Calcifediol-more than the stepchild of CKD-MBD therapy?
r T Abstract In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and and-stage renal disease (ESRD), 25OH-vitamin D (calcidiol) deficiency or insufficiency are common findings with high prevalence. Numerous epidemiological studies have found an independent association of low levels of calcidiol with increased morbidity and mortality. Within different patient cohorts, application of cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol (native vitamin D) as well as calcifediol can help replenish vitamin D levels in patients with and without renal disease. However, it is unclear if such an approach is effective in modifying relevant clinical...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 16, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Brandenburg VM, Krüger T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Micrornas in Vascular Disease.
PMID: 23713858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maegdefessel L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of microRNA Modulation in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
Abstract MicroRNAs have emerged as key players of gene regulation during development and disease states like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a vascular disease characterized by pulmonary resistance vessel occlusion is not spared by microRNA implication. This is not surprising since PAH shares common aberrantly activated pathways with cancers that lead to proliferation and survival of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, among others, within the artery wall and narrowing the lumen. Recent studies demonstrated the role of miR-204 and miR-206 in pulmonary artery smooth mu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Meloche J, Paulin R, Provencher S, Bonnet S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Modulating microRNAs in Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease.
do CV Abstract Atherosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, characterized by the formation of lipid-laden lesions. The activation of endothelial cells at atherosclerotic lesion-prone sites in the arterial tree results in the up-regulation of cell adhesion molecules and chemokines, which mediate the recruitment of circulating monocytes. Accumulation of monocytes and monocyte-derived phagocytes in the wall of large arteries leads to chronic inflammation and the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The lesion experiences the follo...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Araldi E, Chamorro-Jorganes A, Fernández-Hernando CV Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Modulating MicroRNA in Peripheral Artery Disease.
This article reviews the potential contribution of microRNA to key pathways of disease development in PAD that may lead to microRNA-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID: 23713861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hamburg NM, Leeper NJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Abstract Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an important source of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Treatment options are limited, with open surgery or endovascular repair remaining the only curative treatments. Classical cardiovascular medications have generally failed to prevent or significantly alter AAA formation or progression. Therefore, there is a tremendous need for better therapeutic approaches. With increasing knowledge of microRNA (miR) regulation in the context of cardiovascular disease, and with improving technical options permitting alteration of miR-expression levels in vitro and...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Adam M, Raaz U, Spin JM, Tsao PS Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Angiogenesis-Regulating microRNAs and Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Ischemic stroke is the dominant subtype of stroke and results from focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of major cerebral arteries. Thus, the restoration or improvement of reduced regional cerebral blood supply in a timely manner is very critical for improving stroke outcomes and post-stroke functional recovery. The recovery from ischemic stroke largely relies on appropriate restoration of blood flow via angiogenesis. Newly formed vessels would allow increased cerebral blood flow, thus increasing the amount of oxygen and nutrients delivered ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yin KJ, Hamblin M, Chen YE Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of microRNA-126 in Vascular Homeostasis.
Abstract MicroRNAs are negative regulators of gene expression that have been shown to be essential elements in the coordination of complex regulatory pathways. One of these short non-coding RNAs, microRNA-126, is highly enriched in the vascular endothelium and was shown to play distinct roles in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial inflammation. Abrogation of this microRNA leads to severe complications in the response in vascular development as well as vital repair mechanisms carried out by endothelial cells. Interestingly, recent data suggests that the homeostatic role of microRNA-126 may reach far beyond...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Solingen CV, Bijkerk R, de Boer HC, Rabelink TJ, Zonneveld AJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Effects of PPARγ Agonist on Hemostatic Activation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Pleiotropic Effects of PPARγ Agonist on Hemostatic Activation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2013 May 1;11(3):338-51 Authors: Ferroni P, Della-Morte D, Pileggi A, Riondino S, Rundek T, Ricordi C, Guadagni F Abstract Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) represent a class of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonists widely used as insulin-sensitizers in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The beneficial effects of hypoglycemic drugs, including TZDs, on the hemostatic abnormalities associated to T2DM have been formerly related to improved metabolic control, ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ferroni P, Della-Morte D, Pileggi A, Riondino S, Rundek T, Ricordi C, Guadagni F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial (sulodexide, an old drug with recent renewed interest).
PMID: 23650949 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Andreozzi GM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Prostaglandin Agonist Beraprost Aggravates Doxorubicin-Mediated Apoptosis by Increasing iNOS Expression in Cardiomyocytes.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that BPS or adv-COX-1/PGIS increases PGI2 levels through iNOS expression and peroxynitrite production, via CREB protein phosphorylation; thereby aggravating DOX-mediated cardiotoxicity. PMID: 23628005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lian WS, Chiou HC, Lin H, Chen JJ, Cheng CF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Non Invasive Imaging of Myocardial Infarction with Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance.
Abstract Myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Myocardial infarction may represent a major catastrophic event leading to severe hemodynamic failure or sudden death or it may occur repeatedly in patients with established heart disease. In this context, the role of imaging techniques may become useful for the understanding of the determinants in a preclinical setting before acute coronary events, and for an accurate and correct diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Three-dimensional noninvasive imaging techniques, such as Cardiac CT (CCT) and Cardiac MR imaging (CMR) were widely dev...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Midiri M, La Grutta L, Grassedonio E, Toia P, Guglielmi G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines Response After Myocardial Infarction.
Abstract Oxidative stress in heart failure or during ischemia/reperfusion occurs as a result of the excessive generation or accumulation of free radicals or their oxidation products. Free radicals formed during oxidative stress can initiate lipid peroxidation, oxidize proteins to inactive states and cause DNA strand breaks. Oxidative stress is a condition in which oxidant metabolites exert toxic effects because of their increased production or an altered cellular mechanism of protection. In the early phase of acute heart ischemia cytokines have the feature to be functional pleiotropy and redundancy, moreover, seve...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Neri M, Fineschi V, Di Paolo M, Pomara C, Riezzo I, Turillazzi E, Cerretani D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope, Raman Microscopy and Western Blotting to Evaluate Inflammatory Response After Myocardial Infarction.
Abstract Cardiac muscle necrosis is associated with inflammatory cascade that clears the infarct from dead cells and matrix debris, and then replaces the damaged tissue with scar, through three overlapping phases: the inflammatory phase, the proliferative phase and the maturation phase. Western Blotting, Laser Confocal Microscopy, Raman Microscopy are valuable tools for studying the inflammatory response following myocardial infarction both humoral and cellular phase, allowing the identification and semiquantitative analysis of proteins produced during the inflammatory cascade activation and the topographical dist...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Riezzo I, Cantatore S, De Carlo D, Fiore C, Neri M, Turillazzi E, Fineschi V Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of a New Class of Compounds of the Group of Substituted 5r1, 6h2-1,3,4-Thiadiazine-2-Amines on the Inflammatory and Cytokine Response in Experimental Myocardial Infarction.
This study investigated the effects of the L-17 compound of the group of substituted 5R1, 6H2-1,3,4-thiadiazine-2-amines on the immune response and the plasma level of circulating cytokines in acute myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. The study was based upon experimental work which demonstrated the role of local and systemic inflammatory reactions in MI. Acute MI in rats was induced by left coronary artery coagulation. Histological study of the myocardium sections has been carried out at the 1st and 7th days of the experimental myocardial infarction. Serum activity of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sarapultsev AP, Chupakhin ON, Sarapultsev PC, Rantsev MA, Medvedeva SU, Sidorova LP, Danilova IG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Angiotensin 1-7 Promotes Cardiac Angiogenesis Following Infarction.
Abstract Angiogenesis is central to cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 is significantly increased postMI, which is coincident with activated angiogenesis. The function of ACE2 is to generate angiotensin (Ang)1-7, an active peptide with cellular actions mediated by Mas receptors. The current study is to determine whether Ang(1-7) is involved in cardiac angiogenesis and facilitates cardiac repair. In the first portion of the study, the temporal expressions of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptors were detected in rats with MI. In the second portion, MI rats wer...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhao W, Zhao T, Chen Y, Sun Y Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Role of Innate Immune System in Inflammation and Cardiac Remodeling After Myocardial Infarction.
Abstract The innate immune system is well recognized as the first line defense of foreign pathogens; however, it can also recognize endogenous signals released from injured tissues and induce sterile inflammation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs) have been identified as its receptors, and they have been shown to play a key role in the disease processes of sterile inflammation, including myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, NLRs are the key components of the caspase-1 activating platform known as the "inflammasome" which produces the potent proinflammatory cytokine interleuki...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Takahashi M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Meaning of Different Forms of Structural Myocardial Injury, Immune Response and Timing of Infarct Necrosis And Cardiac Repair.
Abstract Although a decline in the all-cause and cardiac mortality rates following myocardial infarction (MI) during the past 3 decades has been reported, myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. From a pathological point of view MI consists in a particular myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischemia. After the onset of myocardial ischemia, cell death is not immediate, but takes a finite period of time to develop. Once complete myocytes' necrosis has occurred, a process leading to a healed infarction takes place. In fact, myocardial infarction is a dynamic process that begins w...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Turillazzi E, Pomara C, Bello S, Neri M, Riezzo I, Turillazzi VF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Changing Face of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in The Light of Current Knowledge.
PMID: 23627974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ertek S, Banach M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Insulin Resistance, Small LDL Particles, and Risk for Atherosclerotic Disease.
Abstract There is a global epidemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance (IR) is etiologic for both metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. IR induces a broad range of toxic systemic effects, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, increased production of advanced glycosylation end products, increased inflammatory tone, as well as a prothrombotic and pro-oxidative state. Patients with IR are highly vulnerable to the development of accelerated atherosclerosis as well its clinical sequelae, including coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, carotid artery...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Toth PP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Is There U Turn From Insulin Back to Pills in Diabetes?
Abstract Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance together with progressive loss of beta-cell function. After recognition of gluco- and lipo-toxicity, attention was focused on the preservation and/or restoration of beta cell function, especially at the early stages of the diabetes, with better beta-cell reserve and in the absence of complications. Early treatment of glucotoxicity with insulin was searched by early insulin treatment studies, and these studies have some promising results, pointing the possibility of ''remission'' of diabetes in some patients. According to the results of these studies, ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ertek S, Cetinkalp S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Controversies on HDL: Should it Be a Target Biomarker in Patients With Lipid Disorders?
Abstract LDL cholesterol lowering with statins have had a profound impact on cardiovascular (CV) event rates and accordingly have become an integral component of strategies designed to reduce CV risk. The finding of a residual clinical risk, despite LDL cholesterol lowering, supports the need to develop additional therapeutic strategies for CV prevention. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that targeting the protective properties of HDL may be beneficial. Disappointing results from recent reports of HDL genetics and raising agents and clinical events has fueled considerable debate as towhether attempts to target H...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nicholls S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Prediabetes, Prehypertension- Do We Need Pre-ckd?
Abstract Screening is the systematic use of a test for a health problem or risk factor when no recognized signs or symptoms would indicate the presence of that problem or risk factor. Abnormal glucose metabolism can be documented years before the onset of overt diabetes. Nowadays, prediabetes can be subdivided into impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Substantial number of subjects with either will progress to overt diabetes within years. Prediabetes bears also the increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Prehypertension is much newer term introduced by the seventh report of the Joint Nat...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Malyszko J, Banach M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Uric Acid Metabolism in Pre-Hypertension and The Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract In humans uric acid (UA) is the end product of degradation of purines. The handling of UA by the renal system is a complex process which is not fully understood. To date, several urate transporters in the renal proximal tubule have been identified. Among them, urate transporter 1 (URAT1) and a glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9) are considered of greater importance, as potential targets for treatment of hyperuricemia and the potential associated cardio-metabolic risk. Therefore, the recognition of the metabolic pathway of UA and elucidation of occurrence of hyperuricemia may provide important insights about the...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rizzo M, Obradovic M, Labudovic-Borovic M, Nikolic D, Montalto G, Rizvi AA, Mikhailidis DP, Isenovic ER Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Recommendations for Severe Hypertriglyceridemia Treatment, are There New Strategies?
Abstract This review considers drug combinations and newer treatment strategies for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an atherogenic metabolic profile and in most studies with increased CVD risk. Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia also have increased incidence of pancreatitis. All types of severe hypertriglyceridemia are associated with a reduction in lipoprotein lipase activity. Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and abdominal pain or pancreatitis should be hospitalized and treated with hypolipidemic drugs and, if needed, with insulin/dextrose infusio...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Filippatos TD, Elisaf MS Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Insulin Resistance in Brain and Possible Therapeutic Approaches.
Abstract Although the brain has long been considered an insulin-independent organ, recent research has shown that insulin has significant effects on the brain, where it plays a role in maintaining glucose and energy homeostasis. To avoid peripheral insulin resistance, the brain may act via hypoinsulinemic responses, maintaining glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity within its own confines; however, brain insulin resistance may develop due to environmental factors. Insulin has two important functions in the brain: controlling food intake and regulating cognitive functions, particularly memory. Notably, defects...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cetinkalp S, Simsir IY, Ertek S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Characteristics Other Than the Diagnostic Criteria Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: an Overview.
Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of dyslipidaemia, central obesity, hypertension and/or insulin resistance, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) type 2 diabetes risk. Different diagnostic criteria for MetS have been proposed but in 2009 a joint statement by several scientific societies was released. Apart from the diagnostic criteria, MetS has also been associated with other risk factors including waist to hip ratio, high density lipoprotein dysfunction, small dense low density lipoprotein, postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia, lipoprotein (a), uric acid, liver function tests, proth...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katsiki N, Athyros VG, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nutraceuticals for Metabolic Syndrome Management: from Laboratory to Benchside.
Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a world-wide epidemic disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic methods, with varying degrees of success rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical interest in this field is growing, together with patients requests' for supplementary (or "alternative") treatments. The knowledge of nutraceuticals beneficial effects in subjects with the MetS could help us to better define the appropriate treatment for these subjects, in particular those with contraindications for commonly used drugs, or to a...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cicero AF, Tartagni E, Ertek S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Patients with Prehypertension-Do We Have Enough Evidence to Treat Them?
Abstract In 2003, the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure established a definition of a new category of BP levels called 'prehypertension'(preHT) that included individuals with a systolic BP of 120-139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80-89 mm Hg. Patients with preHT were considered to be at increased risk for progression to hypertension and in individuals with BP in the range 130/80 to 139/89 mmHg the risk of developing hypertension was twice as high as in subjects with lower values. Still then there has been a large debate whether th...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Michalska M, Zanchetti A, Wong ND, Malyszko J, Rysz J, Banach M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Exploring In-hospital Death from Myocardial Infarction in Eastern Europe; From the International Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Transitional Countries (ISACS-TC); on the behalf of the Working Group on Coronary Pathophysiology & Microcirculation of the European Society of Cardiology.
Conclusion: In-hospital STEMI case-fatality rates ranges widely in the former Eastern Bloc countries. Beyond the quality of care provided in hospitals, differences in time delay from symptoms onset to hospital admission may strongly influence STEMI patients' outcome. PMID: 23607683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 22, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bugiardini R, Manfrini O, Majstorovic Stakic M, Cenko E, Boytsov S, Merkely B, Becker D, Dilić M, Vasiljević Z, Koller A, Badimon L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular dysfunction in sepsis: from basic mechanisms to clinical management.
PMID: 23506490 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liaudet L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Host innate immune responses to microbial pathogens.
Abstract Sepsis is among the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is increasing. Defined as the host response to infection, sepsis is a clinical syndrome considered to be the expression of a dysregulated immune reaction induced by danger signals that may lead to organ failure and death. Remarkable progresses have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of host defenses in recent years. The host defense response is initiated by innate immune sensors of danger signals designated under the collective name of pattern-recognition receptors. Members of the family of microbial sensors include...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Delaloye J, Calandra T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The hemodynamics of septic shock: a historical perspective.
Abstract In the late 19th century, it was already known that severe infections could be associated with cardiovascular collapse, a fact essentially attributed to cardiac failure. A major experimental work in the rabbit, published by Romberg and Pässler in 1899, shifted attention to disturbed peripheral vascular tone as the mechanism of hypotension in these conditions. In the first half of the 20th century, great progresses were made in the pathophysiologic understanding of hemorrhagic and traumatic shocks, while researchers devoted relatively little attention to septic shock. Progress in the hemodynamic under...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Feihl F, Waeber B, Liaudet L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of vascular hyporesponsiveness in septic shock.
Conclusion: In animal models, several therapeutic approaches, targeted on one particular compound have proven their efficacy in preventing or reversing vascular hyporesponsiveness to catecholamines. Unfortunately, none have been successfully tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, very high doses of catecholamines (> 5 μg/kg/min), hydrocortisone, terlipressin or vasopressin could represent an alternative for the treatment of refractory septic shock. PMID: 23506493 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kimmoun A, Ducrocq N, Levy B Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endothelial dysfunction in sepsis.
ani F Abstract The endothelium takes part in the regulation of numerous physiological functions and lies at the interface of circulating blood and the vessel wall. Under physiological conditions, it is responsible for anticoagulant and anti-adhesive properties, and it regulates vasomotor tone and vascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with many pathophysiological processes, such as inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Endothelial cells are precociously exposed to circulating signaling molecules and physical stresses, like in sepsis and septic shock. Septic shock is associ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Boisramé-Helms J, Kremer H, Schini-Kerth V, Meziani F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Microcirculation in sepsis: new perspectives.
Abstract Microcirculatory dysfunction has been recently recognized as a key pathophysiologic process in the evolution of sepsis. In the present review, we discuss fundamental aspects of microcirculatory abnormalities during septic shock, including pathogenic mechanisms, technological assessment, clinical correlates and potential therapies. The most important function of the microcirculation is the regulation and distribution of flow within the different organs. In septic shock, microcirculatory dysfunction may arise as a result of several factors such as endothelial dysfunction, leukocyte-endothelium interactions,...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hernandez G, Bruhn A, Ince C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Brain perfusion in sepsis.
Abstract Brain dysfunction is a frequent complication of sepsis, usually defined as "sepsis-associated encephalopathy" (SAE). Its pathophysiology is complex and related to numerous processes and pathways, while the exact mechanisms producing neurological impairment in septic patients remain incompletely elucidated. Alterations of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) may represent a key component for the development of SAE. Reduction of CBF may be caused by cerebral vasoconstriction, either induced by inflammation or hypocapnia. Endothelial dysfunction associated with sepsis leads to impairment of microcirculati...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Taccone FS, Scolletta S, Franchi F, Donadello K, Oddo M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The heart in sepsis: from basic mechanisms to clinical management.
Abstract Septic shock is characterized by circulatory compromise, microcirculatory alterations and mitochondrial damage, which all reduce cellular energy production. In order to reduce the risk of major cell death and a diminished likelihood of recovery, adaptive changes appear to be activated. As a result, cells and organs may survive in a non-functioning hibernation-like condition. Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction may represent an example of such functional shutdown. Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction is common, corresponds to the severity of sepsis, and is reversible in survivors. Its mechanisms include th...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rudiger A, Singer M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Role of peroxynitrite in the cardiovascular dysfunction of septic shock.
Abstract The intense systemic inflammatory response characterizing septic shock is associated with an increased generation of free radicals by multiple cell types in cardiovascular and non cardiovascular tissues. The oxygen-centered radical superoxide anion (O2 .-) rapidly reacts with the nitrogen-centered radical nitric oxide (NO.) to form the potent oxidant species peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite oxidizes multiple targets molecules, either directly or via the secondary generation of highly reactive radicals, resulting in significant alterations in lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, with significant cytotoxic conse...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Liaudet L, Rosenblatt-Velin N, Pacher P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Potential role of hydrogen sulfide in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction in septic shock.
Abstract Various forms of circulatory shock (including septic shock) lead to an impairment of vascular function, which importantly contributes to the development of multiple organ failure and mortality. Such dysfunction of blood vessels consists of two principal components: vascular smooth muscle (VSM) dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction. The VSM dysfunction (progressive, therapy-resistant loss of VSM responsiveness to vasoconstrictor catecholamines, such as noradrenaline) leads to a progressive deterioration of blood pressure in patients with circulatory shock. The endothelial dysfunction (loss of the abilit...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Coletta C, Szabo C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical management of the cardiovascular failure in sepsis.
Abstract Cardiovascular failure in sepsis involves a combination of hypovolemia, decreased vascular tone, myocardial depression and microcirculatory alterations. Fluids represent the first line therapeutic intervention, with controversy regarding the type of fluid. Recent data indicate that albumin is safe and might even be beneficial in specific subgroups. Starches may be an alternative, although concerns exist on potential detrimental effects on renal function of old generation starches. Trials testing new generation starches are ongoing. When fluids fail to correct hypotension, vasopressor agents are used. Vari...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: De Backer D, Scolletta S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The challenge of microvascular obstruction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
PMID: 23506501 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Niccoli G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Microvascular obstruction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention: pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognostic significance.
Abstract The primary goal in reopening an infarct-related artery is the restoration of myocardial tissue-level perfusion. In a variable proportion of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, however, microcirculatory impairment may persist after epicardial coronary artery recanalization. This phenomenon is known as microvascular obstruction (MVO). Ischemic injury, reperfusion injury, and distal embolization along with the individual response to each of these mechanisms are variably involved in the pathogenesis of MVO in the single patient. Importantly, MVO is associated with a worse prognosis both at shor...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Niccoli G, Cosentino N, Minelli S, Cataneo L, Crea F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Myocardial 'no-reflow' prevention.
Abstract Despite achievement of optimal epicardial coronary flow in the majority of patients treated for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), myocardial no-reflow is a common phenomenon occurring in 5 to 50% of patients. The no-reflow phenomenon is a predictor of infarct size and an independent predictor of mortality both in the short and long term. Prevention of no-reflow is therefore a crucial step in improving prognosis of patients with STEMI. Several strategies including pharmacological and mechanical ones have been developed to improve microv...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Magro M, Springeling T, van Geuns RJ, Zijlstra F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Myocardial no-reflow treatment.
Abstract No-reflow phenomenon is a consequence of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) which arises most of the time in the setting of myocardial infarction, but can be also the consequence of PCI in stable angina patients (rotatablator ablation technique or angioplasty in saphenous vein grafts). In this review, we summarize two ways of treating the no-reflow according to the current literature. First through the pharmacological approach where several compounds have been assessed like adenosine, nitroprusside, verapamil, nicorandil, dipyridamole, epinephrine or cyclosporine. Second through the mechanical appro...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Muller O, Trana C, Eeckhout E Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: avenue to arteriogenesis.
PMID: 23391416 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Deindl E, Schaper W Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The temporal and spatial distribution of macrophage subpopulations during arteriogenesis.
Abstract Chronic arterial occlusion leads to growth of collaterals - a process termed arteriogenesis, in which macrophages play a prominent role in remodelling and growth. However, a detailed analysis which of distinct macrophage subpopulations involved in arteriogenesis has never been performed. In the present study the temporal and spatial distribution of macrophage subtypes during arteriogenesis in a rat model with chronically elevated fluid shear stress (FSS) is investigated. Local macrophage subpopulations were histologically immuno-phenotyped using CD68 (a ubiquitous macrophage marker) and CD163, a specific ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Troidl C, Jung G, Troidl K, Hoffmann J, Mollmann H, Nef H, Schaper W, Hamm CW, Schmitz-Rixen T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Distinct CD44 Splice Variants Differentially Affect Collateral Artery Growth.
Conclusion: Total CD44 and CD44v3 mRNA are upregulated during arteriogenesis. The absence of the variably spliced exon region impairs arteriogenesis. Presence of exon v3 of CD44 results in improved arteriogenesis. Expression of CD44s and CD44v3 provides a synergistic effect on arteriogenesis. As this combined expression still resulted in hampered arteriogenesis, a specific role of exon v2 in arteriogenesis appears likely. PMID: 23391418 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bot PT, Grundmann S, van Royen N, Joosten SP, Schirmer SH, de Kleijn DP, Pals ST, Pasterkamp G, Piek JJ, Hoefer IE Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

CD26 Inhibition Enhances Perfusion Recovery in ApoE-/-Mice.
Abstract Objective: The adaptive growth of blood vessels is important to prevent tissue loss following arterial occlusion. Extravasation of monocytes is essential for this process. The peptidase CD26 targets SDF-1 alpha, a chemokine regulating monocyte trafficking. We hypothesized that blocking SDF-1 alpha inactivation, using a commercially available CD26 inhibitor, accelerates perfusion recovery without detrimental side effects on plaque stability. Methods and Results: Atherosclerosis prone ApoE-/- mice underwent femoral artery ligation and received a CD26 inhibitor or placebo. CD26 inhibition increased short ter...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Haverslag RT, de Groot D, Grundmann S, Meder B, Goumans MJ, Pasterkamp G, Hoefer IE, de Kleijn DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Angiogenetic potential of ad2/hif-1α/vp16 after regional application in a preclinical pig model of chronic ischemia.
Conclusion: Retroinfusion of Ad2/Hif-1α/VP16, combining a master pro-angiogenic protein with regional myocardial application, may offer an efficient approach to cardiac gene therapy of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID: 23391420 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hinkel R, Lebherz C, Fydanaki M, Wuchrer A, El-Aouni C, Thormann M, Thein E, Kupatt C, Boekstegers P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research