volumes of interest (VOIs) from one radiologist on T2W images and ADC maps. VOIs from two radiologists were used to assess observer repeatability in delineation ...
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of stress CTP versus CTA in detecting obstructive CAD or in-stent restenosis in stented patients
ConclusionsCTP is cost-effective for the detection of obstructive CAD or ISR in patients with previous stenting and therefore should be considered a feasible approach in daily clinical practice.Key Points•CTP provides added diagnostic value in patients with previous coronary stents.•CTP is a cost-effective method for the detection of obstructive CAD or ISR in patients with previous stenting. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Transhepatic stent placement for portal vein obstruction after hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery: long-term efficacy and risk factor for stent failure
ConclusionsPercutaneous transhepatic PV stent placement is a technically feasible and effective treatment for postoperative PV obstruction. The pancreatic fistula is a risk factor for stent failure.Key Points• Percutaneous transhepatic stent placement is an effective treatment to improve portal hypertension–related symptoms in patients with portal vein obstruction after hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery.• The pancreatic fistula is an independent risk factor for portal vein stent failure. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Evaluating the severity of aortic coarctation in infants using anatomic features measured on CTA
AbstractObjectivesA machine learning model was developed to evaluate the severity of aortic coarctation (CoA) in infants based on anatomical features measured on CTA.MethodsIn total, 239 infant patients undergoing both thorax CTA and echocardiography were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were assigned to either mild or severe CoA group based on their pressure gradient on echocardiography. They were further divided into patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and non-PDA groups. The anatomical features were measured on double-oblique multiplanar reconstructed CTA images. Then, the optimal features were identified by using the ...
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Added-value of advanced magnetic resonance imaging to conventional morphologic analysis for the differentiation between benign and malignant non-fatty soft-tissue tumors
ConclusionThe prioritized use of advanced MRI techniques allowed to decrease by about 30% the number of non-myxoid NFSTT deemed indeterminate after conventional MRI analysis alone.Key Points• When morphological characterization of non-fatty soft tissue tumors is possible, the diagnostic performance is high and there is no need for advanced imaging techniques.• Following morphologic analysis, advanced MRI techniques reduced by about 30% the number of non-myxoid indeterminate tumors.• DWI is the keystone of advanced imaging techniques yielding the best sensitivity (91.8%). Optimal specificity (>  90%...
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognostic role of spleen volume measurement using computed tomography in patients with compensated chronic liver disease from hepatitis B viral infection
ConclusionsA larger spleen volume was significantly associated with HCC occurrence, development of decompensation, and poor OS in patients with cCLD from CHB.Key Points•Spleen volume could be easily acquired from routine multiphasic liver CT scan using a semi-automated 3D volumetric software program with excellent inter-observer agreement.•A larger spleen volume was significantly associated with a higher rate of hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence, the development of decompensation, and poor overall survival in patients with compensated chronic liver disease from chronic hepatitis B. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prediction of revascularization by coronary CT angiography using a machine learning ischemia risk score
This study was a post hoc analysis of a prospective dual-center registry of sequential patients undergoing CCTA followed by ICA within 3 months, referred from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department settings (n = 352, age 63 ± 10 years, 68% male). The primary outcome was revascularization by either percutaneous coronary revascularization or coronary artery bypass grafting. Blinded readers performed semi-automated quantitative coronary plaque analysis. The ML-IRS was automatically computed. Relationships between clinica l risk factors, coronary plaque features, and ML-IRS with revascularization were examined....
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultra-low-dose chest CT imaging of COVID-19 patients using a deep residual neural network
ConclusionsThe results demonstrated that the deep learning algorithm is capable of predicting standard full-dose CT images with acceptable quality for the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 positive patients with substantial radiation dose reduction.Key Points• Ultra-low-dose CT imaging of COVID-19 patients would result in the loss of critical information about lesion types, which could potentially affect clinical diagnosis.• Deep learning–based prediction of full-dose from ultra-low-dose CT images for the diagnosis of COVID-19 could reduce the radiation dose by up to 89%.• Deep learning algorithms failed ...
Source: European Radiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI for the  characterization of inflammation in chronic liver disease
AbstractObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic performance of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for grading hepatic inflammation.MethodsIn this retrospective cross-sectional dual-center study, 91 patients with chronic liver disease were recruited between September 2014 and September 2018. Patients underwent 3.0-T MRI examinations within 6  weeks from a liver biopsy. IVIM parameters, perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), were estimated using a voxel-wise nonlinear regression on DWI series (10b-values from 0 to 800  s/mm2). The refe...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T1 and T2 MR fingerprinting measurements of prostate cancer and prostatitis correlate with deep learning –derived estimates of epithelium, lumen, and stromal composition on corresponding whole mount histopathology
AbstractObjectivesTo explore the associations between T1 and T2 magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) measurements and corresponding tissue compartment ratios (TCRs) on whole mount histopathology of prostate cancer (PCa) and prostatitis.Materials and methodsA retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant cohort consisting of 14 PCa patients who underwent 3  T multiparametric MRI along with T1 and T2 MRF maps prior to radical prostatectomy was used. Correspondences between whole mount specimens and MRI and MRF were manually established. Prostatitis, PCa, and normal peripheral zone (PZ) regions of interest (ROIs) on pa...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identifying normal mammograms in a large screening population using artificial intelligence
ConclusionsThe evaluated AI system can correctly identify a proportion of a screening population as cancer-free and also reduce false positives. Thus, AI has the potential to improve mammography screening efficiency.Key Points• Retrospective study showed that AI can identify a proportion of mammograms as normal in a screening population.• Excluding normal exams from screening using AI can reduce false positives. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of cardiac magnetic resonance on the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a 10-year experience with over 1000 patients
ConclusionsIn a small but important group of patients with ultrasound-based HCM, cardiac MRI can diagnose previously unknown conditions and/or refute suspected cardiomyopathy. The diagnostic yield of MRI when compared to echocardiography in patients suspected of having HCM is 44.7%.Key Points• Out of 550 patients previously diagnosed with echocardiography but without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as having hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), we diagnosed a different disease in 12 (2.2%) patients using MRI.• Among patients with suspected HCM based on echocardiography, MRI led to clear HCM diagnosis in 44.7% of p...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A systematic review of radiomics in osteosarcoma: utilizing radiomics quality score as a tool promoting clinical translation
ConclusionsThe overall scientific quality of included studies is insufficient; however, radiomics remains a promising technology for predicting treatment response, which might guide therapeutic decision-making and related to prognosis. Improvements in study design, validation, and open science needs to be made to demonstrate the generalizability of findings and to achieve clinical applications. Widespread application of RQS, pre-trained RQS scoring procedure, and modification of RQS in response to clinical needs are necessary.Key Points•Limited radiomics studies were established in osteosarcoma with mean RQS of 20.4%,...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CMR T 1 mapping and strain analysis in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy: evaluation in patients with negative late gadolinium enhancement and preserved ejection fraction
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping and strain parameters can detect early histological and functional myocardial changes in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) with negative late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and preserved ejection fraction.MethodsThirty consecutive patients with IIM (41.5 ± 15.4 years, 24 females) who did not have LGE or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (40.6 ± 14.2 years, 20 females) were recruited. Patients with IIM were further classified into two subgroups according...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Patient preferences for development in MRI scanner design: a survey of claustrophobic patients in a randomized study
AbstractObjectiveTo investigate which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner designs claustrophobic patients prefer.Material/methodsWe analyzed questionnaires completed by 160 patients at high risk for claustrophobia directly after a scan in either a short-bore or open panoramic scanner as part of a prospective randomized trial Enders et al (BMC Med Imaging 11:4,2011). Scanner preferences were judged based on schematic drawings of four scanners. Information on the diagnostic performance of the depicted scanners was provided, too.ResultsA majority of patients suggested upright open (59/160, 36.9%) and open panoramic (53/1...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT liver perfusion in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: can we modify acquisition protocol to reduce patient exposure?
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the potential of decreasing the number of scans and associated radiation exposure involved in CT liver perfusion (CTLP) dynamic studies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) assessment.MethodsTwenty-four CTLP image datasets of patients with HCC were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed on a modern CT system using a standard acquisition protocol involving 35 scans with 1.7  s interval. A deconvolution-based or a standard algorithm was employed to compute ten perfusion parametric maps. 3D ROIs were positioned on 33 confirmed HCCs and non-malignant parenchyma. Analysis w...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Teleworking beyond teleradiology: managing radiology departments during the COVID-19 outbreak
AbstractTeleradiology solutions are playing an essential role during the COVID-19 outbreak. Activity at radiology departments must be maintained and adapted to this new situation beyond teleradiology. Teleworking should be extended to the rest of non-medical radiology department areas. A comprehensive perspective based on our own experience during the COVID-19 outbreak has been performed highlighting the value of teleworking for almost all areas implied in the workflow of radiology departments beyond radiologists. Personal and technical requirements for successfully adapting to this new scenario are discussed including the...
Source: European Radiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Main genetic differences in high-grade gliomas may present different MR imaging and MR spectroscopy correlates
ConclusionsOur results suggest that IDH1-wt tumours are more necrotic than IDH1-mut. And that the presence of an infiltrative pattern in HGG is associated with loss of p53 expression, Ki-67 index, and Glx levels. Finally, tumour choline levels could be used as a predictive factor in survival in addition to the IDH1 status to provide a more accurate prediction of survival in HGG patients.Key Points•IDH1-wt tumours present higher levels of mobile lipids than IDH1-mut.• Mutated ATRX tumours exhibit higher levels of glutamate and glutamine.• Loss of p53 expression, Ki-67 expression, and glutamate and glutamine l...
Source: European Radiology - September 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimal matrix size of chest radiographs for computer-aided detection on lung nodule or mass with deep learning
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the optimal input matrix size for deep learning-based computer-aided detection (CAD) of nodules and masses on chest radiographs.MethodsWe retrospectively collected 2088 abnormal (nodule/mass) and 352 normal chest radiographs from two institutions. Three thoracic radiologists drew 2758 abnormalities regions. A total of 1736 abnormal chest radiographs were used for training and tuning convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The remaining 352 abnormal and 352 normal chest radiographs were used as a test set. Two CNNs (Mask R-CNN and RetinaNet) were selected to validate the effects of the squared...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Strategically acquired gradient echo (STAGE)-derived MR angiography might be a superior alternative method to time-of-flight MR angiography in visualization of leptomeningeal collaterals
This study aimed to compare the performance of strategically acquired gradient echo (STAGE)-derived MR angiography and time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA) in visualization of leptomeningeal collaterals (LMCs).MethodsBetween May 2018 and January 2020, 75 participants (47 healthy volunteers and 28 intracranial atherosclerotic disease [ICAD] patients) undergoing TOF-MRA and STAGE-MRA were prospectively included. Image quality was scored at the internal carotid artery (ICA) terminus, proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA), and LMCs. Quantitative analysis included calculation of contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) in the M1 &nda...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A diagnostic model for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on radiological semantic and clinical features: a multi-center study
ConclusionsBased on CT imaging and clinical manifestations alone, the pneumonia patients with and without COVID-19 can be distinguished. A model composed of radiological semantic and clinical features has an excellent performance for the diagnosis of COVID-19.Key Points• Based on CT imaging and clinical manifestations alone, the pneumonia patients with and without COVID-19 can be distinguished.• A diagnostic model for COVID-19 was developed and validated using radiological semantic and clinical features, which had an area under the curve value of 0.986 (95% CI 0.966~1.000) and 0.936 (95% CI 0.866~1.000) in the pr...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differentiation of predominant subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma using a quantitative radiomics approach on CT
ConclusionsPredominant subtype-based prognostic groups of lung adenocarcinoma were classified by a CT-based radiomic model with comparable performance to radiologists.Key Points• A CT-based radiomic model differentiated three prognosis-based subtype groups of lung adenocarcinoma with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.892 and 0.895 on development and test sets, respectively.• The CT-based radiomic model showed near perfect discrimination between group 0 and group 2 (AUCs, 0.984–1.000).• The accuracy of the CT-based radiomic model was comparable to the averaged accuracy of the three radiologists with 6, ...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characteristic CT findings distinguishing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from influenza pneumonia
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the different CT characteristics which may distinguish influenza from 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19).MethodsA total of 13 confirmed patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from January 16, 2020, to February 25, 2020. Furthermore, 92 CT scans of confirmed patients with influenza pneumonia, including 76 with influenza A and 16 with influenza B, scanned between January 1, 2019, to February 25, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Pulmonary lesion distributions, number, attenuation, lobe predomination, margin, contour, ground-glass opacity involvement pattern, bronchial wall thickening, air b...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A smaller heart-aorta-angle associates with ascending aortic dilatation and increases wall shear stress
AbstractObjectivesThe aim of this study was to evaluate whether the orientation of the heart, measured as an angle between the long axis of the heart and ascending aorta midline (heart-aorta-angle, HAA), associates with ascending aortic (AA) dilatation. Furthermore, the association between HAA and wall shear stress (WSS) was studied.MethodsHAA was retrospectively measured in 1000 consecutive coronary artery computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) images in patients with low-to-moderate pretest probability for coronary artery disease (CAD). To evaluate the effects of HAA on AA flow, 4D flow MRI was performed for 28 patients...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

ESGAR consensus statement on the imaging of fistula-in-ano and other causes of anal sepsis
ConclusionThese expert consensus statements can be used to guide appropriate indication, acquisition, interpretation and reporting of medical imaging for patients with potential fistula-in-ano and other causes of anal sepsis.Key Points•Medical imaging, notably magnetic resonance imaging, is used widely for the diagnosis and monitoring of fistula-in-ano and other causes of anal and perianal sepsis.•While the indexed medical literature is clear that diagnostic accuracy is potentially excellent, this depends on competent image acquisition and interpretation.•In order to facilitate this, the European Society of ...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Manual prostate cancer segmentation in MRI: interreader agreement and volumetric correlation with transperineal template core needle biopsy
ConclusionsWe found at best moderate interreader agreement of manual prostate cancer segmentation in mpMRI. Additionally, our study suggests a systematic discrepancy between the tumor volume estimate by MRI segmentation and TTSB core length, especially for large and high-grade tumors.Key Points• Manual prostate cancer segmentation in mpMRI shows moderate interreader agreement.• There are no significant differences between T2, ADC, and DCE segmentation agreements.• There is a systematic difference between volume estimates derived from biopsy and MRI. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on breast tissue composition: a longitudinal mammographic study with automated volumetric measurement
AbstractObjectivesTo investigate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on breast tissue composition with mammographic automated volumetric measurement.MethodsThis retrospective study included 168 breast cancer patients who were treated with NAC and underwent serial mammography (pre-treatment, mid-treatment, and post-treatment) between January 2015 and October 2018. Automated volumetric measurements of the contralateral breast volume (BV), fibroglandular volume (FGV), and breast density (BD) were performed using Volpara software. BD grades were divided into 4 groups by Volpara density grade (VDG). The longitudinal ch...
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Pilot study of the multicentre DISCHARGE trial: image quality and protocol adherence results of computed tomography and invasive coronary angiography
The original version of this article, published on 16 December 2019, unfortunately contained two mistakes. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Non-COVID-19 emergencies: where have all the patients gone?
Key Points• Early in the pandemic, numbers of patients undergoing non-COVID-19 emergent CTs dropped sharply but diagnostic yield did not increase, suggesting potentially undiagnosed emergencies in patients not seen in healthcare institutions. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Adapting to a new normal? 5 key operational principles for a radiology service facing the COVID-19 pandemic
Key Points• Radiology services encountering the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic will need to modify their daily operational practices.• Leadership, patient risk stratification, adequate manpower, operational workflow clarity, and workplace/social responsibility will help Radiology services safely and sustainably deal with the current disease outbreak. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Letter to the editor regarding “Safety and Effectiveness of Cervical Vertebroplasty: Report of a Large Cohort and Systematic Review”
(Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

AI for reading screening mammograms: the need for circumspection
AbstractKey Points• The studies on AI reading of screening mammograms have methodological limitations that undermine the conclusion that AI could do better than radiologists.• These studies do not informon numbers of extra breast cancers found by AI that could represent overdiagnosis.• The ability of AI to detect breast cancers is overestimated because there are no result on biopsy procedures that should be performed when mammograms are positive at AI reading but not at radiology reading. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hiding in plain sight —unreported osteoporotic vertebral fractures
Key Points• Reporting of vertebral fractures has important clinical consequences and can be improved by routinely performing sagittal reformating and by the use of a standard nomenclature and classification. (Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Shape and texture-based radiomics signature on CT effectively discriminates benign from malignant renal masses
ConclusionShape metrics alone attain high prediction performance and high variable importance in the combined model, while being independent of the acquisition phase (unlike texture). Shape analysis therefore should not be overlooked in its potential to distinguish benign from malignant tumors, and future radiomics platforms powered by machine learning should harness both shape and texture metrics.Key Points• Current radiomics research is heavily weighted towards texture analysis, but quantitative shape metrics should not be ignored in their potential to distinguish benign from malignant renal tumors.• Shape metr...
Source: European Radiology - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

T1 mapping and cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking in mitral valve prolapse
AbstractObjectivesT1 mapping (T1-map) and cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) techniques have been introduced for the early detection of interstitial myocardial fibrosis and deformation abnormalities. We sought to demonstrate that T1-map and CMR-FT may identify the presence of subclinical myocardial structural changes in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP).MethodsConsecutive MVP patients with moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation and comparative matched healthy subjects were prospectively enrolled and underwent CMR-FT analysis to calculate 2D global and segmental circumferential (CS) and radial str...
Source: European Radiology - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound LI-RADS 2017: comparison with CT/MRI LI-RADS
AbstractObjectiveTo compare the classification based on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) with that of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI (CECT/MRI) LI-RADS for liver nodules in patients at high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.MethodsTwo hundred thirty-nine patients with 273 nodules were enrolled in this retrospective study. Each nodule was categorized according to the CEUS LI-RADS version 2017 and CECT/MRI LI-RADS version 2017. The diagnostic performance of CEUS and CECT/MRI was compared. The reference standard was histopathology diagnosis. Inter-modality agreement was assess...
Source: European Radiology - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Recent updates in radioprotection
(Source: European Radiology)
Source: European Radiology - August 15, 2020 Category: Radiology Source Type: research