Metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors.
This article reviews the evidence that demonstrates that individuals with the MetS are at increased risk for CVD incidence and mortality and discusses these debated issues. PMID: 24484465 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Papakonstantinou E, Lambadiari V, Dimitriadis G, Zampelas A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: atrial fibrillation after coronary surgery: the need for an effective pharmacological prophylaxis.
PMID: 24484466 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mariscalco G, Banach M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antiplatelets in stroke prevention.
Abstract Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide and one of the leading cause of disability. Due to the high rate of recurrence, in high risk-patients (eg patients affected by atherosclerotic vascular disease), long-term antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of vascular events such as non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or vascular death. The percentage of reduction of the events can be estimated in approximately 25%. These data justify the directions that are given to us by the current guidelines for prevention of secondary stroke, which recommend the broad use of antiplatelet therapy both fo...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pinto A, Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Butta C, Licata G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Risk and benefit of statins in stroke secondary prevention.
Abstract Statin is now recommended in secondary prevention after stroke or transient ischemic attacks to reduce the risk of a new stroke or major cardiovascular events. However, some issues about the extent of the benefit in some stroke patients and the risk of cerebral hemorrhage remain debated. This review shows that statins are significantly effective in decreasing the risk of further strokes despite an increase in the risk of brain hemorrhage. A significant benefit was observed in men and women, in aged patients and possibly to a greater extent in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Intensive statin therapy...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laloux P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antivitamin k drugs in stroke prevention.
Abstract Among the different subtypes of ischaemic strokes, almost 20 % are of cardiac origin. Different are the causes of cardioembolic stroke, but the most common is the atrial fibrillation, a supraventricular arrhythmia. Appropriate use of antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke depends on whether the underlying cause is cardioembolic or of presumed arterial origin. Adequate antiplatelet therapy is recommended for secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia of presumed arterial origin, whether for patients with TIA and ischaemic stroke of cardiac origin...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Butta C, Lucifora B, Licata G, Pinto A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Stroke Subtypes and their Possible Implication in Stroke Prevention Drug Strategies.
Abstract Thrombotic strokes can affect large or small arteries in the brain. Drugs to prevent atherosclerosis complication such as thrombotic strokes, should be drugs able to prevent the accumulation of intravascular fat, reduce vascular proliferation, decrease blood pressure levels with the resulting shear stress, reduce platelet aggregation, and possibly partially or totally reverse carotid plaques. Any of the commonly used antihypertensive drugs lower the incidence of stroke, with larger reductions in BP resulting in larger reductions in risk. Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing the activity of...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tuttolomondo A, Pecoraro R, Di Raimondo D, Arnao V, Clemente G, Corte VD, Maida C, Simonetta I, Licata G, Pinto A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Centenarian Offspring: a model for Understanding Longevity.
Abstract A main objective of current medical research is the improving of life quality of elderly people as priority of the continuous increase of ageing population. This phenomenon implies several medical, economic and social problems because of dramatic increase in number of not autonomous individuals affected by various pathologies. Accordingly, the research interest is focused on understanding the biological mechanisms involved in determining the positive ageing phenotype, i.e. the centenarian phenotype. In achieving this goal the choice of an appropriate study models is fundamental. Centenarians have been use...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Balistreri CR, Accardi G, Buffa S, Bulati M, Martorana A, Candore G, Colonna-Romano G, Lio D, Caruso C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Telomeres and their Role in Aging and Longevity.
Abstract Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that form protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. They constitute the safeguards of chromosome degradation and are responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. The multifactorial nature of telomere length (TL) regulation increases the perplexity of studies in the field. TL is characterized by a high variability among individuals (birth and later life) and among species but it is unknown whether this is associated with their lifespan potential. TL is also highly heritable, longer in women than in men; it is highly variable between tissues and organs and...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tzanetakou IP, Nzietchueng R, Perrea DN, Benetos A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Mediterranean Diet And Longevity: An Example Of Nutraceuticals?
Abstract The Mediterranean diet (Mediet) is an eating pattern characterizing a lifestyle and culture that has been reported to contribute to better health and quality of life. The Mediet reflects food patterns typical of Mediterranean regions, where olive oil plays an essential role in the food pyramid. Olive oil is located in the middle and it is considered the principal source of dietary fat because of its high nutritional quality (particularly extra virgin olive oil). Several studies have shown the effect of the Mediet on healthy status by lowering the rates of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and some ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vasto S, Barera A, Rizzo C, Carlo MD, Caruso C, Panotopoulos G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Genes Of Human Longevity: An Endless Quest?
Abstract Human longevity is a complex trait which genetics, epigenetics, environmental and stochasticity differently contribute to. To disentangle the complexity, our studies on genetics of longevity were, at the beginning, mainly focused on the extreme phenotypes, i.e. centenarians who escaped the major age-related diseases compared with cross sectional cohorts. Recently, we implemented this model by studying centenarians' offspring and offspring of non-long lived parents. In association studies on candidate genes many SNPs, positively or negatively correlated with longevity have been identified. The results obta...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Capri M, Santoro A, Garagnani P, Bacalini MG, Pirazzini C, Olivieri F, Procopio A, Salvioli S, Franceschi C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Phenotypes and Genotypes of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Exceptional Longevity.
Abstract A change in the lipoprotein profile is a metabolic hallmark of aging and has been the target for modern medical developments. Although pharmaceutical interventions aimed at lipid lowering substantially decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, they have much less impact on mortality and longevity. Moreover, they have not affected death from other age-related diseases. In this review we focus on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the levels of which are either elevated or do not decrease as would be expected with aging in centenarians, and which are associated with lower prevalence of numerous ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Milman S, Atzmon G, Crandall J, Barzilai N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ageing, Longevity, Exceptional Longevity and Related Genetic and non Genetics Markers: Panel Statement.
Abstract In May 2012, a group of scientists and clinicians met in Athens (Greece) to consider the relevance of ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetic markers. During this meeting, we firstly reviewed recent epidemiological and clinical studies on ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, briefly analysed the ageing theories and discussed successful and unsuccessful ageing also taking into account the evolutionary perspective. Secondly, we considered the three phenotypes based on the definition of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity and the associated biomarkers. Thi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Avery P, Barzilai N, Benetos A, Bilianou H, Capri M, Caruso C, Franceschi C, Katsiki N, Mikhailidis DP, Panotopoulos G, Sikora E, Tzanetakou IP, Kolovou G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Challenges in Moving from Ageing to Successful Longevity.
Abstract During the last decades survival has significantly improved and centenarians are becoming a fast-growing group of the population. Human life span is mainly dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Favourable modifications of lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity, diet and not smoking) and healthcare (e.g. effective vascular disease prevention) have also increased human life span. Genetic factors contribute to the variation of human life span by around 25%, which is believed to be more profound after 85 years of age. It is likely that multiple factors influence life span and we need answers to q...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kolovou G, Barzilai N, Caruso C, Sikora E, Capri M, Tzanetakou IP, Bilianou H, Avery P, Katsiki N, Panotopoulos G, Franceschi C, Benetos A, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ageing Mechanisms and Associated Lipid Changes.
Abstract Ageing is related to slowdown/breakdown of the somatotropic axis (i.e. the somatopause) leading to many physiological changes. The somatopause is accompanied by DNA and other macromolecule damage, and is characterized by a progressive decline in vitality and tissue function. We still do not have a definitive understanding of the mechanism(s) of ageing. Several overlapping theories have been proposed such as: 1) The free radical theory, 2) Mitochondrial Ageing, 3) The Glycation Theory, 4) Protein Damage and Maintenance in Ageing, and, 5) DNA Damage and Repair. Furthermore, several models of ageing were int...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kolovou G, Katsiki N, Pavlidis A, Bilianou H, Goumas G, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cellular Senescence in Ageing, Age-Related Disease and Longevity.
Abstract Cellular senescence is the state of permanent inhibition of cell proliferation. Senescent cells are characterized by several features including increased activity of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-GAL) and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). In vitro 2 types of senescence have been described. One is telomere-dependent replicative senescence and the second is stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Despite some tissue-specific characteristics many kinds of cells, including stem/progenitor cells, can undergo senescence both in vitro and in vivo. Senescent cells were ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sikora E, Bielak-Zmijewska A, Mosieniak G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Association Between Genetic Variations In The Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor (Igf-1) Signaling Pathway And Longevity: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Some studies have shown that polymorphisms in the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway genes could influence human longevity. However, the results of different studies are often inconsistent. Our aim was to investigate by systematic review and meta-analysis the association of the common polymorphisms defining the genetic variability of the IGF-1 signaling pathway associated with human longevity. Eleven studies investigating the association between the polymorphisms in the IGF-1 signaling pathway genes (IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), Forkhead box O3A (FOXO3A) and Silent mating type informatio...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Di Bona D, Accardi G, Virruso C, Candore G, Caruso C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Association of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Levels with Hypertensive Albuminuria.
This study evaluated the relationship between sRAGE concentrations and urinary albumin excretion in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: A total of 200 consecutive patients with essential hypertension were enrolled and were divided into 3 groups. Results: Plasma sRAGE levels were significantly lower in hypertensive patients with micro- or macroalbuminuria compared with those in hypertensive patients with normoalbuminuria, and the values in the macroalbuminuria group were even lower than in the microalbuminuria group (128.6±24.2, 244.6±37.6,313.6±30.7 pg/ml, respectively). In addition, plasma...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 9, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zheng H, Yuan L, Xie N, Xu H, Xie X, Luo M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of Vitamin D in Atherosclerosis Inflammation Revisited: More a Bystander than a Player?
Abstract Levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] are reported to be decreased in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and in other chronic immunopathologies. Vitamin D (vitD) has been shown to be significantly linked to mortality, and is thought to be a predictor of survival. Therefore, supplementation with vitD has been suggested as an option to improve clinical outcomes. In contrast to the causal assumption, we hypothesize that the decreased vitD levels, seen in patients with CVD and chronic immunopathologies is secondary to inflammation and not as pathophysiologically relevant as currently suggested. Under these condi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 9, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mangge H, Weghuber D, Prassl R, Haara A, Schnedl W, Postolache TT, Fuchs D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Sulodexide Down-Regulates the Release of Cytokines, Chemokines, and Leukocyte Colony Stimulating Factors from Human Macrophages: Role of Glycosaminoglycans in Inflammatory Pathways of Chronic Venous Disease.
Abstract Chronic venous disease (CVeD) is a debilitating condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. The condition can result in varicose veins, or advance to severe skin changes and venous ulceration. The fundamental basis for CVeD is inflammation within the venous circulation and that it is subjected to increased hydrostatic pressure resulting in increased ambulatory venous pressure. The inflammation involves leukocytes, in particular macrophages and monocytes, inflammatory modulators and chemokines, cytokine expression, growth factors, metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and many regulatory pathways...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 26, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mannello F, Ligi D, Canale M, Raffetto JD Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

EDITORIAL: Nutritional Therapy in Metabolic Syndrome.
PMID: 24168439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Perez-Martinez P, Lopez-Miranda J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors.
This article reviews the evidence that demonstrates that individuals with the MetS are at increased risk for CVD incidence and mortality and discusses these debated issues. PMID: 24168440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Papakonstantinou E, Lambadiari V, Dimitriadis G, Zampelas A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Syndrome: Dietary Modulation.
inahones FJ Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. MetS has become a serious public health and clinical problem whose prevalence and incidence are increasing along with the worldwide rise in rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles. A number of studies have shown that MetS is associated with a state of low-grade inflammation, cha...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fernández-García JC, Cardona F, Tinahones FJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Dietary Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in ¬Metabolic Syndrome.
Dietary Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in ¬Metabolic Syndrome. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2013 Oct 30; Authors: Bulló M, Cózar-Torrell P, Salas-Salvadó J Abstract Diet and lifestyle are major modifiable determinants of inflammation, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia, glucose metabolism and central obesity and should be targeted for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome. As insulin resistance, raised fasting and postprandial insulin levels, impaired carbohydrate tolerance and, ultimately, diabetes (all components of the metabolic syndrome) have been related to incr...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bulló M, Cózar-Torrell P, Salas-Salvadó J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diet and Metabolic Syndrome: An Overview.
Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex multifactorial disorder and its incidence is on the increase worldwide. Due to the definitive link between obesity and the MetS weight loss strategies are of prime importance in halting the spread of MetS. Numerous epidemiological studies provide evidence linking dietary patterns to incidence of MetS symptoms. As a consequence of the epidemiology studies, dietary intervention studies which analyse the effects of supplementing diets with particular nutrients of interest on the symptoms of the MetS have been conducted. Evidence has shown that lifestyle intervention...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Keane D, Kelly S, Healy NP, McArdle MA, Holohan K, Roche HM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Relevance of Postprandial Lipemia in Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined by the aggregation of interconnected cardiometabolic risk factors which increase the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease (CVD). MetS is currently a matter of concern and it will continue to be in the future, since there is likely to be a dramatic increase in its prevalence, and subjects with MetS will run an increased risk of mortality, mainly through CVD. Moreover, the implications on the global health burden and the worldwide epidemic of this complex disorder will impact greatly on socioeconomic cost. MetS is therefore a mat...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Garcia-Rios A, Delgado-Lista J, Perez-Martinez P, Delgado-Casado N, Perez-Jimenez F, Lopez-Miranda J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hemostatic Factors and the Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of both atherothrombotic cardiovascular events and venous thromboembolism. The pro-thrombotic potential of MetS, may explain this association. In this review we discuss the relationship of MetS with hemostasis focusing on endothelial function, platelet activity, coagulation, fibrinolysis and hemorheologic markers. Endothelial-dependent vasodilatation is impaired in MetS. This is mostly mediated by a reduced expression of vasodilators (nitric oxide and prostacyclin) with a concomitant increase of vasoconstrictors (endothelin-1, angiotensin II and ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kostapanos M, Florentin M, Elisaf MS, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Adipobiology for Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Metabolic Syndrome.
S, Vázquez-Martínez R, Peinado JR Abstract Obesity is dramatically increasing virtually worldwide, which has been linked to the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Excess fat accumulation causes severe alterations in adipose tissue function. Actually, adipose tissue is now recognized as a major endocrine and secretory organ that releases a wide variety of signaling molecules (hormones, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, etc.), the adipokines, which play central roles in the regulation of energy metabolism and homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. In addition, adipose tissue is no longer re...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Malagón MM, Díaz-Ruiz A, Guzmán-Ruiz R, Jiménez-Gómez Y, Moreno NR, García-Navarro S, Vázquez-Martínez R, Peinado JR Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nutrigenetics, Metabolic Syndrome Risk and Personalized Nutrition.
Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic risk factors reflecting overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle and its prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. The importance of MetS lies in its close association with the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In this scenario, the principal goals of pharmacological therapy for these patients are to achieve and maintain an optimal cardiometabolic control, including lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure; in order to prevent and treat potential complications. Moreover nutrition has commonly been accepted as...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Perez-Martinez P, Phillips CM, Delgado-Lista J, Garcia-Rios A, Lopez-Miranda J, Perez-Jimenez F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vitamin D and the Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract Vitamin D is essential in bone mineralization and calcium homeostasis, and an increasing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D may be important for maintaining extraskeletal health, including having beneficial effects on cardiometabolic outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread, but the role of vitamin D in the metabolic syndrome is not fully elucidated. In this review we summarize data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials on the relation between vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome and its components. A large number of observational studies suggest a relationship between low ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 29, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: L Gulseth H, M F Gjelstad I, I Birkeland K, A Drevon C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Commentary on the Special Issue on the Impact of Myogenic tone in Health and Disease.
PMID: 24066930 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Roman RJ, Van Dokkum RP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Altered Renal Microvascular Function in Type 1 Diabetes: Potential Contribution to End Organ Damage.
Abstract Although diabetes mellitus is the primary cause of end stage renal disease, the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diabetic nephropathy are not well understood. The widely accepted opinion holds that events occurring early during the course of diabetes engender the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic hyperglycemia exerts an array of direct and indirect influences on the renal preglomerular microvasculature, as well as on glomeruli and tubular epithelial cells. Although the scope of these effects is not yet fully recognized, alterations in the myogenic and tubuloglomerular fe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carmines PK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Myogenic Tone as a Therapeutic Target for Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Ischemic stroke causes vascular paralysis and impaired autoregulation in the brain, the degree of which is dependent on the depth and duration of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Ischemic stroke also impairs myogenic response of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) that may be an underlying mechanism by which autoregulation is impaired. Myogenic responses are affected by I/R through several mechanisms, including production of peroxynitrite, depolymerization of F-actin in vascular smooth muscle, and circulating vasoactive factors. The vascular endothelium is also significantly affected during focal ischemia that ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Palomares SM, Cipolla MJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Renal Blood Flow Dynamics in Inbred Ratstrains Provide Insight Into Autoregulation.
Abstract Renal autoregulation maintains stable renal blood flow in the face of constantly fluctuating blood pressure. Autoregulation is also the only mechanism that protects the delicate glomerular capillaries when blood pressure increases. In order to understand autoregulation, the renal blood flow response to changing blood pressure is studied. The steady-state response of blood flow is informative, but limits investigation of the individual mechanisms of autoregulation. The dynamics of autoregulation can be probed with transfer function analysis. The frequency-domain analysis of autoregulation allows investigat...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mitrou NG, Cupples WA Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endogenous Events Modulating Myogenic Regulation of Cerebrovascular Function.
Abstract The existence of arterial myogenic tone was first described by Bayliss in 1902, however, its association with pressure-dependent membrane depolarization was not observed until 1984. The factors that mediate myogenic arterial constriction remain unknown. One possible clue was a finding by our laboratory that cerebral arterial muscle cells express CYP 4A ω-hydroxylase enzymes that catalyzes the formation of the potent vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) from arachidonic acid (AA), the production of which increased by elevations of intravascular pressure. 20-HETE activates protein...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gebremedhin D, Gopalakrishnan S, Harder DR Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

P2 Receptors in Renal Autoregulation.
Abstract Autoregulation of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate is an essential function of the renal microcirculation. While the existence of this phenomenon has been known for many years, the exact mechanisms that underlie this regulatory system remain poorly understood. The work of many investigators has provided insights into many aspects of the autoregulatory mechanism, but many critical components remain elusive. This review is intended to update the reader on the role of P2 purinoceptors as a postulated mechanism responsible for renal autoregulatory resistance adjustments. It will summarize recen...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guan Z, Fellner RC, Beusecum JV, Inscho EW Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Myogenic Properties Of Brain And Cardiac Vessels And Their Relation To Disease.
Abstract Intrinsic arterial myogenic function comprises the degree of constriction (myogenic tone), the arterial constriction to an increase in intraluminal pressure and vice versa (myogenic response), and forced dilation at high intraluminal pressure. Although the development of myogenic tone at 40-60 mmHg involves the influx of calcium (Ca2+) through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and an elevation in arterial intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i), myogenic responses between 60-140 mmHg involves predominantly Rho kinase (ROK)-mediated changes in Ca2+ sensitivity. In the cerebral circulation an impaired myogenic response re...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Izzard AS, Heagerty AM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vildagliptin restores renal myogenic function and attenuates renal sclerosis independently of effects on blood glucose or proteinuria in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rat.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is associated with a decrease in renal myogenic tone - part of renal autoregulatory mechanisms. Novel class of drugs used for the treatment of T2DM, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, have protective effects on the cardiovascular system. A Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat is an animal model of T2DM that displays progressive nephropathy in which inflammation leads to initiation of renal fibrosis and CKD. We hypothesized that CKD in the ZDF rat is related to decrease in myogenic constriction (MC) of intrar...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vavrinec P, Henning RH, Landheer SW, Wang Y, Deelman LE, van Dokkum RP, Buikema H Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Renal Blood Flow Autoregulation.
Abstract Diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of chronic kidney disease and their incidence is increasing at an alarming rate. Both are associated with impairments in the autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and greater transmission of fluctuations in arterial pressure to the glomerular capillaries. The ability of the kidney to maintain relatively constant blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and glomerular capillary pressure is mediated by the myogenic response of afferent arterioles working in concert with tubuloglomerular feedback that adjusts the tone of the afferent arteriole in respon...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Burke M, Pabbidi MR, Farley J, Roman RJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Impaired Renal Autoregulation in Susceptible Models of Renal Disease.
Abstract One of the major functions of the kidney is to maintain constant renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in response to increases in renal perfusion pressure. This phenomenon is referred to autoregulation and involves two independent mechanisms: tubular glomerular feedback and myogenic response. The latter, the renal myogenic response, involves constriction of the preglomerular vasculature to increases in transmural pressure. Over the last three decades, there has been substantial evidence that demonstrates that the myogenic response plays an important role in protecting the kidney from hypertensi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 25, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Murphy S, Williams JM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Arterial Stiffness: a Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Kidney Disease Patients.
This article summarizes the accumulated evidence from clinical and epidemiological studies regarding the prognostic significance of arterial stiffening on cardiovascular outcomes and provides insights on possible treatment strategies for arterial stiffness attenuation in patients with CKD. PMID: 24007427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 3, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Georgianos PI, Sarafidis PA, Lasaridis AN Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Vertebral Fractures, Vascular Calcifications, and Mortality in Warfarin Treated Hemodialysis Patients.
Abstract Warfarin inhibits vitamin-K dependent proteins involved in bone mineralization and the prevention of vascular calcification (bone Gla protein BGP, matrix Gla protein MGP). In this multicenter, cross-sectional study with 3-year follow-up, data from 387 patients on hemodialysis for ≥1 year at 18 dialysis units were analyzed. Patients on warfarin treatment for> 1 year (11.9% of the population) were compared with the remaining cohort for vertebral fractures, vascular calcifications and mortality. Vertebral fractures and vascular calcifications were sought in L-L vertebral X-rays (D4 to L5). Compared wit...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 1, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fusaro M, Tripepi G, Noale M, Plebani M, Zaninotto M, Piccoli A, Naso A, Miozzo D, Giannini S, Avolio M, Foschi A, Rizzo MA, Gallieni M, The Vertebral Fractures And Vascular Calcifications Study Group Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Future of Interventional Management of Hypertension: threats and opportunities.
Abstract In about 48% hypertensive patients in the United States, blood pressure remains higher than accepted treatment targets despite broad availability of effective pharmaceutical agents. Of these 48%, recent estimates define about 10-11% have treatment-resistant hypertension (TR-HTN). Compensatory changes in sympathetic nervous system function are an important component of HTN. Recent technical advances targeting the sympathetic activity of the carotid sinuses (Baroreflex Activation Therapy-BAT) and the renal sympathetic nerves (Renal Denervation Therapy-RDT) have renewed interest in invasive therapy for the t...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Briasoulis A, Bakris G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Renal and Cardiac Effects of Renal Sympathetic Denervation and Carotid Baroreceptor Stimulation.
Abstract Cumulative evidence nowadays supports the dominant role of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in patients with hypertension, congestive heart failure, and renal dysfunction. During the last years innovative interventional treatments [renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) and baroreflex activation therapy (BAT)] have emerged and accompanied by sustained reductions of blood pressure (BP) levels. Moreover, these promising therapies are favorable not only on BP regulation but also on the SNS overdrive-related organ damage. The present review focuses on the association of SNS activation with renal and c...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsioufis C, Dimitriadis K, Thomopoulos C, Doumas M, Papademetriou V, Stefanadis C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Renal Nerve Ablation for Hypertensive patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
Abstract Among current epidemics, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is accompanied with high morbidity and mortality rates inherently associated with the thriving comorbidities of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In this mutually reinforcing triad, adequate control of high blood pressure emerges as extremely important for decreasing patients' complication rates and prolonging life expectancy. However, hypertension control in this particular group of patients is often proven an arduous task, presenting high rates of resistance. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overactivity is implicated not only in the pathophys...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Papademetriou V, Doumas M, Anyfanti P, Faselis C, Kokkinos P, Tsioufis K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Similarities and Differences Between Renal Sympathetic Denervation and Carotid Baroreceptor Stimulation.
Abstract The two novel approaches recently introduced for the treatment of resistant hypertension, i.e. carotid baroreceptor stimulation and renal denervation, share a number of similarities but are also characterized by important differences. The similarities include the evidence that both interventions have as common pathophysiological background the state of sympathetic overdrive characterizing essential hypertension. In addition both procedures 1) are invasive, 2) exert in the short-term period clearcut blood pressure lowering effects and 3) still face a number of open questions, particularly related to the lo...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Grassi G, Seravalle G, Brambilla G, Cesana F, Cristina Giannattasio C, Mancia G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Pathophysiological Basis of Carotid Baroreceptor Stimulation for the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension.
Abstract The prevalence of resistant hypertension and existing limitations in antihypertensive drug therapy render the interventional management of hypertension an attractive alternative. Carotid baroreceptors have been traditionally thought to be implicated only in short-term blood pressure regulation; however recent evidence suggests that the baroreceptors might play an important role even in the long-term blood pressure regulation. Electrical baroreflex stimulation appears safe and effective and might represent a useful adjunct to medical therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. This review endeavors to...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lovic D, Aj M, Lovic B, Stojanov V, Lovic M, Pittaras A, Jakovljevic B Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Sympathetic overactivity in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract From the first description of its anatomy by T. Willis to the novel therapeutic manipulations, it is unanimously recognized that the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) holds a crucial role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The introduction of sophisticated techniques, as microneurography and regional norepinephrine spillover provided the evidence for the role of sympathetic overactivity in various cardiovascular disease entities. Sympathetic activation is common in patients with essential hypertension and contributes to initiation, maintenance and progression of the disease and it contributes to the manifestat...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Manolis AJ, Poulimenos LE, Kallistratos MS, Gavras I, Gavras H Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Role of Renal Nerve Ablation for the Management of Resistant Hypertension and other Disease Conditions: Benefits and Concerns.
Abstract The sympathetic nervous system is overactivated in resistant hypertension and several other disease conditions. A reciprocal association between the brain and the kidney has been described, in that sympathetic overactivity affects renal function while renal injury stimulates central sympathetic drive. Renal nerve ablation has been recently introduced as a potential alternative for the management of resistant hypertension, mainly due to current limitations in pharmacologic antihypertensive therapy. Data accumulated thus far point towards an efficacious and safe interventional method for the management of t...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Faselis C, Doumas M, Kokkinos P, Tsioufis C, Papademetriou V Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Carotid Baroreceptor Stimulation: A Promising Approach for the Management of Resistant Hypertension and Heart Failure.
Abstract Many difficult-to-treat clinical entities in the cardiovascular field are characterized by pronounced sympathetic overactivity, including resistant hypertension and heart failure, underlining the need to explore therapeutic options beyond pharmacotherapy. Autonomic modulation via carotid baroreceptor activation has already been evaluated in clinical trials for resistant hypertension, and relevant outcomes with regard to safety and efficacy of the technique are critically presented. The pathophysiological background of heart failure renders carotid baroreceptor stimulation a potential treatment candidate f...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Doumas M, Faselis C, Kokkinos P, Anyfanti P, Tsioufis K, Papademetriou V Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Interventional Management of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: The Beginning of a New Era?
PMID: 23905600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - July 31, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Doumas M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research