Clopidogrel Desensitization: Background and Recommendations for Use of a Rapid (4 Hour) Protocol.
Discussion: The exact immunologically mediated mechanism of how rapid oral desensitization works is not fully understood and yet to be defined. Ultimately desensitization results in causing antigen-specific mast cell tolerance. Various protocols have been published. The length of desensitization ranged from 2 h using 9 doses to 7 h using 15 doses. Recommendations: Taking the above into account, we recommend using a modification to the protocol that has the largest number of patients to undergo a standardized clopidogrel desensitization. This approach is shorter, as time is often of the essence in these patients. Dosing sta...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bulva J, Simon RA Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vascular damage in obesity and diabetes: Highlighting links between endothelial dysfunction and metabolic disease in zebrafish and man.
Abstract Endothelial dysfunction is an initial pathophysiological mechanism of vascular damage and is further recognized as an independent predictor of a negative prognosis in diabetes-induced micro- and macrovascular complications. Insight into the capability of zebrafish to model metabolic disease like obesity and type II diabetes has increased and new evidence on the induction of vascular pathologies in zebrafish through metabolic disease is available. Here, we raise the question, if zebrafish can be utilized to study the initial impairments of vascular complications in metabolic disorders. In this review, we f...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wiggenhauser LM, Kroll J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diabetes and Mortality in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Findings from the Gulf COAST registry.
CONCLUSIONS: DM patients presenting with ACS-STEMI have poor short-term outcomes while DM-NSTEMI patients have poor long-term outcomes. This highlights the need for strategies to evaluate DM control and integration of care to control vascular risk among this high-risk population. PMID: 30360744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shehab A, Bhagavathula AS, Al-Rasadi K, Alshamsi F, Al Kaab J, Thani KB, Mustafa R Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cushing's Syndrome should be Cited as a Disease with High Cardiovascular Risk in Relevant Guidelines.
Abstract The intention of the paper is to give rationale and to suggest enlisting Cushing's syndrome (CS) amongst high cardiovascular (CV) risk conditions. A considerable amount of data refers to several-fold amplified mortality in CS. The causes are based on high occurrence of many CV risk factors in persons with CS (e.g., adiposity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, as well as diabetes mellitus /DM/). Therefore, practically all individuals with CS have correspondingly the metabolic syndrome (MetSy), which is known as laden with high CV risk. Characteristically, in spite of the young average age, numerous of C...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koracevic G, Stojkovic M, Lovic D, Pavlovic M, Kostic T, Kutlesic M, Micic S, Koracevic M, Djordjevic M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Gulf Familial Hypercholesterolemia Registry (Gulf FH): Design, Rationale and Preliminary Results.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FH in the adult population of the Arabian Gulf region is high. The Gulf FH registry, a first-of-a-kind multi-national study in the Middle East region, will help in improving underdiagnosis and undertreatment of FH in the region. PMID: 30289081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Al-Rasadi K, Alhabib KF, Al-Allaf F, Al-Waili K, Al-Zakwani I, AlSarraf A, Almahmeed W, AlSayed N, Alghamdi M, Batais MA, Almigbal TH, Alnouri F, Kinsara A, Hammouda A, Awan Z, Kary H, Elamin OA, Zadjali F, Al-Jarallah M, Shehab A, Sabbour H, Amin H, Alta Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk in perimenopausal women.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), has a low incidence in premenopausal women. Loss of ovarian hormones during the perimenopause and menopause leads to a sharp increase in incidence. Although most CHD risk factors are common to both men and women, the menopause is a unique additional risk factor for women. Sex steroids have profound effects on many CHD risk factors. Their loss leads to adverse changes in lipids and lipoproteins, with increases being seen in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) chole...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stevenson JC, Tsiligiannis S, Panay N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles and insulin resistance: a potential interaction in vascular dysfunction.
Abstract Insulin resistance plays a key role in cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders. In states of insulin resistance several circulating factors may contribute to a defective insulin sensitivity in different tissues, including the vasculature. One of these factors influencing the vascular insulin resistance are the extracellular vesicles. The extracellular vesicles include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies which are released to the circulation by different vascular cells. Since the cargo of extracellular vesicles seems to be altered in metabolic com...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saez T, Toledo F, Sobrevia L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Smoking and Endothelial Dysfunction.
Abstract Cigarette smoking is one the most important health concerns worldwide. Even though the rate of smoking is declining in developed countries, it is still experiencing growth in developing regions. Many studies have examined the relationship between smoking, as an established risk factor, and cardiovascular diseases. We provide an updated review of the underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced cardiovascular diseases, with a focus on the relationship between smoking and oxidative stress, particularly from the perspective of endothelial cell dysfunction. We review smoking-induced oxidative stress as a trigger ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Golbidi S, Edvinsson L, Laher I Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Non-hormonal replacement therapy regimens: do they have an effect on cardiovascular risk?
CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to produce definite conclusions regarding the cardiovascular safety of non-hormonal medications for menopausal symptoms relief. PMID: 30205798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mareti E, Ampatzi C, Paschou SA, Voziki E, Goulis DG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Involvement of intracellular pH in vascular insulin resistance.
Abstract The maintenance of the pH homeostasis is maintained by several mechanisms including the efflux of protons (H+) via membrane transporters expressed in almost all mammalian cells. Along these membrane transporters the sodium/H+ exchangers (NHEs), mainly NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), plays a key role in this phenomenon. NHE1 is under modulation by several environmental conditions (v.g., hyperglycaemia, protein kinase C activity) as well as hormones, including insulin. NHE1 activation causes intracellular alkalization in human endothelial cells leading to activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramirez MA, Beltran AR, Araya JE, Cornejo M, Toledo F, Fuentes G, Sobrevia L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome during menopause.
Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises individual components including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension and it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The menopause per se increases the incidence of MetS in aging women. The effect(s) of menopause on individual components of MetS include: i) increasing central obesity with changes in the fat tissue distribution, ii) potential increase in insulin resistance, iii) changes in serum lipid concentrations, which seem to be associated with increasing weight rathe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mumusoglu S, Yildiz BO Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Resistance to Diuretics in Heart Failure: Any Role for Empagliflozin?
PMID: 30173648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katsiki N, Triposkiadis F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy: these two diabetic microvascular complications do not invariably co-exist.
CONCLUSIONS: CAN does not always co-exist with degrees of DSPN, ranging from mild to moderate/severe and is similarly distributed in T1DM and T2DM patients with mild and moderate/severe DSPN and in patients without DSPN. PMID: 30156161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pafili K, Trypsianis G, Papazoglou D, Maltezos E, Papanas N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting women of reproductive age. The hormonal alterations of PCOS have been linked with a higher risk of metabolic disturbances in young, reproductively active women. However, it remains to be clarified whether the presence of PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Aging ameliorates the clinical manifestations of PCOS; hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic abnormalities, however, persist beyond the menopause. On the other hand, aging and menopause increase CVD risk in the general female population. T...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lambrinoudaki I, Armeni E Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diabetes, Incretin therapy and thoracic aortic aneurysm-what does the evidence show?
Abstract Epidemiological evidence supports reduced prevalence of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) in diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this negative association are unknown. Some studies support that hyperglycemia has effects on the extracellular matrix, resulting in collagen cross-links and altered proteolytic activity, which ultimately counteracts aneurysm formation. However, recent experimental research indicates that incretin-based anti-diabetic therapy and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) may ameliorate formation of TAA. GLP-1 is a peptide hormone, released from intestinal L-cells in response to hormonal, neur...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Krizhanovskii C, Franco-Cereceda A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clopidogrel Hypersensitivity: Overview of the Problem.
Abstract Clopidogrel is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. It plays an essential therapeutic role in a variety of vascular conditions including acute coronary syndromes, ischemic heart disease treated with coronary stents, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel are not uncommon and lead to its discontinuation in 1-2% of patients. Clopidogrel hypersensitivity is especially problematic in patients with newly implanted drug-eluting coronary stents. Premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy after recent coronary intervention is the most importa...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Savage MP, Fischman DL Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Managing Clopidogrel Hypersensitivity without Interrupting Therapy: The Toronto Approach.
Abstract Clopidogrel remains a widely used antiplatelet agent for patients with established or high risk of atherothrombotic disease, particularly those treated with coronary, carotid or peripheral endovascular stenting. Clopidogrel hypersensitivity is an uncommon but well established adverse drug reaction presenting a challenge for patient management. The clinical presentation ranges from focal or diffuse cutaneous manifestations in most patients to angioedema in some and a systemic immune response in rare cases. The treatment options include drug discontinuation with or without desensitization therapy, switching...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cheema AN Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endothelial Extracellular Vesicles Produced by Senescent Cells: Pathophysiological Role in the Cardiovascular Disease Associated with all Types of Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract Endothelial senescence-associated with aging or induced prematurely in pathological situations, such as diabetes, is a first step in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly inflammatory cardiovascular diseases. The main mechanism that links endothelial senescence and the progression of CVD is the production of altered extracellular vesicles (EVs) by senescent endothelial cells among them, microvesicles (MVs). MVs are recognized as intercellular signaling elements that play a key role in regulating tissue homeostasis. However, MVs produced by damage cells or senescent cells conveye...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carracedo J, Alique M, Ramirez-Carracedo R, Bodega G, Ramirez R Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Pleiotropic Effects of Statins - From Coronary Artery Disease and Stroke to Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia.
Abstract Statins, 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, have been used for decades for the prevention of coronary artery disease and stroke. They act primarily by lowering serum cholesterol through the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver, which results in the upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver. This results in the removal of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Studies have suggested that statins may demonstrate additional effects that are independent of their effects on low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. These have been termed "pleiotropic" ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liao JK, Oesterle A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of Clopidogrel Hypersensitivity: The Jefferson Approach.
Abstract Despite the advent of newer antiplatelet therapies, clopidogrel remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with cardiovascular disease, especially those who undergo coronary stent implantation. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel that develop soon after stenting present a significant clinical challenge. The widespread use of clopidogrel in the management of patients with coronary artery disease necessitates awareness of treatment options in the setting of an allergic reaction. It has been demonstrated that clopidogrel hypersensitivity can be successfully managed without interrupting clopidogrel ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vishnevsky A, Savage MP, Fischman DL Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Use of alternative antiplatelet agents for clopidogrel hypersensitivity.
Abstract Clopidogrel is a widely used agent for secondary prevention of vascular events and is a cornerstone of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) post coronary stent implantation. Hypersensitivity reactions to clopidogrel are well documented and may range from localized to systemic in presentation. This can lead to discontinuation of therapy, thus increasing the risk of vascular events. The authors have developed recommendations for potential alternative agents for the management of clopidogrel hypersensitivity reactions. Proposed strategies include treatment with an alternat...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ather A, Beavers CJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Regional Distribution of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Human Anorectal Tissue: A Pilot Study on the Potential Role for Nitric Oxide in Haemorrhoids.
CONCLUSIONS: Haemorrhoids have significantly higher protein levels of NOS1 and NOS3 than rectal tissue. The vascular endothelium of haemorrhoids also has significantly higher positive immunoreactivity of NOS1 and NOS3 than rectal tissue suggesting that blood vessels in haemorrhoids are exposed to higher NO concentrations than those of rectal tissue. Since haemorrhoids exhibit marked vascular dilatation and present with bleeding or swelling, a reduction in NOS - by applying NOS inhibitors - may potentially improve the symptoms of haemorrhoids. PMID: 30058493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lohsiriwat V, Wilson VG, Scholefield JH, Dashwood MR Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pleotropic Effects of Statins: untapped potential for statin pharmacotherapy.
DISCUSSION: Overall, the literature supports beneficial pleotropic effects of statin use in contrast-induced nephropathy, head injury, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, nuclear cataract, prostate cancer, infection management, and spinal cord injury. Further investigation is warranted, and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the clinical utility suggested by the reported studies included in this meta-analysis. PMID: 30033872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mohammad S, Nguyen H, Nguyen M, Abdel-Rasoul M, Nguyen V, Nguyen CD, Nguyen KT, Li L, Kitzmiller JP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Statins: They are Really All the Same?
PMID: 30003860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cortese F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Menopause and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review Focusing on Therapeutic Perspectives.
Abstract There is increasing evidence that menopause is associated with the progression and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Estrogen deficiency worsens non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice models with fatty liver. The prevalence of NAFLD seems to be higher in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. Although more data are needed, lower serum estradiol levels are associated with NASH in postmenopausal women. Apart from estrogen deficiency, relative androgen excess and decrease in sex hormone-binding protein are observed in postmenopausal women. These hormonal changes seem to ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Venetsanaki V, Polyzos SA Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Menopausal hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk. Where are we now?
Abstract Transition to menopause is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, mainly attributed to lipid and glucose metabolism dysregulation, as well as to body fat redistribution, leading to abdominal obesity. Indeed, epidemiological evidence suggests that both early menopause (EM, defined as age at menopause
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anagnostis P, Paschou SA, Katsiki N, Krikidis D, Lambrinoudaki I, Goulis DG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Statins: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and cost-effectiveness analysis.
Abstract Cardiovascular diseases secondary to atherosclerosis are the primary causes of early death and disability worldwide and dyslipidaemia represents one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Among lipid abnormalities that define it, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the primary target of therapy, since multiple randomized controlled trials have shown the positive impact of its reduction on atherosclerosis development. For their ability to lower LDL-C levels, statins are the most studied drugs in cardiovascular disease prevention, of proven utility in slowing the progression or even deter...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ricci G, Ciccone MM, Giordano P, Cortese F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Galectin-3 and arterial stiffness in patients with heart failure: a pilot study.
We examined the association of arterial stiffness with galectin-3 levels in patients with HF of ischemic etiology. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 40 patients with stable ischemic HF and reduced ejection fraction. Central aortic stiffness was evaluated non-invasively by measuring carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Among other factors, serum levels of galectin-3 and b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. RESULTS: The median galectin-3 levels in our study population were 12.9 (10.8-18.7) ng/ml and the mean PWV was 9.31±2.79 m/sec. There was significant association of galectin-3 levels wit...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Oikonomou E, Karlis D, Tsalamadris S, Siasos G, Chrysohoou C, Vogiatzi G, Dimitropoulos S, Charalambous G, Kouskouni E, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Statins and elderly: from clinical trials to daily practice.
Abstract Elderly patients represent a rising social problem, due to the exponential growth of persons in these age groups and their atherothrombotic burden. The management of this population still raises several challenges, requiring a balance between elevated cardiovascular risk, clinical complexity, frailty and co-morbidities. Statins represent a main pillar in cardiovascular prevention, lowering serum cholesterol and reducing mortality and ischemic events, especially in high-risk patients. Yet, elderly patients have often been excluded from major clinical trials of statins, thus limiting the experience with the...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Verdoia M, Galasso G, Filardi PP, De Luca G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Gender-specific, Lifestyle-related Factors and 10-year Cardiovascular Disease Risk; the ATTICA and GREECS Cohort Studies.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Lifestyle remains a huge driving force of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) onset/progression. Lifestyle-patterns are highly dependent on gender-related attitudes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender-specific association of lifestyle-related factors (adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), physical activity (PA), smoking) on 10-year first and recurrent CVD events. METHOD: Two prospective studies, the ATTICA (2002-2012, n=3,042 subjects free-of-CVD) and GREECS (2004-2014, n=2,172 subjects with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) were used. Baseline adherence to MedDiet (MedDietScore
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - June 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Matina K, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Georgousopoulou E, Notara V, Tousoulis D, Pitsavos C, The Attica Greecs Studies Investigators Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Comparison of Triflusal with Aspirin in the Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events; Α Randomised Clinical Trial.
Comparison of Triflusal with Aspirin in the Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events; Α Randomised Clinical Trial. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2018 Jun 04;: Authors: Kalantzi KI, Ntalas IV, Chantzichristos VG, Tsoumani ME, Adamopoulos D, Asimakopoulos C, Bourdakis A, Darmanis P, Dimitriadou A, Gkiokas S, Ipeirotis K, Kitikidou K, Klonaris I, Kostaki A, Logothetis D, Mainas K, Mais T, Maragiannis A, Martiadou K, Mavronasos K, Michelongonas I, Mitropoulos D, Papadimitriou G, Papadopoulos A, Papaioakeim M, Sofillas K, Stabola S, Stefanakis E, Stergiou D, Thoma M, Zenetos A, Zisekas S, Goudevenos JA, Panagio...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - June 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kalantzi KI, Ntalas IV, Chantzichristos VG, Tsoumani ME, Adamopoulos D, Asimakopoulos C, Bourdakis A, Darmanis P, Dimitriadou A, Gkiokas S, Ipeirotis K, Kitikidou K, Klonaris I, Kostaki A, Logothetis D, Mainas K, Mais T, Maragiannis A, Martiadou K, Mavron Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Aspirin hypersensitivity in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. What should we be doing?
Abstract Aspirin plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) with well recognised benefits of reducing recurrent myocardial infarction and minimising the risk of stent thrombosis for those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Dual antiplatelet therapy is mandated for patients undergoing PCI and typically consists of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist. Aspirin hypersensitivity poses a significant clinical dilemma, as the safety and efficacy of oral antiplatelet combinations that exclude aspirin have not been validated. Although genuine hypersensitivity ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - June 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kassimis G, Raina T, Alexopoulos D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cholesterol subfraction analysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with multi-vessel CAD disease had higher levels of LDL3 subfraction and IDL-C and lower proportion of IDLA. PMID: 29852873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kidawa M, Gluba-Brzozka A, Zielinska M, Franczyk B, Banach M, Rysz J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Switching dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors to tofogliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 improves arterial stiffness evaluated by cardio-ankle vascular index in patients with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that switching DPP-4 inhibitors to tofogliflozin ameliorates arterial stiffness in T2DM patients partly via improvement of liver function. Baseline serum levels of AGEs may identify patients who more improve arterial stiffness by the treatment with tofogliflozin. PMID: 29766812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 15, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tahara N, Yamagish SI, Bekki M, Tahara A, Igata S, Honda A, Sugiyama Y, Nakamura T, Sun J, Kumashiro Y, Matsui T, Fukumoto Y Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis: An Epidemic that will Boost the Incidence of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality.
PMID: 29598814 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Doumas M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical presentation, Quality of care, Risk factors and Outcomes in Women with Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI): An Observational Report from Six Middle Eastern Countries.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Most of the available literature on ST-Elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) in women was conducted in the developed world and data from Middle-East countries was limited. AIM: To examine the clinical presentation, patient management, quality of care, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of women with acute STEMI compared with men using data from a large STEMI registry from the Middle East. METHODS: Data were derived from the third Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-3Ps), a prospective, multinational study of adults with acute STEMI from 36 hospitals in 6 Middle-East...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shehab A, AlHabib KF, Bhagavathul AS, Hersi A, Alfaleh H, Alshamiri MQ, Ullah A, Sulaiman K, Almahmeed W, Al Suwaidi J, Alsheikh-Ali AA, Amin H, Al Jarallah M, Salam AM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Platelet-derived exosomes affect the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells via miR-126.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PLT-EXOs on angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: We evaluated the levels of miR-126 and angiogenic factors in PLT-EXOs from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting. We incubated HUVECs with PLT-EXOs and measured cell proliferation and migration with the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and scratch assay, respectively. We also investigated the expression of miR-126 and angiogenic factors in HUVECs after exposure to PLT-EXOs by western blotting and real-t...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sun Y, Liu XL, Zhang D, Liu F, Cheng YJ, Ma Y, Zhou YJ, Zhao YX Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of Intensive Blood Pressure Control in Patients with Evident Cardiovascular Disease: An investigation using the SPRINT study data.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Recent data advocate adoption of a more intensive treatment strategy for management of blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the overall effects of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) are applicable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. METHOD: In a post-hoc analysis we analyzed data from SPRINT that randomly assigned 9361 individuals to a systolic BP (SBP) target of
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vlachopoulos C, Terentes-Printzios D, Aznaouridis K, Ioakeimidis N, Xaplanteris P, Lazaros G, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of Estrogen in Gender-dependent Fetal Programming of Adult Cardiovascular Dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: These studies suggest that estrogen/ER may contribute to sex differences in cardiovascular response to an adverse intrauterine environment and play a significant role in modulating the cardiovascular response in adulthood. PMID: 29493455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chen Z, Wang L, Ke J, Xiao D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Involvement of PI3K, Akt, and RhoA in oestradiol regulation of cardiac iNOS expression.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Oestradiol is an important regulatory factor with several positive effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. We evaluated the molecular mechanism of the in vivo effects of oestradiol on the regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression and activity. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were treated with oestradiol (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and after 24 h the animals were sacrificed. The concentrations of NO and L-Arginine (L-Arg) were determined spectrophotometrically. For protein expressions of iNOS, p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB-p65), Ras ho...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zafirovic S, Sudar-Milovanovic E, Obradovic M, Djordjevic J, Jasnic N, Borovic ML, Isenovic ER Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Anti-angiogenic activity of curcumin in cancer therapy: a narrative review.
Abstract Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa that has various pharmacological activities, including, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. The anticancer effect of curcumin is attributed to activation of apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, as well as inhibition of inflammation and angiogenesis in the tumour microenvironment and suppression of tumour metastasis. Angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a fundamental step in tumour growth and expansion. Several reports have demonstrated that curcumin inhibits angio...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shakeri A, Ward N, Panahi Y, Sahebkar A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Novel Hypolipidaemic Drugs: Mechanisms Of Action And Main Metabolic Effects.
Abstract Over the last 3 decades, hypolipidaemic treatment has significantly reduced both cardiovascular (CV) risk and events, with statins being the cornerstone of this achievement. Nevertheless, residual CV risk and unmet goals in hypolipidaemic treatment make novel options necessary. Recently marketed monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) have shown the way towards innovation, while other ways of PCSK9 inhibition like small interfering RNA (Inclisiran) are already being tested. Other effective and well tolerated drugs affect known paths of lipid synthesis and metabo...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Filippatos TD, Angelos L, Christopoulou EC, Moses E Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The significance of pain in chronic venous disease and its medical treatment.
Abstract Chronic venous disease (CVeD) is a highly prevalent condition in the general population, and it has a significant impact on quality of life. While it is usually manifested by obvious signs, such as varicose veins and venous ulcers, other symptoms of the disease are less specific. Among the other symptoms, which include heaviness, swelling, muscle cramps and restless legs, pain is the symptom that most frequently compels CVeD patients to seek medical aid. However, there is a substantial discrepancy between pain severity and clinically detectable signs of CVeD, questioned by several opposing studies. Furthe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Radak D, Atanasijevic I, Neskovic M, Isenovic E Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Efficacy of P2Y12 receptor blockers after myocardial infarction and genetic variability of their metabolic pathways.
CONCLUSION: We summarize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of P2Y12 inhibitors with respect to their clinical effects in post-myocardial infarction treatment. PMID: 29412111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Machal J, Hlinomaz O Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Novel direct anticoagulants and atherosclerosis.
Abstract Coagulation factors can affect cellular processes that include inflammatory signaling by acting on endothelial protease activated receptors, vascular smooth muscle and inflammatory cells beyond the coagulation cascade. This is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, experimental data points to beneficial effects of coagulation protease inhibitors on the attenuation of atherosclerosis progression in animal models. However, available clinical data do not support the use of anticoagulants as an add-on treatment of atherosclerosis. New clinical studies are needed with a better selection...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Andrej F, Fajko BF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Screening for rare genetic variants associated with atherosclerosis: opportunity for personalized medicine.
Abstract Atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations is a leading cause of disease burden worldwide. Currently, most of the individuals carrying a strong predisposition to complications of atherosclerosis because of monogenic dyslipidaemias remain undiagnosed and consequently are not given an opportunity for prevention. Therefore, one of the main public health challenges remains the identification of individuals with significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis due to monogenic predisposition. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genetic testing in symptomatic patients. Although new genomic ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Peterlin A, Petrovic D, Peterlin B Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Caveolin-1 in stroke neuropathology and neuroprotection: a novel molecular therapeutic target for ischemic-related injury.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease and associated cerebral stroke are a global epidemic attributed to genetic and epigenetic factors, such as diet, life style and an increasingly sedentary existence due to technological advances in both the developing and developed world. There are approximately 5.9 million stroke-related deaths worldwide annually. Current epidemiological data indicate that nearly 16.9 million people worldwide suffer a new or recurrent stroke yearly. In 2014 alone, 2.4% of adults in the United States (U.S.) were estimated to experience stroke, which is the leading cause of adult disability and the fi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang S, Head BP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Genetic variations and subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Abstract Atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a greater than 10-fold risk of cardiovascular disease in their lifetime. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), a surrogate marker for the presence and progression of atherosclerosis, predicts future cardiovascular events in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This review focuses on genetic variants that contribute to the pathobiology of subclinical atherosclerosis in the setting of T2DM. Specifically, we devoted our attention to well-studi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramus SM, Petrovic D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Prevention of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus patients: focus on the arterial wall.
Abstract In diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance progressively lead to both microvascular and macrovascular complications. Whereas the incidence of microvascular complications is closely related to tight glycaemic control, this does not apply to macrovascular complications. Hyperglycaemia influences many interweaving molecular pathways that initially lead to increased oxidative stress, increased inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The latter represents the initial in both types of vascular complications; it represents the "obligatory damage" in microvascular complications d...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lunder M, Janic M, Sabovic M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Does Perioperative Hemoglobin A1c Level Affect the Incidence, Pattern and Mortality of Lower Extremity Amputation?
Abstract We hypothesized that perioperative HbA1c influenced the pattern and outcomes of lower extremity amputation (LEA). A retrospective analysis was conducted for all patients who underwent LEA between 2000 and 2013. Patients were categorized into 5 groups according to their perioperative HbA1c values [Group 1 (
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 22, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Al-Thani H, El-Matbouly M, Al-Sulaiti M, Al-Thani N, Asim M, El-Menyar A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research