Editorial: (New Drug (LCZ696) for the Treatment of Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction After 10 Years. Can One Study Change the Guidelines?).
PMID: 25516014 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Renalase Is Removed By Kidneys And During Dialysis - Excess Related To CKD Complications?
Abstract Background: The most common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are hypertension and cardiovascular (CV) disorders. Renalase is produced and relased by the kidney and also cardiomyocytes. Renalase deficiency was claimed to be responsible for hypertension and CV complication in CKD. There are contradictory data about serum renalase becouse of low activity and high levels revealed in hypertensive patients with CKD. We assessed serum renalase concentration in objects with CKD after one-side and both-side nephrectomy (on haemodialysis [HD]), or haemodiafiltration (HDF), in urine and ultrafiltrate in...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Malyszko J, Koc-Zorawska E, Zorawski M, Kozminski P, Zbroch E, Rysz J, Banach M, Malyszko JS Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Novel microRNAs as Putative Therapeutic Targets in Cardiovascular Diseases.
PMID: 25515857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - December 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Karapetsas A, Tokamani M, Kolettas E, Sandaltzopoulos R Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Effects of Statin in Therapy in Heart Failure: A Review.
Abstract Clinical trials demonstrated that statin therapy is associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when used for either primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Several studies have shown that statins, having an important effect in the prevention of acute coronary syndromes, are also able to prevent heart failure (HF) in patients with coronary artery disease. This review summarizes the experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of statins in the management of HF. PMID: 25440594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Correale M, Abruzzese S, A Greco C, Concilio M, Di Biase M, D Brunetti N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Platelet Inhibition Agents: Current and Future P2Y12 Receptor Antagonists.
Abstract Percutaneous coronary intervention is widely used to reduce the risk of death or cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Dual antiplatelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel has become routine practice to prevent thrombotic events after coronary surgery. Despite advances of significant reduction of thrombotic complications in this adjunctive therapy, major adverse cardiovascular events still occur, suggesting the need for development of novel antiplatelet agents that act as superior alternatives to current standard regimen. Recently developed antiplatelet agents (prasugrel, ti...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tang J, Li MP, Zhou HH, Chen XP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Is There a Role for Cortisol in the Accumulation of Lipids in the Intima a Crucial Step of Atherogenesis?
ez JR Abstract Accumulation of lipids in the intima is the initial and crucial step in atherogenesis, but, this step is not always synonymous with atherogenesis. The factors that trigger the mechanisms modulating lipid accumulation in the vessel wall and in the subsequent development of atherosclerotic plaque remain unclear. In this review we evaluate whether atherogenesis is modulated by cortisol, the end hormone of the stress-related anti-inflammatory system. The amount of accumulated lipids in the intima depends on the balance between the penetration and efflux of cholesterol from the artery wall. We assess whe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fantidis P, Sánchez E, Tarhini I, Kahan I, Pineda T, Corrales JA, Gonzalez JR Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

A Systematic Review on Levosimendan in Paediatric Patients.
Abstract Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing agent that improves cardiac function, hemodynamic performance, and survival in critically ill adult patient. Few data exist on its off-label use in paediatric patients. We therefore performed a systematic review updated in September 2013 of all the published articles describing the use of levosimendan in paediatric patients. We identified 24 studies published in the period 2004-2013 that included a total of 623 patients, the largest one being a case series of 293 patients. Most of the patients underwent cardiac surgery, other settings consisting of chronic heart failu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Simona S, Paolo S, Maria Luisa A, Roberto D, Giovanni L, Alberto Z Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of Non-antihypertensive Drugs on Endothelial Function in Hypertensive Subjects Evaluated by Flow-mediated Vasodilation.
Abstract Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) is an ultrasonic method used to evaluate endothelial function, which is associated with HTN and related complications. We summarized clinical trials focusing on the effects of non-antihypertensive drugs on endothelial function, as evaluated by FMD, in patients with HTN. Hypercholesterolemic patients with HTN who used the cholesterol-lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) had improved FMD with a reduction in cholesterol levels and no significant change in blood pressure (BP). Non-diabetic patients...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Miyamoto M, Kotani K, Taniguchi N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treating Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Related to Arterial Stiffness. Can we kill Two Birds with One Stone?
Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Arterial hypertension (AH), arterial stiffness (AS), older age, and female gender are the main determinants of HFpEF, but several cardiac or extra-cardiac pathologies are also possible causes. The combined ventricular-vascular stiffening (abnormal left atrium-left ventricle coupling related to AS) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of HFpEF in elderly persons, particularly elderly women, and in younger persons with AH. The hospitalization and mortality rates of HFpEF are similar to those of heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF). Howe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Pagourelias ED, Gossios TD, Vasilikos VG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Incretin-Based Antidiabetic Agents for the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.
In conclusion, GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors appear to hold promise in patients with NAFLD but larger controlled studies with histological and clinical endpoints are needed to evaluate their effects in this population. PMID: 25412688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nakouti T, Karagiannis AK, Tziomalos K, Cholongitas E Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tenofovir-Related Nephropathies in HIV-Infected Patients.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights that TDF nephrotoxicity is a widely frequent but reversible form of renal damage with preferentially proximal tubular dysfunction. We suggest that all patients at the time of HIV diagnosis should carry out a screening for kidney disease with eGFR assessment, proteinuria, and urine analysis. PMID: 25412689 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lai S, Mariotti A, Lai C, Testorio M, Carta M, Innico G, Frassetti N, Mangiulli M, D'Angelo A, Russo GE Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

MicroRNA-136 Promotes Vascular Muscle Cell Proliferation Through the ERK1/2 Pathway by Targeting PPP2R2A in Atherosclerosis.
Abstract Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells [VSMCs] is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Accumulating evidences have revealed that microRNAs are involved in cell proliferation in various pathological conditions. In the present study, we showed that miR-136 was up regulated in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques when compared with normal coronary artery tissues. Moreover, miR-136 levels were up regulated in proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF] or serum. In cultured VSMCs, over e...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang CF, Kang K, Li XM, Xie BD Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Dyslipidemia, Vascular Atheroma and Statins.
Abstract Dyslipidemia plays an important role in the initiation, progression of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. However, regression of atherosclerotic atheroma by introducing lipid lowering agents is not fully understood but looks promising. More questions still need to be answered in terms of the modality of assessment, time course of changes and its documentation, whether plaque progression or regression assessed by imaging one arterial tree reflects a uniform effect throughout all arterial territories and whether atheroma regression is a therapeutic goal. Furthermore, which statins to use, as monothera...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 29, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Abuzaid A, El-Menyar A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of Statins on rates of Long-Term Cardiovascular Events and Restenosis Following Carotid Endarterectomy.
PMID: 25322832 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Radak D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Persistent Elevation of Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents is Associated with Arterial Hypertension and Premature Atherosclerosis in Adults. Is it Possible to Reverse This?
PMID: 25322833 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Relation between the Change in Mean Platelet Volume and Clopidogrel Resistance in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Abstract We aimed to determine the association between the change in mean platelet volume (MPV) over time and aspirin/ clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The MPV and platelet function were analysed in 302 patients who underwent PCI. MPV changes were associated with increased aspirin reaction units (ARU, r = 0.114; P = 0.047), increased P2Y12 reaction units (PRU, r = 0.193; P = 0.001), and decreased P2Y12% inhibition (PI%, r = - 0.273; P
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koh YY, Ho Kim H, Choi DH, Lee YM, Ki YJ, Kang SH, Park G, Chung JW, Chang KS, Hong SP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Phenomics of Vascular Disease: the systematic approach to the combination therapy.
Abstract Vascular diseases are usually caused by multifactorial pathogeneses involving genetic and environmental factors. Our current understanding of vascular disease is, however, based on the focused genotype/phenotype studies driven by the "one-gene/one-phenotype" hypothesis. Drugs with "pure target" at individual molecules involved in the pathophysiological pathways are the mainstream of current clinical treatments and the basis of combination therapy of vascular diseases. Recently, the combination of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has unraveled the etiology and pathophysiology of v...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 14, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Han Y, Li L, Zhang Y, Yuan H, Ye L, Zhao J, Duan DD Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Coffee: A Selected Overview of Beneficial or Harmful Effects on the Cardiovascular System?
Abstract With a history that began in 800 A.D., coffee is the most popular drink known and as a result, the issues regarding its physiologic effects deserve attention. Maintaining alertness is a well-known benefit and in addition, the cardiovascular (CV) effects of the active compounds, which include polyphenols and caffeine, must be considered. Genetics are relevant and where slow caffeine metabolism is inherent, the risk of nonfatal myocardial (MI) has been shown to be increased. Overall risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) is not supported and unless there is excessive intake, congestive heart failure (CHF) is...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 2, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Whayne Jr TF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Not Simply a Matter of Fish Intake.
Abstract Background and aims: Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short by differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. Methods and Results: Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference wa...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 2, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Scherr C, Figueiredo VN, Moura FA, Sposito AC Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Statin Potency, LDL Receptors and New Onset Diabetes.
PMID: 25135802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pleiotropic Effects of the Rho-kinase Inhibitor Fasudil After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.
Abstract There is growing evidence that Rho-kinase contributes to cardiovascular disease, which has made Rho-kinase a target for the treatment of human diseases. To date, the only Rho-kinase inhibitor employed clinically in humans is fasudil, which has been used for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury after surgery for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A number of pathological processes, in particular hemodynamic dysfunctions and inflammatory reactions, are thought to be related in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury after SAH. This review focu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - June 13, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Satoh SI, Ikegaki I, Kawasaki K, Asano T, Shibuya M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: antithrombotic therapy: current and future clinical use.
PMID: 24846223 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agnelli G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Acute antithrombotic treatment of ischemic stroke.
Abstract Antithrombotic medication is a cornerstone of acute ischemic stroke treatment and secondary prevention. The efficacy of thrombolysis with alteplase in acute stroke has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. This safe and costeffective therapy has transformed the practice of stroke care and has led to subsequent trials of other antithrombotic medications for treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute phase. These antithrombotics include thrombolytic, antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents. While, no other medication has yet demonstrated adequate efficacy, our current and evolving understanding of infa...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alderazi YJ, Grotta JC Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Secondary prevention of atherothrombotic cerebrovascular events.
The objective of this review is to discuss effective interventions for optimal secondary prevention of atherosclerotic stroke. PMID: 24846225 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paciaroni M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Primary Prevention of Ischaemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: New Oral Anticoagulant Drugs for all?
Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) confers a 4.5% risk of stroke per year. The risk of stroke increases with various risk factors and until recently, warfarin has been the gold standard of thromboembolism prophylaxis in AF for many years. The dosage of warfarin requires regular adjustment dependent on the INR, to keep within a narrow therapeutic range of 2.0- 3.0. The INR can be altered by concomitant drugs, foods and alcohol and requires inconvenient blood monitoring. Underanticoagulation places patients at risk of stroke, whilst over-anticoagulation confers significant bleeding risk. Consequently approximately ha...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Foley J, Kirchhof P, Lip GY Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Long-term Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism.
Abstract Long term treatment of venous thromboembolism is essential to complete therapy of the index episode and to reduce recurrences. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism for the majority of the patients as they allow oral administration. Low-molecular weight heparins are recommended for the long term treatment of cancer patients. The duration of long term anticoagulation depends on the features of the index venous thromboembolism and on the presence of associated risk factors. Patients at high risk for recurrence - mainly those who suffered unprovoked veno...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Becattini C, Manina G Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Acute phase treatment of pulmonary embolism.
Abstract Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially life threatening disease if left untreated. This is due to a natural tendency towards early recurrence of pulmonary emboli which may lead to right ventricular failure. Thus, anticoagulant treatment should be administered to all patients upon high or intermediate clinical probability of acute PE, while awaiting definitive confirmation by imaging procedures. With the exception of severe renal impairment, high bleeding risk, arterial hypotension, and extremes of body weight and age, unfractionated heparin has been replaced by low molecular-weight heparin or...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Chalikias G, Konstantinides S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: vascular dysfunction in obesity and insulin resistance.
PMID: 24846229 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Prieto D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Perivascular adipose tissue, inflammation and vascular dysfunction in obesity.
Abstract Adipocytes are no longer considered just as cells related to storage of energy and thermoregulation. Now we know that they release a huge number of paracrine and endocrine biologically active molecules. This is also the case for perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) that surrounds almost all blood vessels in the organism. PVAT secretes the so-called adipo(cyto)kines that, because of its proximity, can easily influence vascular smooth muscle cells. The role of PVAT on vascular function can be both protective and deleterious. Normal healthy PVAT, as present in lean subjects, helps to keep the blood vessels dil...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: de Voorde JV, Boydens C, Pauwels B, Decaluwe K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endothelial dysfunction, obesity and insulin resistance.
Abstract Obesity is a metabolic disorder of increasing prevalence worldwide and a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is related to endothelial dysfunction through indirect mechanisms such as IR and the associated risk factors, and through direct mechanisms including the production of proinflammatory adipokines and elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) by adipose tissue. Both clinical and experimental studies using genetic and diet-induced animal models of obesity have consistently shown impaired metabolic, agonistor flow-induced vasodila...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Prieto D, Contreras C, Sanchez A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Small artery remodeling in obesity and insulin resistance.
Abstract Microvascular abnormalities, both in function and structure, lead to impaired tissue perfusion that may affect multiple tissues and organs and seem to be involved in target-organ damage and complications observed in obesity and insulin resistance. In general, vascular remodeling of small arteries associated to cardiometabolic diseases seems to be hypertrophic and it is associated to increased extracellular matrix deposition, although specific vascular beds might show different structural patterns. The mechanisms by which obesity, insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulimemia determine vascular disease are no...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Briones AM, Aras-Lopez R, Alonso MJ, Salaices M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of obesity on vascular potassium channels.
In conclusion, obesity and metabolic syndrome alter expression, function and sensitivity of vascular K channel subtypes causing smooth muscle dysfunction and probably endothelial dysfunction which makes these patients particularly prone to premature cardiovascular disease. Modulation of K channel activity by use of openers of e.g. KCa and KATP channels may also be attractive to counteract vascular dysfunction observed in obesity. PMID: 24846233 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Climent B, Simonsen U, Rivera L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Obesity and coronary microvascular disease - implications for adipose tissue-mediated remote inflammatory response.
Abstract It is believed that obesity has detrimental effects on the coronary circulation. These include immediate changes in coronary arterial vasomotor responsiveness and the development of occlusive large coronary artery disease. Despite its critical role in regulating myocardial perfusion, the altered behavior of coronary resistance arteries, which gives rise to coronary microvascular disease (CMD) is poorly understood in obesity. A chronic, low-grade vascular inflammation has been long considered as one of the main underlying pathology behind CMD. The expanded adipose tissue and the infiltrating macrophages ar...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bagi Z, Broskova Z, Feher A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The effects of obesity on the cerebral vasculature.
Abstract The incidence of obesity in the population is increasing at an alarming rate, with this comes an increased risk of insulin resistance (IR). Obesity and IR increase an individual's risk of having a stroke and they have been linked to several forms of dementia. Stroke and dementia are associated with, or exacerbated by, reduced cerebral blood flow, which has recently been described in obese patients. In this review we will discuss the effects of obesity on cerebral artery function and structure. Regarding their function, we will focus on the endothelium and nitric oxide (NO) dependent dilation. NO dependent...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dorrance AM, Matin N, Pires PW Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pulmonary vascular function in insulin resistance and diabetes.
Abstract Insulin resistance and diabetes are current clinical concerns due to their increasing prevalence in western societies and in developing countries. Cardiovascular alterations, affecting both macro- and microcirculation, are among the major causes of illness and premature death within patients with insulin resistance or diabetes. However, the detrimental effects of insulin resistance and diabetes in the lungs are less clinically apparent, or at least masked by the progression of these metabolic diseases on other target organs. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest a link between pulmonary arterial h...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Moral-Sanz J, Moreno L, Cogolludo A, Perez-Vizcaino F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Microparticles as biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and its individual components.
Abstract Heterogeneous in size (0.1-1 µm), microparticles are small membrane vesicles released from activated and/or apoptotic cells. Although described since 1967 by Wolf [1], it is only since the 1990's that microparticles have been considered as biomarkers as well as potential mediators of biological messages between cells [2] by acting as paracrine and endocrine vectors. Detection of microparticles has been performed in biological fluids (blood, synovial fluid, saliva for instance) and some solid tissues but also from the culture medium [3]. Levels of circulating microparticles are enhanced in a large nu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Agouni A, Andriantsitohaina R, Martinez MC Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs.
Abstract The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Comerma-Steffensen S, Grann M, Andersen CU, Rungby J, Simonsen U Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Atrial Fibrillation and Chronic Kidney Disease in Hypertension: A Common and Dangerous Triad.
Abstract Hypertension (HTN) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often coexist sharing common pathophysiological factors that both in combination and separately induce fibrotic changes in the heart provoking atrial fibrillation (AF). AF, per se, is associated with a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of stroke and a 2-fold increased risk of all-cause death. The co-existence of AF with HTN and renal dysfunction considerably increases morbidity and mortality. Management of AF in hypertensive patients with CKD is complex and multidisciplinary, since these patients have both a prothrombotic state and a coagulopathy with an incre...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 19, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tsiachris D, Tsioufis C, Mazzone P, Katsiki N, Stefanadis C Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of Rosuvastatin on Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Hypercholesterolaemia. A Preliminary Report.
We report preliminary results for 6 patients. The second biopsy (at the end of the study) showed complete resolution of NASH in 5 patients, while the 6th, which had no improvement, developed arterial hypertension and substantial rise in triglyceride levels during the study. We suspect alcohol abuse despite advice to abstain. Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities were reduced by 76 and 61%, respectively (p
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 8, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: VITAMIN D THERAPY: AN UPDATE Available Experimental and Clinical Evidences to Select " Which D for Which Patient".
Editorial: VITAMIN D THERAPY: AN UPDATE Available Experimental and Clinical Evidences to Select " Which D for Which Patient". Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;12(2):271 Authors: Mazzaferro S, Cozzolino M PMID: 24810041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mazzaferro S, Cozzolino M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Transactivation of EGFR by G protein-coupled Receptor in the Pathophysiology of Intimal Hyperplasia.
Abstract GPCR-mediated receptor transactivation of EGFR, is one of the effector mechanisms by which GPCR ligands, such as Ang II, thrombin and ET -1, catecholamine, SII-angiotensin, PAF, uPA that are released at the arterial injury sites, can potentiate intimal hyperplasia. The process of EGFR transactivation can be cognate ligand-dependent or independent. In cognate ligand- dependent transactivation, ligand-bound GPCR results in the activation of metalloproteases, which sheds membrane tethered growth factor that binds to EGFR on an extracellular ligand-binding domain causing its transactivation. Whereas, in cogna...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sur S, Agrawal DK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ca2/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase- II in Vasoactive Peptide-Induced Responses and Vascular Biology.
Abstract Vasoactive peptides such as angiotensin II and endothelin-1 as well as growth factors regulate vascular homeostasis through signaling pathways that are triggered in both normal and disease states. These vasoactive peptides and growth factors also increase the cellular levels of calcium which, through calcium binding effector systems initiates the downstream signaling and physiological responses in target cells. A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as an important transducer of vasoactive peptide-induced responses in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Simo Cheyou ER, Bouallegue A, Srivastava AK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Atypical Gαi Signal Transduction.
Atypical Gαi Signal Transduction. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2014 Feb 26; Authors: Perrault R, Zahradka P Abstract G protein signaling is an extremely complex event that is involved in almost every cellular process. As such, G protein-coupled receptors are the most commonly found type of transmembrane receptors used by cells to initiate intracellular signaling events. However, the widely accepted model of cyclical GDP-GTP exchange in response to ligand binding to 7TMRs, followed by dissociation of the G protein subunits and activation of intracellular signaling cascades, has repeatedly been challenged in r...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Perrault R, Zahradka P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Endothelin-1 Signaling in Vascular Physiology and Pathophysiology.
Abstract The discovery of endothelin (ET) in 1988 has led to considerable effort to unravel its implication in health and disease and the mechanisms evoked by ET. ET-1 and related signaling aberrancies are believed to be implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hypertrophy and diabetes. The endothelin system consist of three potent vasoconstrictive isopeptides, ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, signaling through two G protein coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, which are linked to multiple signaling pathways. Activated signaling transduction pathways include the modu...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sandoval YH, Atef ME, Levesque LO, Li Y, Anand-Srivastava MB Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Kinin Receptors in Vascular Biology and Pathology.
Abstract Endogenous kinins are important vasoactive peptides whose effects are mediated by two G-Protein-coupled receptors (R), named B2R (constitutive) and B1R (inducible). They are involved in vascular homeostasis, ischemic pre- and post- conditioning, but also in cardiovascular diseases. They contribute to the therapeutic effects of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers. Benefits derive primarily from vasodilatory, antiproliferative, antihypertrophic, antifibrotic, antithrombic and antioxidant properties, which are associated with the release of endothelial fact...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Couture R, Blaes N, Girolami JP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Nuclear Membranes Gpcrs: Implication In Cardiovascular Health And Diseases.
Abstract G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are commonly present at the plasma membrane and their signaling modulates excitation-contraction coupling and excitation-secretion coupling of excitable and non-excitable cells of the cardiovascular system. Their effect on excitation-gene expression coupling was attributed, in part, to the nuclear translocation of their signaling and/or to the entry into the nuclear membrane of the internalized GPCRs. However, the recently established paradigm showed that, in addition to plasma membrane G-proteins, GPCRs exist as native nuclear membranes receptors and they modulate nucl...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bkaily G, Al-Khoury J, Jacques D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Vascular Biology: Implication in Health and Disease.
PMID: 24568159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 26, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anand-Srivastava MB, Srivastava AK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Glycaemic Control in Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Double-Edged Sword.
Abstract Glycaemic management is of paramount importance in the cardiac surgery setting. A growing body of evidence confirms a J-shaped relationship between blood glucose (BG) level and perioperative morbidity and mortality. On one hand, acute hypoglycaemia causes irreversible cerebral damage. On the other hand, hyperglycaemia increases the risk of infections, acute kidney injury, atrial fibrillation, low cardiac output syndrome, cerebrovascular accidents and cognitive impairment. Also, high BGvariability, even within the therapeutic window, may deteriorate the outcome. Therefore, moderate perioperative insulin ma...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Krzych LJ, Wybraniec MT Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Anti-Angiogenic Drugs in the Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma:Advances in Clinical Application.
Abstract The current paradigm in attempting to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a first line treatment with a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist and second and subsequent treatments with either a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) or a mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) inhibitor, while conventional chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment do not play a role in the management of mRCC. Several drugs directed against VEGF and VEGFR have been developed in recent times. Based on phase III data, sunitinib, pazopanib and sorafenib represent the best-supported drugs in f...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nielsen OH, Grimm D, Wehland M, Bauer J, Magnusson NE Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: ischemic stroke prevention.
PMID: 24484460 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 31, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tuttolomondo A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research