Mapping the unmappable: local vector mapping
AbstractArrhythmias are commonly mapped using a timing reference signal. There are a number of situations where mapping may be difficult or even impossible using conventional reference-based mapping. Wobbling arrhythmias or those who do not maintain a 1:1 relationship with the reference signal are problematic. Local vector mapping may be performed in these situations to map arrhythmias without the use of a reference signal. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Radiofrequency catheter ablation of left-sided accessory pathways in children using a new fluoroscopy integrated 3D-mapping system
AbstractIntroductionAdvances in 3D electroanatomic-mapping technologies have resulted in a safe and effective profile of radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. The aim of this study was to evaluate a different catheter ablation approach in patients with left-sided accessory pathways (APs).Methods and resultsFrom January 2015 to December 2015, 30 patients (median age 11 years, median weight 45 kg) with manifest or concealed left-sided APs underwent RF catheter ablation with a new protocol. All procedures were performed with the CARTO UNIVU ™ system, integrating electroanatomic maps with fluoroscopic views. A 7 Fr abla...
Source: Europace - February 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Physicians' knowledge of implantable defibrillator treatment: are we good enough?
ConclusionThere is lack of basic knowledge in ICD treatment and clinical management among physicians. The majority of the respondents had prior experience in treating ICD patients. Over two-thirds of the physicians rated their knowledge to be low, while test scores revealed sufficient knowledge in only 41% of the physicians surveyed. The lack of ICD knowledge is most prominent in Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, but it also extends to physicians in Cardiology departments. With an increasing number of ICD patients, it is of great importance to fill this knowledge gap as soon as possible. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lung herniation following thoracostomy
(Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Spatial relationship of blood vessels within the mitral isthmus line
ConclusionThe myocardium is the thinnest in the upper 1/3 sector, and the blood vessels are mainly located in the middle and lower 1/3. In 49.1%, the LCx is situated at a distance of less than 3  mm from the ES. In 55.3%, the LCx is located between the GCV and ES of the left atrium. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) consensus document on the management of supraventricular arrhythmias, endorsed by Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulaci ón Cardiaca y Electrofisiologia (SOLAECE)
[Europace doi:10.1093/europace/euw301] (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Stroke and bleeding with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant or warfarin treatment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a population-based cohort study
ConclusionThis population-based cohort study of routine care indicates similar or better effectiveness and safety with NOAC compared with warfarin treatment. NOACs were associated with fewer intracranial bleeds, but more gastrointestinal bleeds. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Demographics, treatment and outcomes of atrial fibrillation in a developing country: the population-based TuRkish Atrial Fibrillation (TRAF) cohort
ConclusionThe TRAF cohort is the first population-based, whole-country cohort of AF epidemiology, quality of care and outcomes. It provides a unique opportunity to study the patterns, causes and impact of treatments on the incidence and outcomes of AF in a developing country. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sudden unexplained death in the young: epidemiology, aetiology and value of the clinically guided genetic screening
ConclusionSudden death in the young is of cardiovascular origin in the majority of cases. A considerable rate of SD cases remains of unknown cause on post-mortem. Apart from channelopathies, subclinical forms of inherited structural heart diseases would appear to be implicated in SADS. Clinically guided genetic screening has a significant diagnostic yield and identifies affected families that would have been missed by the current suggested molecular autopsy panel. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Long-term prognostic significance of right bundle-branch morphology ventricular ectopy induced during stress test in patients with intermediate to high probability of coronary artery disease
ConclusionStress-induced right bundle-branch block morphology VE is associated with an increased mortality in patients with preserved LVEF. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 7, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiological characteristics of left upper septal fascicular ventricular tachycardia
ConclusionLUS-VT presented as narrow QRS complex tachycardia. Some LUS-VTs occurred after ablation targeting left posterior fascicular VT. The VTs can be managed successfully by focal ablation at the left upper septum with a mild risk of fascicular injury. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A new simplified electrocardiographic score predicts clinical outcome in patients treated with CRT
This study examines the ability of a simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG)-based scoring system to predict clinical outcome.Methods and resultsFour hundred and ninety-one consecutive patients with CRT-implants (79% males, mean age 71 years, LVEF 24%, 59% with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 83% in NYHA class III) were included from a single large volume centre. All patients met standard indications for CRT, and were followed for 3 years after CRT implantation. Three ECG parameters were measured on the post-implant ECG, and compared to pre-implantation measurements: QRS duration, time to intrinsicoid deflection onset (ID) in V1 ...
Source: Europace - February 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Rate vs. rhythm control and adverse outcomes among European patients with atrial fibrillation
AbstractAimThe impact of rate and rhythm control strategies on outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains controversial. Our aims were: to report use of rate and rhythm control strategies in European patients from the EURObservational Research Program AF General Pilot Registry. Secondly, to evaluate outcomes according to assigned strategies.Methods and resultsUse of pure rate and rhythm control agents was described according to European regions. 1-year follow-up data were reported. Among rate control strategies, beta-blockers were the most commonly used drug. Proportions of patients assigned to rhythm contr...
Source: Europace - February 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Left univentricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy
[Europace doi:10.1093/europace/euw179] (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Optimizing the detection of macroscopic T-wave alternans using high precordial leads in a patient with Brugada syndrome
A 31-year-old man was resuscitated after cardiopulmonary arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Physical examination, laboratory tests, echocardiography, and coronary angiography did not show any abnormalities. Five days after resuscitation, standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed spontaneous macroscopic T-wave alternans (TWA) in the V2 lead. In addition, QT interval alternans (480 –520 ms) were observed (PanelA, arrows). At the same time, an ECG recorded with the V1 –V6 leads placed one intercostal space higher showed pronounced TWA in the V2 lead. Furthermore, TWA manifested in the V1 and V3 l...
Source: Europace - February 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum
to: ‘Real-world’ atrial fibrillation management in Europe: observations from the 2-year follow-up of the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 4, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The clinical and genetic spectrum of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: findings from an international multicentre registry
AbstractAimsCatecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an ion channelopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmia during exertion or stress. Mutations inRYR2-coded Ryanodine Receptor-2 (RyR2) andCASQ2-coded Calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) genes underlie CPVT1 and CPVT2, respectively. However, prognostic markers are scarce. We sought to better characterize the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of CPVT, and utilize molecular modelling to help account for clinical phenotypes.Methods and resultsThis is a Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society multicentre, retrospective cohort study of CPVT patients diagnosed at  
Source: Europace - January 31, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Dormant pulmonary vein conduction before ablation revealed by adenosine: evidence for intermittent venoatrial conduction?
A 46-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. After transseptal access, the geometry of the left atrium was reconstructed with a 10-pole variable Lasso-Nav catheter and the CARTO 3 system (Biosense Webster). Voltage mapping showed no evidence of left atrial scarring. Mapping with the Lasso catheter revealed widely connected left and right inferior PVs. In contrast, no potentials were recorded in the right superior PV (Panel A). Both left- and right-sided ipsilateral PVs were circumferentially ablated. Adenosine challenge was then undertaken. Surprisingly, repeated adenosine ...
Source: Europace - January 30, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Different directions of conduction of fascicular potential and ventricular potential during left posterior fascicular ventricular tachycardia ablation: what is the mechanism?
(Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 27, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Application and comparison of the FADES, MADIT, and SHFM-D risk models for risk stratification of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment
AimsImplantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment is beneficial in selected patients. However, it remains difficult to accurately predict which patients benefit most from ICD implantation. For this purpose, different risk models have been developed. The aim was to validate and compare the FADES, MADIT, and SHFM-D models.Methods and resultsAll patients receiving a prophylactic ICD at the Leiden University Medical Center were evaluated. Individual model performance was evaluated by C-statistics. Model performances were compared using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated differentiation improvement (...
Source: Europace - January 27, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Second generation cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation in young adults: midterm outcome in patients under 40 years of age
ConclusionYoung patients affected by AF can be effectively and safely treated with CB-A that grants freedom from AF in 88% of the patients at 18 months follow-up following a 3-month blanking period. All veins could be isolated with the large 28  mm Cryoballoon Advance only. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Characterization and consistency of interactions of triggers and substrate at the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
ConclusionOnset of paroxysmal AF can be described by discrete mechanistic categories, all involving interaction of ectopic activity with a common SP-LOB. Within/between-patient consistency of initiations suggests constancy of the interacting triggers and substrate, and supports the concept of mechanistically tailored treatment. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiac resynchronization therapy for patients with cardiac sarcoidosis
ConclusionsCardiac sarcoidosis patients receiving CRT may have poor LV reverse remodelling and a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The effect of left ventricular pacing on transmural activation delay in myopathic human hearts
AbstractAimsLeft ventricular (LV) epicardial pacing (LVEpiP) in human myopathic hearts does not decrease global epicardial activation delay compared with right ventricular (RV) endocardial pacing (RVEndoP); however, the effect on transmural activation delay has not been evaluated. To characterize the transmural electrical activation delay in human myopathic hearts during RVEndoP and LVEpiP compared with global epicardial activation delay.Methods and resultsExplanted hearts from seven patients (5 male, 46  ± 10 years) undergoing cardiac transplantation were Langendorff-perfused and mapped using an epica...
Source: Europace - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Characterising the difference in electrophysiological substrate and outcomes between heart failure and non-heart failure patients with persistent atrial fibrillation
ConclusionsCFE represents an important surrogate marker of atrial substrate complexity. The atrial substrate in persistent AF differs between HF and non-HF with the latter representing a more complex ‘primary’ bi-atrial myopathy. LA focussed ablation results in more extensive substrate modification in HF and better clinical outcomes as compared with non-HF. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Transcranial measurement of cerebral microembolic signals during left-sided catheter ablation with the use of different approaches- the potential microembolic risk of a transseptal approach
ConclusionThe retrograde aortic approach might potentially have a lower risk of subclinical brain damage than the transseptal approach during left-sided catheter ablation. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cardiac resynchronization therapy in adults with congenital heart disease
ConclusionIn this cohort of older CHD patients, CRT was accomplished with a success rate comparable to those with acquired heart disease despite the complex anatomy and technical challenges frequently encountered in this population. Further studies are needed to establish appropriate guidelines for patient selection and long term outcome. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Relation of renal dysfunction with incident atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: The PREVEND study
In this study, we investigated the association of several renal function measures and incident AF, and whether the relation between renal measures and outcomes is modified by AF.Methods and resultsWe examined 8265 individuals (age 49  ± 13 years, 50% women) included in the PREVEND study. We used albumin excretion (morning void and 24-h urine samples), serum creatinine, cystatin C, and Cystatin C-based, creatinine-based, and creatinine-cystatin C-based GFR as renal function measures; results: During a follow-up of 9.8 ±  2.3 years, 267 participants (3.2%) developed AF. In the multiv...
Source: Europace - January 20, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to predict clinical course in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy
This study assessed the role of amino-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), mid-regional-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) at the time of device implantation to predict favourable clinical course (CRT response and/or risk of MACE) in HF patients receiving CRT.Methods and resultsA total of 137 HF patients were prospectively included. Blood was drawn from the coronary sinus (CS) at CRT implantation, and from a peripheral vein (PV) simultaneously and after 6 months. Clinical CRT response at 6 months and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) at 2 yea...
Source: Europace - January 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Left juxtaposed right atrial appendage suspected on a plain chest radiograph
(Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Regular supraventricular tachycardia with irregular atrial activations
A 19-year-old woman with recurrent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) occurring after the slow pathway ablation underwent electrophysiological testing. Atrial extrastimulation induced regular SVTs following a sudden prolongation of the AH interval. During the SVT, ventriculoatrial (VA) block occurred with irregular atrial activations. A premature ventricular stimulus delivered during the His refractory period did not reset the following His activation during the SVT. Rapid ventricular pacing terminated the SVT. Therefore, the SVT was diagnosed as atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia with an upper common pathway. T...
Source: Europace - January 16, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Prevalence and long-term prognosis of patients with ‘narrower than normal’ QRS complexes
ConclusionQRS duration  
Source: Europace - January 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A meta-analysis on the prognostic significance of inferolateral early repolarization pattern in Brugada syndrome
AbstractAimsThe early repolarization (ER) pattern has been linked to an increased risk for arrhythmic death in various clinical settings. There are limited and conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of ER pattern in Brugada syndrome (BS). The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a detailed analysis of the currently available studies regarding the arrhythmic risk in patients with BS and ER pattern.Methods and resultsCurrent databases were searched until May 2015. A random-effect meta-analysis of the effect of ER pattern on the incidence of arrhythmic events in patients with BS was performed. Five studies...
Source: Europace - January 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Is epicardial fat depot associated with atrial fibrillation? A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe present work expands the strength of previously reported association between EF amount and atrial arrhythmia. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 13, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heterogeneous distribution of substrates between the endocardium and epicardium promotes ventricular fibrillation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy
ConclusionFor ARVC, the epicardial substrate that extended in the horizontal plane rather than transmurally provided the arrhythmogenic substrate for a fatal ventricular arrhythmia circuit. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 11, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy among patients with non-ischaemic vs. ischaemic cardiomyopathy for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death
AbstractAimThe magnitude of benefit related to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has not been evaluated extensively in clinical practice.Methods and resultsOf the 5539 consecutive patients enrolled in the multicentre D éfibrillateur Automatique Implantable–Prévention Primaire (DAI-PP) study (2002–12), 5485 patients (with information on underlying heart disease) were included in the present analysis: 2181 (39.8%) had NICM and 3304 (60.2%) had ICM. ICM pat...
Source: Europace - January 11, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Reduction of atrial fibrillation burden by pulmonary vein isolation leads to a decrease of CD11b expression on inflammatory cells
AbstractAimsIt is hypothesized that inflammation could promote structural and electrical remodelling processes in atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial infiltration of monocytes and granulocytes has been shown to be dependent on CD11b expression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of AF by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) may lead to reduced inflammation, as indicated by a decrease of CD11b expression on monocytes and granulocytes.Methods and resultsFlow-cytometric quantification analysis and determination of systemic inflammatory markers of peripheral blood were performed in 75 patients undergoing PVI 1 &...
Source: Europace - January 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Endocardial left ventricular pacing for cardiac resynchronization: systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionLV endocardial pacing appears to be a viable technique when conventional lead placement is not possible. Response rates were heterogeneous but comparable with conventional CRT. There is likely to be a small increase over expected rates of stroke, although included patients were high risk. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Perioperative predictors of permanent pacing and long-term dependence following tricuspid valve surgery: a multicentre analysis
ConclusionCross-clamp time  >60  min and concomitant mitral valve surgery were independent predictors of PPM implantation following TVR. Long-term PPM dependency is more prevalent after TVR than other types of valvular surgery. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pacemaker-detected severe sleep apnea predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation
ConclusionsIn pacemaker patients, device-diagnosed severe SA was independently associated with a higher risk of AF ( ≥6 h/day) and new-onset AF. In particular, severe SA on follow-up data review identified patients who were ∼2-fold more likely to experience an AF episode in the next 3 months. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Infective endocarditis and risk of death after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation: a nationwide cohort study
ConclusionThe risk of IE increased with increasing PM complexity. Other important risk factors were subsequent generator replacement and lead revision. IE was associated with an increased risk of mortality in the area of CIED. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 10, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Multielectrode vs. point-by-point mapping for ventricular tachycardia substrate ablation: a randomized study
ConclusionMEM with PentaRay catheter provided better discrimination of LPs due to a lower sensitivity for far-field signals. Ablation guided by MEM was associated with a shorter radiofrequency time. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Optimization of catheter/tissue contact during pulmonary vein isolation: the impact of atrial rhythm
This study aims at assessing the actual values of CF, the applications with suboptimal CF, and the impact of cardiac rhythm on CF during PVI.Methods and resultsTwenty patients undergoing point-by-point PVI with a CF-sensing catheter were considered. CF target was between 6 and 40  g. The mean CF per application (mCF) was evaluated and considered suboptimal if ≤5 g. The real-time graphic of CF was also evaluated and classified as pulsatile if regular variations synchronous with the atrial rate were seen; otherwise it was irregular. To achieve PVI, 1458 applications we re delivered; 287 (19.68%) had s...
Source: Europace - January 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Incidence of atrial fibrillation detected by continuous rhythm monitoring after acute myocardial infarction in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: results of the ARREST study
ConclusionAF is a frequent but largely underestimated cardiac arrhythmia after AMI. More rigorous monitoring strategies resulting in crucial medical interventions (e.g. implementation of oral anti-coagulation) are needed.Clinical Trial Registrationhttp://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02492243. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

High-sensitive cardiac troponin T as a novel predictor for recurrence of atrial fibrillation after radiofrequency catheter ablation
AbstractAimsWe aimed to determine whether elevated serum high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) levels predict atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).Methods and resultsWe included 125 consecutive patients with AF (paroxysmal,n = 79; persistent,n = 46) who underwent first-time PVI. Serum hs-TnT, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), atrial natriuretic peptide, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured in venous samples collected before PVI. Elevated hs-TnT was diagnosed in patients with levels ≥0.014 μg/L. All patie...
Source: Europace - January 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation after cavotricuspid isthmus ablation for atrial flutter
AbstractAimsIn patients with cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) ablation for atrial flutter (AFL), the decision to hold oral anticoagulation (OAC) often becomes an issue. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of the development of atrial fibrillation (AF) after CTI ablation in patients with documented AFL with and without a previous history of AF and to identify risk predictors for the occurrence of AF after CTI.Methods and resultsWe included 364 consecutive patients undergoing successful CTI ablation. Thereof, 230 patients (170 male; age 66  ± 11 years) had AFL only (AFL group) and 134 pati...
Source: Europace - January 9, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Procedural outcomes and long-term survival following trans-venous defibrillator lead extraction in patients with end-stage renal disease
AbstractAimsEnd-stage renal disease (ESRD) increases the risk of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) infection. We sought to define outcomes of lead extraction in patients with ESRD.Methods and resultsImplantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead extractions at our institution from January 2006 to March 2014 were stratified by absence (Control-Ex,n = 465) or presence (ESRD-Ex,n = 43) of ESRD. Procedural outcomes and survival were determined by medical records review. Survival in the ESRD-Ex group was compared with a contemporaneous cohort with ESRD undergoing ICD lead implantation (ESRD-I...
Source: Europace - January 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Cryoablation vs. radiofrequency ablation for treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsCompared with RF ablation, cryoablation present a comparable long-term AF/atrial tachycardial-free survival and procedure-related adverse events. Meanwhile, cryoablation markedly shorten the procedure time, nonetheless, with negligible impact on the fluoroscopy time. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 8, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Novel method for electrode-tissue contact measurement with multi-electrode catheters
ConclusionData of the present study suggest that electrode-tissue contact affects the IR while being highly insensitive to remote structures. This method facilitates electrode-tissue contact measurements with circular multi-electrode ablation catheters. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - January 7, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Self-taught axillary vein access without venography for pacemaker implantation: prospective randomized comparison with the cephalic vein access
AbstractAimAxillary vein access for pacemaker implantation is uncommon in many centres because of the lack of training in this technique. We assessed whether the introduction of the axillary vein technique was safe and efficient as compared with cephalic vein access, in a centre where no operators had any previous experience in axillary vein puncture.Methods and resultsPatients undergoing pacemaker implantation were randomized to axillary or cephalic vein access. All three operators had no experience nor training in axillary vein puncture, and self-learned the technique by reading a published review. Axillary vein puncture...
Source: Europace - January 7, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research