Vitamin D levels in middle-aged patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Vitamin D (Vit D) insufficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), a disorder associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, has been associated with lowered Vit D levels, but reports are inconclusive. AIM: To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of Vit D status, and anthropometric and sleep characteristics of OSAS patients and to compare those levels between OSAS patients and non-apnoeic controls. METHOD: Consecutive subjects who had undergone po...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Archontogeorgis K, Nena E, Papanas N, Zissimopoulos A, Voulgaris A, Xanthoudaki M, Manolopoulos E, Froudarakis M, Steiropoulos P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Alterations in Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations following Two Oral Meals with Different Fat Content in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
CONCLUSION: An oral fat tolerance test (OFTT), which contains 75g fat, and represents the everyday habits of Western societies, could provide additional information regarding the postprandial state of the individuals with well-controlled T2DM. The consumption of meals with very high fat content may lead to over diagnosing PPL. TG differences after the consumption of a high fat meal correlated with HOMA-IR. This may be useful to evaluate the role of HOMA-IR in T2DM patients. A standardized the OFTT will help clinicians to better define postprandial TG abnormalities, leading to more appropriate therapeutic options to improve...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gavra P, Mellidonis A, Iraklianou S, Mihas C, Kolovou V, Mavrogeni S, Dimitriadis G, Rallidis L, Vasaramva K, Boutati E, Katsiki N, Kolovou G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endovascular vs. Open Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Renal Function.
PMID: 28472917 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paraskevas KI, Veith FJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Re: 'Re. Renal Function Impairment in Patients Undergoing Elective EVAR vs Elective Open Repair During Follow up Period: A Systematic Review of the Literature'.
PMID: 28472918 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 8, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Spanos K, Karathanos C, Athanasoulas A, Saleptsis V, Vasilopoulos I, Xhepa S, Matsagkas M, Giannoukas AD Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Renoprotection by direct renin inhibition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
In conclusion, inhibiting renin and prorenin with aliskiren is a more promising renoprotective treatment compared with blocking the renin/prorenin receptors (RPR). One of the main mechanisms by which aliskiren may confer renoprotection is by decreasing albuminuria and proteinuria. However, it does not seem to change sCr and eGFR in patients at risk of developing renal disease. Furthermore, co-administration of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) and aliskiren was shown to decrease albuminuria and proteinuria to a greater extent compared with monotherapy with these ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Louvis N, Coulson J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Non-pharmacological Modulation of the Autonomic Nervous System for Heart Failure Treatment: where do we stand?
Abstract An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a central pathophysiologic mechanism in heart failure (HF) and has been a principal target of treatment in these patients. Traditional pharmacologic agents do not provide specific modulation of discrete arms of the ANS, while side effects may lead to poor tolerance. Technological advances have provided a series of invasive methods that may provide a focused effect on the ANS in selected patient groups. Renal denervation, initially targeted for patients with resistant hypertension, has given positive preliminary results in terms of heart structure and f...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsioufis C, Iliakis P, Kasiakogias A, Konstantinidis D, Lovic D, Petras D, Doumas M, Tsiamis E, Papademetriou V, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Capillary degeneration and right ventricular remodeling due to hypoxic stress with Sugen5416.
CONCLUSION: Capillary degeneration and activation of VEGF/ERK signaling pathway might be crucial to accelerate the cardiac remodeling due to hypoxic stress with Sugen5416. PMID: 28460626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Woo E, Kato R, Imano H, Fujiwara Y, Ijiri Y, Okada Y, Yamaguchi T, Izumi Y, Yoshiyama M, Katsumata T, Hayashi T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Renal denervation therapy: Can it contribute to better blood pressure control in hypertension?
Abstract Although the first results from studies suggested important benefits regarding blood pressure (BP) control in resistant hypertension by the use of diverse systems of renal denervation (RDN) in the setting of resistant hypertension, the Symplicity HTN-3, randomized sham-controlled trial reduced the enthusiasm and led to a more critical approach towards this neuromodulation innovative therapy. Nowadays there is an ongoing research attempt to justify the pathophysiological background of RDN since overdrive of the sympathetic nervous system is one of the key mechanisms leading to the development and progressi...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsioufis C, Dimitriadis K, Kordalis A, Doumas M, Konstantinidis D, Kalos T, Mahfoud F, Papademetriou V, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical value of measuring the renin/aldosterone levels: Optimising the management of uncontrolled/resistant hypertension.
Abstract Resistant hypertension (HT) is a common clinical entity with debilitating cardiovascular consequences. The highly heterogeneous nature of resistant HT requires a meticulous work-up to exclude 'pseudo-resistance' and secondary forms of arterial HT. Resistant HT has recently gained wide scientific interest due to the introduction of interventional methods (renal sympathetic denervation and carotid baroreceptor stimulation) for blood pressure (BP) reduction in this patient population. Despite however the recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and the clinical characteristics of the disease, the...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Doumas M, Boutari C, Tsioufis C, Dimitriadis K, Triantafyllou A, Douma S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The clinical problems of hypertension treatment in hemodialysis patients.
Abstract Hypertension (HT) is present in >80% of patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Loutradis CN, Tsioufis C, Sarafidis PA Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Uncontrolled Hypertension and Oncology: Clinical Τips.
Uncontrolled Hypertension and Oncology: Clinical Τips. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017 Apr 14;: Authors: Kalaitzidis RG, Elisaf MS Abstract Angiogenesis is fundamental for tumour development and progression. Thus, anti-angiogenic agents have been developed and are mainly vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors. However, these agents commonly exhibit cardiac and renal toxicity, proteinuria and hypertension (HT). In fact, with the use of anti-angiogenic agents a rapiddose-dependent increaseof blood pressure (BP) is observed. Thepossible mechanisms of VEGF inhibitors-induced HTinclude ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kalaitzidis RG, Elisaf MS Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hypertension and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: connecting the dots.
Abstract Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF) (HFpEF) accounts for approximately 50% of HF cases and its prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF is rising. Hypertension (HT) is the most common co-morbidity in HFpEF patients and it is implicated in both the pathogenesis and the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, HT is a modifiable risk factor of high yield in HFpEF. We reviewed the literature for epidemiologic data supporting the co-aggregation of the two entities as well as patho-physiologic mechanisms linking HT to HFpEF. Most importantly, we focused on treatment options targeting HT as a ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsioufis C, Georgiopoulos G, Oikonomou D, Thomopoulos C, Katsiki N, Kasiakogias A, Chrysochoou C, Konstantinidis D, Kalos T, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Optimizing the management of uncontrolled hypertension: what do triple fixed- dose drug combinations add?
Abstract Fixed-dose triple drug combinations represent one of the latest innovations of pharmacotherapy for hypertension (HT). They combine a traditional renin-angiotensin system blocker, a diuretic and a calcium channel blocker. The main benefit is the simplification of treatment regimen because 3 different agents are combined at different doses in a single pill. Improving adherence to treatment partly explains why this kind of combination may effectively reduce blood pressure (BP). BP lowering by a single-pill triple-drug combination can be approximately predicted, by using appropriate formulas described in prev...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thomopoulos C, Katsimagklis G, Archontakis S, Skalis G, Makris T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological Therapy of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: An Update.
Abstract Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a progressive segmental abdominal aortic dilation, is associated with high mortality. AAA is characterized by inflammation, smooth muscle cell (SMC) depletion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Surgical intervention and endovascular therapy are recommended to prevent rupture of large AAAs. Unfortunately, there is no reliable pharmacological agent available to limit AAA expansion. In the past decades, extensive investigations and a body of ongoing clinical trials aimed at defining potent treatments to inhibit and even regress AAA growth. In this review, we summariz...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang YD, Liu ZJ, Ren J, Xiang MX Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The socioeconomic effects of uncontrolled hypertension.
Abstract Hypertension (HT), albeit a modifiable risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, remains one of the main contributors to the total disease burden internationally and, thus, inevitably one of the basic cost drivers in healthcare systems. Taking the above into account, this brief narrative review aims at presenting the main findings of the international health economics literature on HTwith regards to four key areas: a) the costs attributable to HT, b) the effects of HTon patient well-being, c) the cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions against high blood pressure, and, d) the costs...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athanasakis K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antithrombotic Therapy for Transcatheter Valvular Interventions: A Revisit.
Abstract The optimal antithrombotic therapies for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and MitraClip implantation have not been well established. We conducted a narrative review from currently available studies between January 2002 and May 2016 to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of antithrombotic therapy use in cardiac catheter-based therapeutic techniques. Recently, these techniques have dramatically altered the approach towards valvular heart diseases management. The introduction into clinical practice, of TAVI for severe aortic stenosis and MitraClip for mitral regurgitation, has revolution...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 6, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mohammed S, El-Menyar A, Al-Janubi H, Shabana A, Alanazi Z Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ultrasound-Assisted Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis in High-Risk and Intermediate-High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism: A Meta-analysis.
ml;zdemir N, Konstantinides S Abstract Catheter-directed Ultrasound-Assisted Thrombolysis (USAT) is a novel technology providing a high efficacy with a reduced bleeding risk in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a meta-analysis based on presented or published PE series in which USAT was utilized. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for trials published up to December 2015. The primary outcomes were mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAMP), right to left ventricle diameter ratio (RV/LV ratio) and computed tomography (CT) obstruction score. The secondary outcomes were all-cause and...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kaymaz C, Akbal ÖY, Tanboğa IH, Hakgör A, Yilmaz F, Öztürk S, Poçi N, Türkday S, Özdemir N, Konstantinides S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Relationship of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations and systolic heart failure.
Abstract Objective Excessive activated proinflammatory cytokines may promote extracellular matrix alterations which induce adverse left ventricular remodeling in systolic heart failure (SHF). We sought to identify whether high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were independently associated with SHF. Methods In our retrospective case-control study, 2236 subjects were included, and 260 patients had SHF. Blood sample collection, clinical laboratory tests, electrocardiogram and echocardiography examinations were performed. The questionnaires were completed by professional interviews. Results In 2236 subjec...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kang S, Fan LY, Chen M, Li J, Liu ZM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

A glycation angle to look into the Diabetic Vasculopathy: Cause and Cure.
Abstract The process of advanced glycation, which is accelerated in diabetes as a result of chronic hyperglycemia and increased oxidative stress, has been suggested to play a vital role in the diabetic complications. Extensive intracellular and extracellular generation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been linked to increased risk for microvascular and macrovascular injuries in diabetes. AGEs result from the nonenzymatic reaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, potentially altering their function. AGEs act directly to induce cross-linking of long-lived pr...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ahmad S, Siddiqui Z, Rehman S, Khan MY, Khan H, Khanum S, Alouffi S, Saeed M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Klotho-FGF23, cardiovascular disease, and vascular calcification: black or white?
Abstract Patients affected by Chronic Kidney Disease and Mineral Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) have a high risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality that is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. The newest medical treatments for CKD-MBD have been associated with encouraging, but still inconsistent, improvement in CV disease complications and patient survival. A better understanding of the biomarkers and mechanisms of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), atherosclerosis, and vascular calcification (VC) may help with diagnosis and treatment of the organ damage that occurs secondary to CKD-MBD, thus improving survival. ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cozzolino M, Cianciolo G, Galassi A, Capelli I, Schillaci R, Lamanna G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Wounds difficult to heal: a social problem still rising. Effective strategies of treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that healing was promoted not only by limiting bacterial infections but also by the release of chemiotatic and proangiogenetic factors from leukocytes and platelets, improving the neoformation of capillaries. PMID: 28260516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Capoano R, Businaro R, Tesori MC, Donello C, Lombardo F, Lo Vasco VR, Capriotti L, Corsi M, Di Raimo T, Leopizzi M, Salvati B, Ricci S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Structure of atherosclerotic plaques in different vascular territories: clinical relevance.
Abstract Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease with different faces. Despite similar, or even identical, risk factors and pathogenesis, atherosclerotic lesions and their clinical manifestations vary in different parts of the vasculature. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the superficial femoral artery (SFA) represents a frequent clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease. The pathohistological characteristics of plaques in PAD differ from lesions in the coronary arteries. Plaques in the SFA have more fibrotic elements with less lipid and degenerative tissue elements; this makes them more stable and less...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Poredos P, Poredos P, Jezovnik MK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C): How Low?
Abstract Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established major cardiovascular (CV) risk factor supported by clinical evidence showing decreased atherosclerotic disease events when LDL-C is therapeutically lowered. A reasonable approach is to tailor each patient's LDL-C target level depending on the initial LDL-C level and the perceived risk. Multiple clinical entities such as the newborn, hypobetalipoproteinemia, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) missense mutations, and an unexpected excess response to a statin or other medications, are associated with very low LDL-C levels in...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Whayne TF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Blood infusion and the risk of haemorrhage in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation.
CONCLUSION: The optimum thresholds for autologous processed blood and red blood cells reinfused into the patient were 1800 and 580 ml, respectively. Increasing these thresholds augmented the risk of haemorrhage as an immediate postoperative period complication. PMID: 28201958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 13, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Luque-Oliveros M, García-Carpintero MÁ, Cauli O Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hypothyroidism and nephrotic syndrome: why, when and how to treat.
Abstract Hypothyroidism, characterised by low/normal free thyroxine (FT4) and free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a well-known complication of nephrotic syndrome (NS). This is a common feature of primary and secondary glomerular diseases and comprises loss of protein in the urine and increased urinary excretion of thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin. With a normal thyroid reserve, this scenario is associated with the development of subclinical hypothyroidism, with a slight increase in TSH and normal free fractions. However, with a low thyroid reserve the tra...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Di Mario F, Pofi R, Gigante A, Rivoli L, Rosato E, Isidori AM, Cianci R, Barbano B Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ethnic and Geographical Differences in Ischaemic Stroke Among Young Adults.
Abstract Ischaemic stroke in young adults encompasses approximately 5 - 15% of all ischaemic strokes, depending on the selected upper age limit. The key features of the disease, including incidence, risk factors, underlying causes, mortality, outcomes, as well as long-term risks of recurrent events are different from those for elderly patients. There is also evidence indicating that these characteristics may differ ethnically and geographically. It is clinically important to recognize such differences not only for correct diagnosis and treatment, but also for introducing accurate preventive measures. Ethnic differ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yesilot N, Putaala J, Bahar SZ, Tatlısumak T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Serum Calprotectin as a novel biomarker in abdominal aortic aneurysm pathogenesis and progression: Preliminary data from experimental model in rats.
This study tested the hypothesis that calprotectin, a novel biomarker for inflammation, as well as established biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) could also be indicative inflammatory biomarkers during AAA pathogenesis and progression. We also evaluated the correlation of serum soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) with AAA diameter and serum calprotectin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat abdominal aortas were perfused with porcine pancreatic elastase (ΑΑΑ Group) or saline (Control Group) and studied on post-perfusion days 7 and ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Moris D, Theocharis S, Davakis S, Patelis N, Agrogiannis G, Vlachos IS, Spartalis E, Athanasiou A, Bakoyiannis C, Perrea DN, Georgopoulos S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Surrogates of Insulin Sensitivity and Indices of Cardiometabolic Profile in Obesity.
CONCLUSION: The HOMA-AD and MI are not superior compared with the HOMA-IR, in the identification of obese individuals with a proatherogenic cardiometabolic profile. PMID: 28155627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Popovic DS, Stokic E, Mitrovic M, Tomic-Naglic D, Pejin R, Icin T, Vukovic B, Zivanovic Z, Pejakovic S, Kovacev-Zavisic B Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Matrix Gelatinases in Atherosclerosis and Diabetic Nephropathy: Progress and Challenges.
Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent proteases that degrade components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In glomerular disease, MMPs are major regulators of ECM degradation as well as structural and functional integrity in the glomerulus. In altered matrix composition diseases, glomerular damage is due to increased degradation of kidney and vessel basement membranes (BMs) by MMPs. MMP -2 and -9 are both considered as the main enzymes that degrade collagen type-IV (coll-IV), which represents the key collagenous component of ECM and constitutes the architectural structure of vessels and glom...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 2, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dimas GG, Didangelos TP, Grekas DM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Mineralocorticoid antagonists in ESRD: an overview of their efficacy and safety.
Abstract Add-on mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists (MRAs) spironolactone and eplerenone can enhance the cardioprotective action of angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin-receptor-blockers (ARBs) and/or β-blockers in non-dialysis patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. The efficacy and safety of MRAs among patients on chronic dialysis is less well studied. A growing body of evidence derived from small randomized studies suggests that MRA therapy may improve a number of surrogate cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (i.e. blood pre...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Georgianos PI, Vaios V, Eleftheriadis T, Zebekakis P, Liakopoulos V Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Galectins - a potential target for cardiovascular therapy.
Abstract Cells constantly adapt to external humoral cues like cytokines and hormones, but practically most cellular behavior is under locally guided control via cell-cell interactions. Galectins (Gals) are one of the most prominent members of the group of molecules involved in this intercellular signaling. They are the family of β-galactoside specific lectins and consist of 15 different types, each with a specific function. They play crucial role in the immune system, inflammation, wound healing and carcinogenesis. In recent times, the role of Gals in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has gained...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ashraf GM, Perveen A, Zaidi SK, Ahmad A, Shakil S, Firoz CK, Jabir NR, Hassan I, Khan TA, Yarla NS, Tabrez S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The influence of dietary components on early signs of atherosclerosis in apparently healthy young-adult males: an observational study of 615 subjects.
Conclusions Differences in the factors correlating with cIMT >0.8 mm and FMD <10% might have implications for cardiovascular risk reduction. A lower antioxidant to caloric intake ratio might be a risk factor for impaired FMD. PMID: 28155612 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Minotti GC, Cortese F, Corsonello A, Guadalupi G, D Arcangelo AP, Palumbo SD, Naio R, Clemente O, Aurelio A, Carone S, Gelsumino T, Gemignani V, Bianchini E, Vigotti M, Faita F, Greco L, Primerano R, Incalzi RA, Ciccone MM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Functional upregulation of STIM-1/Orai-1-mediated store-operated Ca2+ contributing to the hypertension development elicited by chronic EtOH consumption.
iewicz A, Jurkiewicz NH Abstract Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption has been associated with deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system by abnormal calcium (Ca²⁺) handling. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is related to cardiovascular remodeling which leads to the hypertension development, and the coupling between STIM-1 (ER Ca2+ sensor) and Orai-1 (channel pore) is a key mechanism to control SOCE through of store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCCs). However, the role of STIM-1/Orai-1-mediated SOCE and its cross-talk with EtOH-triggered vascular remodeling and hypertension remain poorly understood. We addr...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bomfim GH, Méndez-López I, Arranz-Tagarro JA, Carbonel AA, Roman-Campos D, Padín JF, García AG, Jurkiewicz A, Jurkiewicz NH Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Matricellular and Matricrine Signaling in Cardiovascular Homeostasis and Disease.
Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Increasing the understanding of the pathogenesis of various CV diseases may provide novel therapeutic targets to improve their prevention and treatment. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), also known as thrombospondin-5 (TSP-5), is a matricellular protein that is abundantly expressed in both cartilage and the CV system. Our group and others have identified COMP as playing critical roles in maintaining CV homeostasis. COMP, expressed and produced by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), maintains VSMC contr...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fu Y, Kong W Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Protective Effect of DL0805 Derivatives on Pulmonary Artery Cells and the Underlying Mechanisms Study.
Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe disease characterized by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, initially due to abnormal pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to endothelial and smooth muscle cells injury. The discovery of new chemical entities having a protective effect on pulmonary artery cells could be meaningful for the treatment of PH. We evaluated the protective effect of DL0805 derivatives (DL0805-1 and DL0805-2) on pulmonary artery vascular cells, including human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) and human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). DL0805...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yuan T, Zhang H, Chen Y, Jiao X, Xie P, Fang L, Du G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Crosstalk between oxidative and nitrosative stress and arterial stiffness.
Abstract Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy. Oxidative and nitrosative stress play important roles ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mozos I, Luca CT Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Von Willebrand Factor and cardiovascular disease: from a biochemical marker to an attractive therapeutic target.
ve; P Abstract Despite recent advances, there is still an unmet need in antithrombotic therapy. New drugs have to overcome old targets, looking for new complementary strategies to counteract thrombus formation and propagation. Since its initial recognition in the 50's, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) has proved to be a contributor in clot formation. The contribution of VWF to platelet adhesion and aggregation is pivotal at high shear rates (i.e. microcirculation and critical artery stenosis), where globular-inactive-VWF elongates in a long chain-active conformation. Particularly, at sites of plaque erosion/disruption ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gragnano F, Golia E, Natale F, Bianchi R, Pariggiano I, Crisci M, Diana V, Fimiani F, Limongelli G, Russo M, Cirillo P, Calabrò P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of diabetic dyslipidaemia.
Abstract Patients with diabetes usually exhibit diabetic dyslipidaemia. The aim of the review is to present the quantitative and qualitative alterations of lipids and lipoproteins and the associated mechanisms in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia. The main quantitative changes observed in patients with diabetic dyslipidaemia are increased triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Qualitative abnormalities mainly include increased small dense low-density lipoprotein particles (despite similar serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as non-diabetic subjects) and alter...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Filippatos T, Tsimihodimos V, Pappa E, Elisaf M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The management of dyslipidaemias in athletes.
Abstract The beneficial effects of chronic exercise training on lipoprotein metabolism include a considerable increase in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and a reduction in serum triglyceride levels. These changes are mostly reported in athletes participating in dynamic sports, especially in the endurance ones. Diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidaemias in athletes should follow the main principles of management of dyslipidaemias for the general population, while specific considerations for athletes should be taken into account. Dyslipidaemias in athletes are usually characterized by a significant geneti...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christou GA, Kouidi EJ, Deligiannis AP, Kiortsis DN Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles as immune effectors in type 2 diabetes.
uz PH Abstract The association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and systemic inflammation may increase platelet reactivity and the accelerated development of vascular disease. Platelets are able to modulate the function of immune cells via the direct release of growth factors and pro-inflammatory chemokines through the production of microvesicles. The microvesicles trigger a transcellular delivery system of bioactive molecules to other cells acting as vectors in the exchange of biological information. Here, we consider the influence of platelets and platelet-derived microvesicles on cells of the immune syst...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cortez-Espinosa N, Mayoral LP, Perez-Campos E, Fuentes HA, Mayoral EP, Martínez-Cruz R, Canseco SP, Andrade GM, Cruz MM, Velasco IG, Cruz PH Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte (N/L) and Platelet to Lymphocyte (P/L) Ratios in Differentiating Acute Heart Failure from Respiratory Infection.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations of acute heart failure (AHF) and respiratory infection (RI) frequently overlap in patients presenting with dyspnoea at the emergency department (ED). The neutrophil to lymphocyte (N/L) and platelet to lymphocyte (P/L) ratios have been proposed as diagnostic and prognostic indices in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of N/L and P/L ratios to discriminate the cause of dyspnoea in patients admitted with an initial diagnosis of AHF-RI. METHOD: 100 consecutive dyspnoeic CHF patients diagnosed as AHF-RI in the ED of Sotiria Chest Diseases General ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Siniorakis EE, Tsarouhas K, Tsitsimpikou C, Batila TC, Panta S, Zampelis KG, Rentoukas E, Triposkiadis F, Limberi SJ Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Beneficial effects of sildenafil on tissue perfusion and inflammation in a murine model of limb ischemia and atherosclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil exerts significant beneficial effects on tissue perfusion and inflammatory status after limb ischemia, a finding implying neovascularization and potential vascular protective properties of sildenafil. PMID: 28128066 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Valatsou A, Briasoulis A, Vogiatzi G, Pantopoulou A, Oikonomou E, Miliou A, Perrea D, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Indicators of cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: long term follow-up in Italian patients.
CONCLUSION: The follow-up data of a series of Italian patients with and without MetS, clearly indicates that the former have a raised cIMT and their arterial IMT progression is greater and the presence of a larger WHtR is apparently linked to a higher incidence of CV events. PMID: 28128067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 26, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mombelli G, Pavanello C, Castelnuovo S, Bosisio R, Simonelli S, Pazzucconi F, Sirtori CR Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Comparison of biolimus versus everolimus for drug-eluting stents in the percutaneous treatment of infra-inguinal arterial disease.
In conclusion, EES appear superior to BES for endovascular therapy of infra-inguinal artery disease. Dedicated randomized trials are required to definitely confirm or disprove these findings. PMID: 28117007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Giordano A, Ferraro P, Corcione N, Messina S, Maresca G, Coscioni E, Avellino R, Giordano G, Peruzzi M, Marullo AG, Napolitano G, Romano MF, Biondi-Zoccai G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Common therapeutic modalities against diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease.
Abstract Despite recent advances in medical research, the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-induced fatal events is increasing. The literature point towards several co-occurring pathways that could lead to terminal complications related with these diseases. Different pathophysiological alterations such as hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, obesity, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress lead to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques. In view of the continuous rise in fatal events and overlapping pathological conditions associated with CVD and diabet...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jabir NR, Firoz CK, Ashraf GM, Zaidi SK, Shakil S, Kamal MA, Tabrez S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signaling in Tumour Vascularization: Potential and Challenges.
Abstract Angiogenesis is defined as the physiological process by which new blood vessels develop from pre-existing vessels; either by sprouting or intussusception. Inhibition of angiogenesis is one of the most encouraging strategies to manage the growth and metastasis of cancers. The functional and proliferative status of blood vessels is regulated by the balance between various key molecules that either stimulate or inhibit angiogenesis. During quiescence, the "angiogenic switch" is "off". However, during tumour development pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEG...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Siveen KS, Prabhu K, Krishnankutty R, Kuttikrishnan S, Tsakou M, Alali FQ, Dermime S, Mohammad RM, Uddin S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Phytochemical Therapies in Vascular Functioning: A Molecular Approach.
Abstract There has been an increasing interest in the usage of natural products for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains has been shown to be negatively correlated with the risk of CVDs. These foods provide a diversity of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals and fibers which play critical roles in the sustainability of optimal cardiovascular health. Plant-based foods or a nutritional cure are gradually being integrated into medical practice for CVD managem...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gencoglu H, Orhan C, Sahin K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Thrombotic management of antiphospholipid syndrome: Towards novel targeted therapies.
Abstract Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity with persistent levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The development of thrombosis in APS is mediated by aPLs and contributes to the high mortality rate in APS patients. However, although APS has been reported for more than 30 years, there has been no optimal regimen for its prevention or for the management of thrombosis, mainly because the mainstay treatment strategies for managing APS are not targeted towards aPL-mediated thrombotic pathophysiology. Instead, the treatments com...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Asiful Islam M, Alam F, Wong KK, Kamal MA, Gan SH Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Should we be concerned about the inflammatory response to endovascular procedures?
Abstract Endovascular surgery represents a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of occlusive and aneurysmal arterial disease. However, it is followed by inflammatory response, with a rise in specific inflammatory biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and fibrinogen. Shear stress during balloon inflation and vascular injury represents triggering events for the inflammatory process, stimulating the production of proinflammatory molecules and activation of circulating monocytes. The current literature indicates that stent implantation induces more prominent inflammatory reaction. Additiona...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 5, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Radak D, Djukic N, Tanaskovic S, Obradovic M, Cenic-Milosevic D, Isenovic ER Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Gut microbiota in vascular disease: Therapeutic target?
Abstract Gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a powerful regulator of host physiology. Most of effects are mediated through metabolites acting as energy sources, signaling molecules, receptor ligands and substrates for host enzymes. Owing to the meta-stability and high amenability of the gut microbiota to modification by diet and environment, predicting specific gut microbes or its metabolites responsible for different host metabolic states is often confounded. However, through animal models and human studies a direct role of gut microbes in cardiovascular disorders (CVD) has emerged. The interaction among...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anbazhagan AN, Priyamvada S, Priyadarshini M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research