Effect of Statins on rates of Long-Term Cardiovascular Events and Restenosis Following Carotid Endarterectomy.
PMID: 25322832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Radak D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Persistent Elevation of Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents is Associated with Arterial Hypertension and Premature Atherosclerosis in Adults. Is it Possible to Reverse This?
PMID: 25322833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Relation between the Change in Mean Platelet Volume and Clopidogrel Resistance in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Abstract We aimed to determine the association between the change in mean platelet volume (MPV) over time and aspirin/ clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The MPV and platelet function were analysed in 302 patients who underwent PCI. MPV changes were associated with increased aspirin reaction units (ARU, r = 0.114; P = 0.047), increased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU, r = 0.193; P = 0.001), and decreased P2Y12% inhibition (PI%, r = - 0.273; P
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koh YY, Ho Kim H, Choi DH, Lee YM, Ki YJ, Kang SH, Park G, Chung JW, Chang KS, Hong SP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Phenomics of Vascular Disease: the systematic approach to the combination therapy.
Abstract Vascular diseases are usually caused by multifactorial pathogeneses involving genetic and environmental factors. Our current understanding of vascular disease is, however, based on the focused genotype/phenotype studies driven by the "one-gene/one-phenotype" hypothesis. Drugs with "pure target" at individual molecules involved in the pathophysiological pathways are the mainstream of current clinical treatments and the basis of combination therapy of vascular diseases. Recently, the combination of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has unraveled the etiology and pathophysiology of v...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 14, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Han Y, Li L, Zhang Y, Yuan H, Ye L, Zhao J, Duan DD Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Coffee: A Selected Overview of Beneficial or Harmful Effects on the Cardiovascular System?
Abstract With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a well-known benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 2, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Whayne Jr TF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Not Simply a Matter of Fish Intake.
Abstract Background and aims: Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short by differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. Methods and Results: Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference wa...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 2, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Scherr C, Figueiredo VN, Moura FA, Sposito AC Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Statin Potency, LDL Receptors and New Onset Diabetes.
PMID: 25135802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Effects of the Rho-kinase Inhibitor Fasudil After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.
Abstract There is growing evidence that Rho-kinase contributes to cardiovascular disease, which has made Rho-kinase a target for the treatment of human diseases. To date, the only Rho-kinase inhibitor employed clinically in humans is fasudil, which has been used for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury after surgery for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A number of pathological processes, in particular hemodynamic dysfunctions and inflammatory reactions, are thought to be related in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury after SAH. This review focu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - June 13, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Satoh SI, Ikegaki I, Kawasaki K, Asano T, Shibuya M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: antithrombotic therapy: current and future clinical use.
PMID: 24846223 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agnelli G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Acute antithrombotic treatment of ischemic stroke.
Abstract Antithrombotic medication is a cornerstone of acute ischemic stroke treatment and secondary prevention. The efficacy of thrombolysis with alteplase in acute stroke has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. This safe and costeffective therapy has transformed the practice of stroke care and has led to subsequent trials of other antithrombotic medications for treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute phase. These antithrombotics include thrombolytic, antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents. While, no other medication has yet demonstrated adequate efficacy, our current and evolving understanding of infa...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alderazi YJ, Grotta JC Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Secondary prevention of atherothrombotic cerebrovascular events.
The objective of this review is to discuss effective interventions for optimal secondary prevention of atherosclerotic stroke. PMID: 24846225 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paciaroni M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Primary Prevention of Ischaemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: New Oral Anticoagulant Drugs for all?
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers a 4.5% risk of stroke per year. The risk of stroke increases with various risk factors and until recently, warfarin has been the gold standard of thromboembolism prophylaxis in AF for many years. The dosage of warfarin requires regular adjustment dependent on the INR, to keep within a narrow therapeutic range of 2.0- 3.0. The INR can be altered by concomitant drugs, foods and alcohol and requires inconvenient blood monitoring. Underanticoagulation places patients at risk of stroke, whilst over-anticoagulation confers significant bleeding risk. Consequently approximately ha...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Foley J, Kirchhof P, Lip GY Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Long-term Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism.
Abstract Long term treatment of venous thromboembolism is essential to complete therapy of the index episode and to reduce recurrences. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism for the majority of the patients as they allow oral administration. Low-molecular weight heparins are recommended for the long term treatment of cancer patients. The duration of long term anticoagulation depends on the features of the index venous thromboembolism and on the presence of associated risk factors. Patients at high risk for recurrence - mainly those who suffered unprovoked veno...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Becattini C, Manina G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Acute phase treatment of pulmonary embolism.
Abstract Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially life threatening disease if left untreated. This is due to a natural tendency towards early recurrence of pulmonary emboli which may lead to right ventricular failure. Thus, anticoagulant treatment should be administered to all patients upon high or intermediate clinical probability of acute PE, while awaiting definitive confirmation by imaging procedures. With the exception of severe renal impairment, high bleeding risk, arterial hypotension, and extremes of body weight and age, unfractionated heparin has been replaced by low molecular-weight heparin or...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chalikias G, Konstantinides S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: vascular dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance.
PMID: 24846229 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Prieto D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Perivascular adipose tissue, inflammation and vascular dysfunction in obesity.
Abstract Adipocytes are no longer considered just as cells related to storage of energy and thermoregulation. Now we know that they release a huge number of paracrine and endocrine biologically active molecules. This is also the case for perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) that surrounds almost all blood vessels in the organism. PVAT secretes the so-called adipo(cyto)kines that, because of its proximity, can easily influence vascular smooth muscle cells. The role of PVAT on vascular function can be both protective and deleterious. Normal healthy PVAT, as present in lean subjects, helps to keep the blood vessels dil...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: de Voorde JV, Boydens C, Pauwels B, Decaluwe K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endothelial dysfunction, obesity and insulin resistance.
Abstract Obesity is a metabolic disorder of increasing prevalence worldwide and a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is related to endothelial dysfunction through indirect mechanisms such as IR and the associated risk factors, and through direct mechanisms including the production of proinflammatory adipokines and elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) by adipose tissue. Both clinical and experimental studies using genetic and diet-induced animal models of obesity have consistently shown impaired metabolic, agonistor flow-induced vasodila...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Prieto D, Contreras C, Sanchez A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Small artery remodeling in obesity and insulin resistance.
Abstract Microvascular abnormalities, both in function and structure, lead to impaired tissue perfusion that may affect multiple tissues and organs and seem to be involved in target-organ damage and complications observed in obesity and insulin resistance. In general, vascular remodeling of small arteries associated to cardiometabolic diseases seems to be hypertrophic and it is associated to increased extracellular matrix deposition, although specific vascular beds might show different structural patterns. The mechanisms by which obesity, insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulimemia determine vascular disease are no...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Briones AM, Aras-Lopez R, Alonso MJ, Salaices M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of obesity on vascular potassium channels.
In conclusion, obesity and metabolic syndrome alter expression, function and sensitivity of vascular K channel subtypes causing smooth muscle dysfunction and probably endothelial dysfunction which makes these patients particularly prone to premature cardiovascular disease. Modulation of K channel activity by use of openers of e.g. KCa and KATP channels may also be attractive to counteract vascular dysfunction observed in obesity. PMID: 24846233 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Climent B, Simonsen U, Rivera L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Obesity and coronary microvascular disease - implications for adipose tissue-mediated remote inflammatory response.
Abstract It is believed that obesity has detrimental effects on the coronary circulation. These include immediate changes in coronary arterial vasomotor responsiveness and the development of occlusive large coronary artery disease. Despite its critical role in regulating myocardial perfusion, the altered behavior of coronary resistance arteries, which gives rise to coronary microvascular disease (CMD) is poorly understood in obesity. A chronic, low-grade vascular inflammation has been long considered as one of the main underlying pathology behind CMD. The expanded adipose tissue and the infiltrating macrophages ar...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bagi Z, Broskova Z, Feher A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The effects of obesity on the cerebral vasculature.
Abstract The incidence of obesity in the population is increasing at an alarming rate, with this comes an increased risk of insulin resistance (IR). Obesity and IR increase an individual's risk of having a stroke and they have been linked to several forms of dementia. Stroke and dementia are associated with, or exacerbated by, reduced cerebral blood flow, which has recently been described in obese patients. In this review we will discuss the effects of obesity on cerebral artery function and structure. Regarding their function, we will focus on the endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) dependent dilation. NO dependent...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dorrance AM, Matin N, Pires PW Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pulmonary vascular function in insulin resistance and diabetes.
Abstract Insulin resistance and diabetes are current clinical concerns due to their increasing prevalence in western societies and in developing countries. Cardiovascular alterations, affecting both macro- and microcirculation, are among the major causes of illness and premature death within patients with insulin resistance or diabetes. However, the detrimental effects of insulin resistance and diabetes in the lungs are less clinically apparent, or at least masked by the progression of these metabolic diseases on other target organs. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest a link between pulmonary arterial h...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Moral-Sanz J, Moreno L, Cogolludo A, Perez-Vizcaino F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Microparticles as biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and its individual components.
Abstract Heterogeneous in size (0.1-1 µm), microparticles are small membrane vesicles released from activated and/or apoptotic cells. Although described since 1967 by Wolf [1], it is only since the 1990's that microparticles have been considered as biomarkers as well as potential mediators of biological messages between cells [2] by acting as paracrine and endocrine vectors. Detection of microparticles has been performed in biological fluids (blood, synovial fluid, saliva for instance) and some solid tissues but also from the culture medium [3]. Levels of circulating microparticles are enhanced in a large nu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agouni A, Andriantsitohaina R, Martinez MC Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs.
Abstract The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Comerma-Steffensen S, Grann M, Andersen CU, Rungby J, Simonsen U Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Kidney Disease in Hypertension: A Common and Dangerous Triad.
Abstract Hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often coexist sharing common pathophysiological factors that both in combination and separately induce fibrotic changes in the heart provoking atrial fibrillation (AF). AF, per se, is associated with a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of stroke and a 2-fold increased risk of all-cause death. The co-existence of AF with HTN and renal dysfunction considerably increases morbidity and mortality. Management of AF in hypertensive patients with CKD is complex and multidisciplinary, since these patients have both a prothrombotic state and a coagulopathy with an incre...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsiachris D, Tsioufis C, Mazzone P, Katsiki N, Stefanadis C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of Rosuvastatin on Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Hypercholesterolaemia. A Preliminary Report.
We report preliminary results for 6 patients. The second biopsy (at the end of the study) showed complete resolution of NASH in 5 patients, while the 6th, which had no improvement, developed arterial hypertension and substantial rise in triglyceride levels during the study. We suspect alcohol abuse despite advice to abstain. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were reduced by 76 and 61%, respectively (p
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 8, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: VITAMIN D THERAPY: AN UPDATE Available Experimental and Clinical Evidences to Select " Which D for Which Patient".
Editorial: VITAMIN D THERAPY: AN UPDATE Available Experimental and Clinical Evidences to Select " Which D for Which Patient". Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;12(2):271 Authors: Mazzaferro S, Cozzolino M PMID: 24810041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mazzaferro S, Cozzolino M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Transactivation of EGFR by G protein-coupled Receptor in the Pathophysiology of Intimal Hyperplasia.
Abstract GPCR-mediated receptor transactivation of EGFR, is one of the effector mechanisms by which GPCR ligands, such as Ang II, thrombin and ET -1, catecholamine, SII-angiotensin, PAF, uPA that are released at the arterial injury sites, can potentiate intimal hyperplasia. The process of EGFR transactivation can be cognate ligand-dependent or independent. In cognate ligand- dependent transactivation, ligand-bound GPCR results in the activation of metalloproteases, which sheds membrane tethered growth factor that binds to EGFR on an extracellular ligand-binding domain causing its transactivation. Whereas, in cogna...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sur S, Agrawal DK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ca2/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase- II in Vasoactive Peptide-Induced Responses and Vascular Biology.
Abstract Vasoactive peptides such as angiotensin II and endothelin-1 as well as growth factors regulate vascular homeostasis through signaling pathways that are triggered in both normal and disease states. These vasoactive peptides and growth factors also increase the cellular levels of calcium which, through calcium binding effector systems initiates the downstream signaling and physiological responses in target cells. A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as an important transducer of vasoactive peptide-induced responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Simo Cheyou ER, Bouallegue A, Srivastava AK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Atypical Gαi Signal Transduction.
Atypical Gαi Signal Transduction. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 26; Authors: Perrault R, Zahradka P Abstract G protein signaling is an extremely complex event that is involved in almost every cellular process. As such, G protein-coupled receptors are the most commonly found type of transmembrane receptors used by cells to initiate intracellular signaling events. However, the widely accepted model of cyclical GDP-GTP exchange in response to ligand binding to 7TMRs, followed by dissociation of the G protein subunits and activation of intracellular signaling cascades, has repeatedly been challenged in r...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Perrault R, Zahradka P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endothelin-1 Signaling in Vascular Physiology and Pathophysiology.
Abstract The discovery of endothelin (ET) in 1988 has led to considerable effort to unravel its implication in health and disease and the mechanisms evoked by ET. ET-1 and related signaling aberrancies are believed to be implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hypertrophy and diabetes. The endothelin system consist of three potent vasoconstrictive isopeptides, ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, signaling through two G protein coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, which are linked to multiple signaling pathways. Activated signaling transduction pathways include the modu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sandoval YH, Atef ME, Levesque LO, Li Y, Anand-Srivastava MB Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Kinin Receptors in Vascular Biology and Pathology.
Abstract Endogenous kinins are important vasoactive peptides whose effects are mediated by two G-Protein-coupled receptors (R), named B2R (constitutive) and B1R (inducible). They are involved in vascular homeostasis, ischemic pre- and post- conditioning, but also in cardiovascular diseases. They contribute to the therapeutic effects of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers. Benefits derive primarily from vasodilatory, antiproliferative, antihypertrophic, antifibrotic, antithrombic and antioxidant properties, which are associated with the release of endothelial fact...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Couture R, Blaes N, Girolami JP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nuclear Membranes Gpcrs: Implication In Cardiovascular Health And Diseases.
Abstract G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are commonly present at the plasma membrane and their signaling modulates excitation-contraction coupling and excitation-secretion coupling of excitable and non-excitable cells of the cardiovascular system. Their effect on excitation-gene expression coupling was attributed, in part, to the nuclear translocation of their signaling and/or to the entry into the nuclear membrane of the internalized GPCRs. However, the recently established paradigm showed that, in addition to plasma membrane G-proteins, GPCRs exist as native nuclear membranes receptors and they modulate nucl...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bkaily G, Al-Khoury J, Jacques D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Vascular Biology: Implication in Health and Disease.
PMID: 24568159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anand-Srivastava MB, Srivastava AK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Glycaemic Control in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Double-Edged Sword.
Abstract Glycaemic management is of paramount importance in the cardiac surgery setting. A growing body of evidence confirms a J-shaped relationship between blood glucose (BG) level and perioperative morbidity and mortality. On one hand, acute hypoglycaemia causes irreversible cerebral damage. On the other hand, hyperglycaemia increases the risk of infections, acute kidney injury, atrial fibrillation, low cardiac output syndrome, cerebrovascular accidents and cognitive impairment. Also, high BGvariability, even within the therapeutic window, may deteriorate the outcome. Therefore, moderate perioperative insulin ma...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Krzych LJ, Wybraniec MT Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Anti-Angiogenic Drugs in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma:Advances in Clinical Application.
Abstract The current paradigm in attempting to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a first line treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist and second and subsequent treatments with either a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) or a mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) inhibitor, while conventional chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment do not play a role in the management of mRCC. Several drugs directed against VEGF and VEGFR have been developed in recent times. Based on phase III data, sunitinib, pazopanib and sorafenib represent the best-supported drugs in f...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nielsen OH, Grimm D, Wehland M, Bauer J, Magnusson NE Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: ischemic stroke prevention.
PMID: 24484460 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tuttolomondo A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors.
This article reviews the evidence that demonstrates that individuals with the MetS are at increased risk for CVD incidence and mortality and discusses these debated issues. PMID: 24484465 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Papakonstantinou E, Lambadiari V, Dimitriadis G, Zampelas A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: atrial fibrillation after coronary surgery: the need for an effective pharmacological prophylaxis.
PMID: 24484466 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mariscalco G, Banach M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antiplatelets in stroke prevention.
Abstract Stroke is the second cause of death worldwide and one of the leading cause of disability. Due to the high rate of recurrence, in high risk-patients (eg patients affected by atherosclerotic vascular disease), long-term antiplatelet therapy reduces the risk of vascular events such as non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or vascular death. The percentage of reduction of the events can be estimated in approximately 25%. These data justify the directions that are given to us by the current guidelines for prevention of secondary stroke, which recommend the broad use of antiplatelet therapy both fo...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pinto A, Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Butta C, Licata G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Risk and benefit of statins in stroke secondary prevention.
Abstract Statin is now recommended in secondary prevention after stroke or transient ischemic attacks to reduce the risk of a new stroke or major cardiovascular events. However, some issues about the extent of the benefit in some stroke patients and the risk of cerebral hemorrhage remain debated. This review shows that statins are significantly effective in decreasing the risk of further strokes despite an increase in the risk of brain hemorrhage. A significant benefit was observed in men and women, in aged patients and possibly to a greater extent in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Intensive statin therapy...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Laloux P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antivitamin k drugs in stroke prevention.
Abstract Among the different subtypes of ischaemic strokes, almost 20 % are of cardiac origin. Different are the causes of cardioembolic stroke, but the most common is the atrial fibrillation, a supraventricular arrhythmia. Appropriate use of antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ischaemic stroke depends on whether the underlying cause is cardioembolic or of presumed arterial origin. Adequate antiplatelet therapy is recommended for secondary prevention after cerebral ischaemia of presumed arterial origin, whether for patients with TIA and ischaemic stroke of cardiac origin...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Butta C, Lucifora B, Licata G, Pinto A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Stroke Subtypes and their Possible Implication in Stroke Prevention Drug Strategies.
Abstract Thrombotic strokes can affect large or small arteries in the brain. Drugs to prevent atherosclerosis complication such as thrombotic strokes, should be drugs able to prevent the accumulation of intravascular fat, reduce vascular proliferation, decrease blood pressure levels with the resulting shear stress, reduce platelet aggregation, and possibly partially or totally reverse carotid plaques. Any of the commonly used antihypertensive drugs lower the incidence of stroke, with larger reductions in BP resulting in larger reductions in risk. Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing the activity of...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tuttolomondo A, Pecoraro R, Di Raimondo D, Arnao V, Clemente G, Corte VD, Maida C, Simonetta I, Licata G, Pinto A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Centenarian Offspring: a model for Understanding Longevity.
Abstract A main objective of current medical research is the improving of life quality of elderly people as priority of the continuous increase of ageing population. This phenomenon implies several medical, economic and social problems because of dramatic increase in number of not autonomous individuals affected by various pathologies. Accordingly, the research interest is focused on understanding the biological mechanisms involved in determining the positive ageing phenotype, i.e. the centenarian phenotype. In achieving this goal the choice of an appropriate study models is fundamental. Centenarians have been use...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Balistreri CR, Accardi G, Buffa S, Bulati M, Martorana A, Candore G, Colonna-Romano G, Lio D, Caruso C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Telomeres and their Role in Aging and Longevity.
Abstract Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that form protective caps at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. They constitute the safeguards of chromosome degradation and are responsible for maintaining genomic integrity. The multifactorial nature of telomere length (TL) regulation increases the perplexity of studies in the field. TL is characterized by a high variability among individuals (birth and later life) and among species but it is unknown whether this is associated with their lifespan potential. TL is also highly heritable, longer in women than in men; it is highly variable between tissues and organs and...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tzanetakou IP, Nzietchueng R, Perrea DN, Benetos A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Mediterranean Diet And Longevity: An Example Of Nutraceuticals?
Abstract The Mediterranean diet (Mediet) is an eating pattern characterizing a lifestyle and culture that has been reported to contribute to better health and quality of life. The Mediet reflects food patterns typical of Mediterranean regions, where olive oil plays an essential role in the food pyramid. Olive oil is located in the middle and it is considered the principal source of dietary fat because of its high nutritional quality (particularly extra virgin olive oil). Several studies have shown the effect of the Mediet on healthy status by lowering the rates of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, and some ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vasto S, Barera A, Rizzo C, Carlo MD, Caruso C, Panotopoulos G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Genes Of Human Longevity: An Endless Quest?
Abstract Human longevity is a complex trait which genetics, epigenetics, environmental and stochasticity differently contribute to. To disentangle the complexity, our studies on genetics of longevity were, at the beginning, mainly focused on the extreme phenotypes, i.e. centenarians who escaped the major age-related diseases compared with cross sectional cohorts. Recently, we implemented this model by studying centenarians' offspring and offspring of non-long lived parents. In association studies on candidate genes many SNPs, positively or negatively correlated with longevity have been identified. The results obta...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Capri M, Santoro A, Garagnani P, Bacalini MG, Pirazzini C, Olivieri F, Procopio A, Salvioli S, Franceschi C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Phenotypes and Genotypes of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Exceptional Longevity.
Abstract A change in the lipoprotein profile is a metabolic hallmark of aging and has been the target for modern medical developments. Although pharmaceutical interventions aimed at lipid lowering substantially decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease, they have much less impact on mortality and longevity. Moreover, they have not affected death from other age-related diseases. In this review we focus on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the levels of which are either elevated or do not decrease as would be expected with aging in centenarians, and which are associated with lower prevalence of numerous ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Milman S, Atzmon G, Crandall J, Barzilai N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ageing, Longevity, Exceptional Longevity and Related Genetic and non Genetics Markers: Panel Statement.
Abstract In May 2012, a group of scientists and clinicians met in Athens (Greece) to consider the relevance of ageing, longevity, exceptional longevity and related genetic and non genetic markers. During this meeting, we firstly reviewed recent epidemiological and clinical studies on ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity, briefly analysed the ageing theories and discussed successful and unsuccessful ageing also taking into account the evolutionary perspective. Secondly, we considered the three phenotypes based on the definition of ageing, longevity and exceptional longevity and the associated biomarkers. Thi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Avery P, Barzilai N, Benetos A, Bilianou H, Capri M, Caruso C, Franceschi C, Katsiki N, Mikhailidis DP, Panotopoulos G, Sikora E, Tzanetakou IP, Kolovou G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Challenges in Moving from Ageing to Successful Longevity.
Abstract During the last decades survival has significantly improved and centenarians are becoming a fast-growing group of the population. Human life span is mainly dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Favourable modifications of lifestyle factors (e.g. physical activity, diet and not smoking) and healthcare (e.g. effective vascular disease prevention) have also increased human life span. Genetic factors contribute to the variation of human life span by around 25%, which is believed to be more profound after 85 years of age. It is likely that multiple factors influence life span and we need answers to q...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 18, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kolovou G, Barzilai N, Caruso C, Sikora E, Capri M, Tzanetakou IP, Bilianou H, Avery P, Katsiki N, Panotopoulos G, Franceschi C, Benetos A, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research