Improving adherence to Ticagrelor in patients after acute coronary syndrome: Results from the PROGRESS trial.
ve; P Abstract BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticagrelor is recommended for at least 12 months in patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, its underuse and premature discontinuation is common in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the impact of a dedicated follow-up strategy with clinical visits and counseling on adherence levels to ticagrelor in patients after ACS. METHODS: The PROGRESS is a prospective, randomized trial enrolling 400 ACS patients treated with ticagrelor. Patients were randomized to be followed-up in a dedicated outpatient clinic (In-per...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Crisci M, Gragnano F, Di Maio M, Diana V, Moscarella E, Pariggiano I, Di Maio D, Concilio C, Taglialatela V, Fimiani F, Cesaro A, Cirillo PL, Calabrò P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of Diabetic Cardiovascular Autonomic, peripheral and painful neuropathy. Focus on the treatment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy with ACE inhibitors.
Abstract Neuropathies of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems affect up to half of all people with diabetes mellitus, and are major risk factors for foot ulceration, amputation and cardiovascular dysfunction. Peripheral neuropathies manifest with either painful or painless symptoms, but many patients experience both. Once diagnosed appropriately, painful diabetic neuropathy management presents a unique challenge for physicians and should be considered as a syndrome, clinically distinct from diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The aetiology is multifactorial: metabolic changes in diabetes may directly affect ne...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Didangelos T, Veves A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Postprandial Hypertriglyceridaemia Revisited in the Era of Non-fasting Lipid Profiles: Executive Summary of a 2019 Expert Panel Statement
Nordestgaard BG PMID: 31104396 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kolovou GD, Watts GF, Mikhailidis DP, Pérez-Martínez, Mora S, Bilianou H, Panotopoulos G, Katsiki N, Ooi TC, Lopez-Miranda J, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Tentolouris N, Nordestgaard BG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Insulin Therapy, Insulin Resistance and Vascular Dysfunction
via L PMID: 31079435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 13, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vázquez MC, Sobrevia L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Postprandial Hypertriglyceridaemia Revisited In The Era Of Non-Fasting Lipid Profile Testing: A 2019 Expert Panel Statement.
Nordestgaard BG Abstract Residual vascular risk exists despite aggressive lowering of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A contributor to this residual risk may be elevated fasting, or non-fasting, levels of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. Therefore, there is a need to establish whether a standardised oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) can improve atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease (ASCVD) risk prediction in addition to a fasting or non-fasting lipid profile. An expert panel considered the role of postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia (as represented by an OFTT) in predicting ASCVD. The panel upd...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kolovou GD, Watts GF, Mikhailidis DP, Pérez-Martínez P, Mora S, Bilianou H, Panotopoulos G, Katsiki N, Ooi TC, Lopez-Miranda J, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Tentolouris N, Nordestgaard BG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Advanced Glycation End Products in Chinese Medicine Mediated Aging Diseases: A Review.
Abstract Aging has become a worldwide problem. During this process, incidence of related diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis increases dramatically. Studies within most recent two decades suggest pivotal role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in aging process. This review aims to systemically summarize effects and potential mechanism of Chinese Medicines on inhibiting AGEs-related aging diseases. PMID: 31060489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhang W, Zhao T, Zhao Y, Gui D, Xu Y Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the Treatment of Insomnia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence from 2008 to 2018.
Abstract Insomnia is a widespread sleep disorder in the general population, and it is a risk factor for impaired function, the development of other medical and mental disorders, and increase health care costs. In view of the health hazards of insomnia and the shortcomings of western medicine, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) should be considered in the management of insomnia. The present overview reports the potential role of herbal medicine and non-pharmacological therapies in the treatment of insomnia and summarizes the scientific evidence reported from 2008 to 2018. PubMed and Web of Science databas...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cheng B, Liu Y, Tian J, Gao R, Liu Y Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: Early detection of microvascular complications is of great importance, as early intervention leads to better outcomes, but requires awareness of their definition, prevalence and diagnostic modalities. PMID: 31057114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - May 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Faselis C, Katsimardou A, Imprialos K, Deligkaris P, Kallistratos M, Dimitriadis K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pre- and Post-conditioning in Cardiovascular Surgery
PMID: 31030481 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Guerrero OJL, Ramirez Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Response on Patient Adherence to Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation and Occurrence of Associated Bleeding Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
PMID: 31030502 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shehab, Bhagavathula AS, Abebe TB, Abegaz TM, Elnour AA, Sabbour HM, Uzzafer M, Ahmad H, Hamad AK Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Arterial Stiffness, Cognitive Dysfunction, and Adherence to Antihypertensive Agents. Is there a Link to Hypertensive Patients?
Abstract The incidence of hypertension (HTN) and its cardiovascular (CV) complications are increasing throughout the world. Blood pressure (BP) control remains unsatisfactory worldwide. Medical inertia and poor adherence to treatment are among the factors that can partially explain, why BP control rate remains low. The introduction of a method for measuring the degree of adherence to a given medication is now a prerequisite. Complex treatment regimes, inadequate tolerance and frequent replacements of pharmaceutical formulations are the most common causes of poor adherence. In contrast, the use of stable combinatio...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kalaitzidis RG, Panagiotopoulou T, Stagikas D, Pappas K, Mpalafa O, Elisaf MS Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diabetes and heart failure: Is it hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia?
Abstract The cardiac effects of exogenously administered insulin for the treatment of diabetes (DM) have recently attracted much attention. In particular, it has been questioned whether insulin is the appropriate treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure. While several old and some new studies suggested that insulin treatment has beneficial effects for the heart, recent observational studies indicate associations of insulin treatment with increased risk of developing or worsening of a pre-existing heart failure and higher mortality rates. However, there is actually little eviden...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Didangelos T, Kantartzis K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Management and Outcomes of Aortic Dissection in Pregnancy with Marfan syndrome: A Systematic Review.
CONCLUSIONS: Women with MFS are at high risk of aortic dissection during pregnancy and women with aortic root 41-45 mm should consider avoiding pregnancy. Guideline-specific management of aortic aneurysms in pregnancy will reduce the risk of dissection. Diagnosis and Management of MFS needs a multidisciplinary approach and team that should start working early in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to optimize medical and surgical approaches in addition to preconception counselling in high risk subjects. PMID: 30963974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Al-Thani H, Mekkodathil A, El-Menyar A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The incidence of adverse drug reactions in patients treated with statins in the Emirates: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: The incidence of ADRs among statin users was 42.6%, and frequent ADRs (49%) were noted in patients with high CVD risk. Early identification of these ADRs should improve patient adherence to life-saving statin treatment. PMID: 30963975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shehab A, Bhagavathula AS, Elnour AA, Al-Rasadi K, Al-Shamsi S Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Myths and realities with regard to cardiovascular risk.
Abstract Vitamin D and calcium are considered crucial for the treatment of bone diseases. Both vitamin D and calcium contribute to bone homeostasis but also preserve muscle health by reducing the risk of falls and fractures. Low vitamin D concentrations result in secondary hyperparathyroidism and contribute to bone loss, although the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism varies, even in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency. Findings from observational studies have shown controversial results regarding to the association between bone mineral density and vitamin D/calcium status, thus sparking a debate r...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Muscogiuri G, Barrea L, Altieri B, Di Somma C, Bhattoa H, Laudisio D, Duval GT, Pugliese G, Annweiler C, Orio F, Fakhouri H, Savastano S, Colao A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Advances in dermoepidermal skin substitutes for diabetic foot ulcers.
;nez JL, Kakagia D, Papanas N Abstract Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one of the major complications of diabetes, representing a leading cause of hospitalisation and non-traumatic lower limb amputations. Multidisciplinary management, patient education, glucose control, debridement, off-loading, infection control, and adequate perfusion are the mainstays of standard care. Despite all these, at least 30% of DFUs fail to heal within 20 weeks. Therefore, dermoepidermal skin substitutes (DSS) have been used as a new therapeutic adjunct for DFUs. This brief review outlines the recent advances in DSS for the treatment o...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Álvaro-Afonso FJ, García-Álvarez Y, Lázaro-Martínez JL, Kakagia D, Papanas N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
CONCLUSION: T2DM causes a variety of macrovascular complications through different pathogenetic pathways that include hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The association between T2DM and cardiovascular disease is clear, but we need more clinical studies in order to identify the pure effect of T2DM. PMID: 30961498 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Viigimaa M, Sachinidis A, Toumpourleka M, Koutsampasopoulos K, Alliksoo S, Titma T Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; new kids on the block.
CONCLUSIONS: Newer antidiabetic drugs (SPPARMs, GLP-1 RA and SGLT2i) alone or in combination and acting alone or on the background of potent statin therapy which is recommended in T2DM, might contribute substantially to NAFLD/NASH amelioration, possibly reducing not only liver specific but also cardiovascular morbidity. These observations warrant long term placebo controlled randomized trials with appropriate power and outcomes, focusing on the general population and more specifically on T2DM with NAFLD/NASH. Certain statins may be useful for treating NAFLD/NASH, while they substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk....
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Athyros VG, Polyzos SA, Kountouras J, Katsiki N, Anagnostis P, Doumas M, Mantzoros CS Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pharmacological Management of Diabetic Nephropathy.
CONCLUSION: RAS inhibitors, SGLT-2i and GLP-1 agonists were found to be beneficial for the treatment of DN. Larger renal trials are needed in order to incorporate these drugs into the first line treatment of DN. PMID: 30961500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Papademetriou V, Alataki S, Stavropoulos K, Papadopoulos C, Bakogiannis K, Tsioufis K Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Growing Epidemic Of Diabetes Mellitus.
CONCLUSION: Having recognized the global burden of DM, we now realize the urgent need for effective interventions. In order to monitor the public-health strategies and design effective future interventions we need reliable global estimates regarding the prevalence of DM. PMID: 30961501 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - April 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lovic D, Piperidou A, Zografou I, Grassos H, Pittaras A, Manolis A Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Lethal Combination Requiring Better Therapeutic Strategies.
PMID: 30919778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katsiki N, Papanas N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Hypertriglyceridemia: An Infrequent, Difficult-to-Predict, Severe Metabolic and Vascular Problem Associated with Estrogen Administration.
Abstract Supplementary estrogen plays important roles for female patients as convenient birth control, relief of postmenopausal symptoms, and in management of other selected problems. However, as is the case for essentially all medications, there are side effects. Short of a major pulmonary embolus, the most severe side effect of estrogen would appear to be sporadic, rare, and severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with acute pancreatitis. The occurrence of this fortunately rare problem usually happens in the presence of some preexisting and usually mild increase in triglycerides (TG). A case of chronic and severe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - March 5, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Whayne TF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Menopause and its Cardiometabolic Consequences: Current Perspectives.
Abstract PMID: 30816074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anagnostis P Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The bleeding risk in antithrombotic therapies: a narrative review.
Abstract Bleeding represents the most important complication of antithrombotic treatment, including anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies. A number of scores were proposed to evaluate the risk of bleeding both for anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment. In the last decade, 5 bleeding risk scores were published for use in atrial fibrillation patients, and 3 scores for patients receiving anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism therapy or prophylaxis. In addition, 3 scores were recently developed to assess in-hospital or short-term bleeding risk in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary s...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Alatri A, Mazzolai L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of Thrombosis in Peripheral Artery Disease.
Abstract Under physiological conditions, peripheral arteries release endogenous vascular-protective and anti-thrombotic agents. Endothelial cells actively synthesize vasoactive mediators, which regulate vascular tone and platelet reactivity thus preventing thrombosis. Atherosclerosis disrupts this homeostasis and favours thrombosis by triggering pro-thrombotic responses in the vessels, platelet activation, aggregation as well as vasoconstriction, phenomena that ultimately lead to symptomatic lumen restriction or complete occlusion In the present review, we will discuss the homeostatic role of arterial vessels in r...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Habib A, Petrucci G, Rocca B Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antithrombotic Therapy in Lower Extremity Artery Disease.
Abstract Lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) is a marker of a more advanced atherosclerotic process often affecting multiple vascular beds beyond the lower limbs, with a consequent increased risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Antithrombotic therapy is the cornerstone of management of these patients to prevent ischaemic cardiovascular and limb events and death. In patients with symptomatic LEAD, the efficacy of aspirin has been established long ago for the prevention of cardiovascular events. In the current guidelines, clopidogrel may be preferred over aspirin following its incremental ability to pr...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vrsalovic M, Aboyans V Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antithrombotic therapy for peripheral revascularisation.
We present an overview of the indications and techniques of both endovascular and surgical peripheral revascularisation, followed by an in-depth analysis of the available evidence regarding type and duration of antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatment following revascularisation. PMID: 30727899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carlo M, Angelillis M, Liga R Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Hypertension: Role of Hypertension as a Biomarker in Cancer Treatment.
NE Abstract Cancer treatment is an area of continuous improvement. Therapy is becoming more targeted and the use of anti-angiogenic agents in multiple cancers, specifically tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), has demonstrated prolonged survival outcomes compared with previous drugs. Therefore, they have become a well-established part of treatment. Despite good results, there is a broad range of moderate to severe adverse effects associated with treatment. Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most frequent adverse effects and has been associated with favourable outcomes (in terms of cancer treatment) of TKI treatment. ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Budolfsen C, Faber J, Grimm D, Krüger M, Bauer J, Wehland M, Infanger M, Magnusson NE Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of Early Normotension with Olmesartan on Rho-kinase Activity in Hypertensive Patients.
za MP Abstract BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II is a potent activator of the Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway, through which it exerts some of its adverse vasoconstrictor effects. Clinical evidence on the effects of blocking the angiotensin II receptor 1 on ROCK activity in hypertensive patients is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that ROCK activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with essential hypertension is reduced earlier than previously observed, along with blood pressure (BP) lowering on treatment with olmesartan. METHOD: Prospective pilot open study; 17 hypertensive patients were tre...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cantin C, Jalil JE, Bulnes JF, Novoa U, MacNab P, Godoy I, Córdova S, Gabrielli L, Ocaranza MP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of lipid lowering drugs on arterial stiffness. One more way to reduce cardiovascular risk?
Abstract Arterial stiffness (AS) is considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Among lipid lowering drugs, statins have a beneficial effect on AS, independent of their hypolipidaemic effect. Based on 3 meta-analyses and other studies, this effect is compound- and dose-related. Potent statins at high doses are more effective than less powerful statins. Ezetimibe (± statin) also seems to decrease AS in patients with dyslipidaemia. Fibrates have no effect on AS. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have data that beneficially affect all AS risk facto...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Reklou A, Katsiki N, Karagiannis A, Athyros V Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Editorial: Familial Hypercholesterolaemia Registry in the MENA Region
PMID: 30650941 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - January 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kolovou G, Watts GF Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Preface.
Abstract PMID: 30474521 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mikhailidis DP Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Effect of Drugs and Genetic Factors on the Development and Progression of the Atherosclerotic Process.
ič D Abstract PMID: 30474522 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Šabovič M, Petrovič D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Insulin therapy in pregnancy hypertensive diseases and its effect on the offspring and mother later in life.
ez CM Abstract Pregnancy hypertensive disorders such as preeclampsia (PE) are strongly correlated with insulin resistance, a condition in which the metabolic handling of D-glucose is deficient. In addition, the impact of preeclampsia is enhanced by other insulin resistant disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity. For this reason, there is a clear association among maternal insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and the development of PE. However, whether PE is a consequence or the cause of these disorders is still unclear. Insulin therapy is usually recommended to pregnant women w...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mate A, Blanca AJ, Salsoso R, Toledo F, Stiefel P, Sobrevia L, Vázquez CM Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The role of Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis and Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors in the Central Nervous System in Cardiovascular Disease and therapeutics: A riddle to be solved.
Abstract In recent years, the Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor [Ang-(1-7)/Mas] sub-branch of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) in the brain, as well as Angiotensin Type 2 Receptors (AT2R), have attracted scientific interest, as there is evidence that they constitute an essential pathway in cardiovascular regulation, in health and in disease. By acting centrally, the Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis - that has been termed 'the axis of good'- can exert blood pressure-lowering effects, while also favourably altering baroreflex sensitivity and noradrenergic neurotransmission. Thus, research has focused on the possible neuro- and car...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - November 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katsi V, Maragkoudakis S, Marketou M, Tsioufis C, Parthenakis F, Tousoulis D Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clopidogrel Hypersensitivity: Pathogenesis, Presentation, and Diagnosis.
Abstract This paper provides an overview of the pathogenesis, presentation and diagnosis of clopidogrel hypersensitivity. The majority of clopidogrel hypersensitivity cases are due to a T cell mediated Gell and Coombs Type IV reaction. History, histology, and patch testing have shown consistency with a T cell mediated mechanism. Clopidogrel reactions most commonly present as a mild delayed maculopapular erythematous rash 5 to 10 days after introduction of the drug, and do not always require discontinuation of the drug. Severe cutaneous, systemic, and immediate adverse reactions to clopidogrel are rare. For the dia...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ford MK, Cohn JR Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clopidogrel Desensitization: Background and Recommendations for Use of a Rapid (4 Hour) Protocol.
Discussion: The exact immunologically mediated mechanism of how rapid oral desensitization works is not fully understood and yet to be defined. Ultimately desensitization results in causing antigen-specific mast cell tolerance. Various protocols have been published. The length of desensitization ranged from 2 h using 9 doses to 7 h using 15 doses. Recommendations: Taking the above into account, we recommend using a modification to the protocol that has the largest number of patients to undergo a standardized clopidogrel desensitization. This approach is shorter, as time is often of the essence in these patients. Dosing sta...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bulva J, Simon RA Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Vascular damage in obesity and diabetes: Highlighting links between endothelial dysfunction and metabolic disease in zebrafish and man.
Abstract Endothelial dysfunction is an initial pathophysiological mechanism of vascular damage and is further recognized as an independent predictor of a negative prognosis in diabetes-induced micro- and macrovascular complications. Insight into the capability of zebrafish to model metabolic disease like obesity and type II diabetes has increased and new evidence on the induction of vascular pathologies in zebrafish through metabolic disease is available. Here, we raise the question, if zebrafish can be utilized to study the initial impairments of vascular complications in metabolic disorders. In this review, we f...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wiggenhauser LM, Kroll J Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Diabetes and Mortality in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Findings from the Gulf COAST registry.
CONCLUSIONS: DM patients presenting with ACS-STEMI have poor short-term outcomes while DM-NSTEMI patients have poor long-term outcomes. This highlights the need for strategies to evaluate DM control and integration of care to control vascular risk among this high-risk population. PMID: 30360744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shehab A, Bhagavathula AS, Al-Rasadi K, Alshamsi F, Al Kaab J, Thani KB, Mustafa R Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cushing's Syndrome should be Cited as a Disease with High Cardiovascular Risk in Relevant Guidelines.
Abstract The intention of the paper is to give rationale and to suggest enlisting Cushing's syndrome (CS) amongst high cardiovascular (CV) risk conditions. A considerable amount of data refers to several-fold amplified mortality in CS. The causes are based on high occurrence of many CV risk factors in persons with CS (e.g., adiposity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, as well as diabetes mellitus /DM/). Therefore, practically all individuals with CS have correspondingly the metabolic syndrome (MetSy), which is known as laden with high CV risk. Characteristically, in spite of the young average age, numerous of C...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koracevic G, Stojkovic M, Lovic D, Pavlovic M, Kostic T, Kutlesic M, Micic S, Koracevic M, Djordjevic M Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Gulf Familial Hypercholesterolemia Registry (Gulf FH): Design, Rationale and Preliminary Results.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of FH in the adult population of the Arabian Gulf region is high. The Gulf FH registry, a first-of-a-kind multi-national study in the Middle East region, will help in improving underdiagnosis and undertreatment of FH in the region. PMID: 30289081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Al-Rasadi K, Alhabib KF, Al-Allaf F, Al-Waili K, Al-Zakwani I, AlSarraf A, Almahmeed W, AlSayed N, Alghamdi M, Batais MA, Almigbal TH, Alnouri F, Kinsara A, Hammouda A, Awan Z, Kary H, Elamin OA, Zadjali F, Al-Jarallah M, Shehab A, Sabbour H, Amin H, Alta Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk in perimenopausal women.
Abstract Cardiovascular disease, and particularly coronary heart disease (CHD), has a low incidence in premenopausal women. Loss of ovarian hormones during the perimenopause and menopause leads to a sharp increase in incidence. Although most CHD risk factors are common to both men and women, the menopause is a unique additional risk factor for women. Sex steroids have profound effects on many CHD risk factors. Their loss leads to adverse changes in lipids and lipoproteins, with increases being seen in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) chole...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Stevenson JC, Tsiligiannis S, Panay N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Extracellular vesicles and insulin resistance: a potential interaction in vascular dysfunction.
Abstract Insulin resistance plays a key role in cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus and hypertensive disorders. In states of insulin resistance several circulating factors may contribute to a defective insulin sensitivity in different tissues, including the vasculature. One of these factors influencing the vascular insulin resistance are the extracellular vesicles. The extracellular vesicles include exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies which are released to the circulation by different vascular cells. Since the cargo of extracellular vesicles seems to be altered in metabolic com...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - October 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Saez T, Toledo F, Sobrevia L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Smoking and Endothelial Dysfunction.
Abstract Cigarette smoking is one the most important health concerns worldwide. Even though the rate of smoking is declining in developed countries, it is still experiencing growth in developing regions. Many studies have examined the relationship between smoking, as an established risk factor, and cardiovascular diseases. We provide an updated review of the underlying mechanisms of smoking-induced cardiovascular diseases, with a focus on the relationship between smoking and oxidative stress, particularly from the perspective of endothelial cell dysfunction. We review smoking-induced oxidative stress as a trigger ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Golbidi S, Edvinsson L, Laher I Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Non-hormonal replacement therapy regimens: do they have an effect on cardiovascular risk?
CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to produce definite conclusions regarding the cardiovascular safety of non-hormonal medications for menopausal symptoms relief. PMID: 30205798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mareti E, Ampatzi C, Paschou SA, Voziki E, Goulis DG Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Involvement of intracellular pH in vascular insulin resistance.
Abstract The maintenance of the pH homeostasis is maintained by several mechanisms including the efflux of protons (H+) via membrane transporters expressed in almost all mammalian cells. Along these membrane transporters the sodium/H+ exchangers (NHEs), mainly NHE isoform 1 (NHE1), plays a key role in this phenomenon. NHE1 is under modulation by several environmental conditions (v.g., hyperglycaemia, protein kinase C activity) as well as hormones, including insulin. NHE1 activation causes intracellular alkalization in human endothelial cells leading to activation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to ...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 10, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramirez MA, Beltran AR, Araya JE, Cornejo M, Toledo F, Fuentes G, Sobrevia L Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Metabolic syndrome during menopause.
Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises individual components including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension and it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The menopause per se increases the incidence of MetS in aging women. The effect(s) of menopause on individual components of MetS include: i) increasing central obesity with changes in the fat tissue distribution, ii) potential increase in insulin resistance, iii) changes in serum lipid concentrations, which seem to be associated with increasing weight rathe...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - September 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mumusoglu S, Yildiz BO Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Resistance to Diuretics in Heart Failure: Any Role for Empagliflozin?
PMID: 30173648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 31, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Katsiki N, Triposkiadis F Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and distal symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy: these two diabetic microvascular complications do not invariably co-exist.
CONCLUSIONS: CAN does not always co-exist with degrees of DSPN, ranging from mild to moderate/severe and is similarly distributed in T1DM and T2DM patients with mild and moderate/severe DSPN and in patients without DSPN. PMID: 30156161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 29, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pafili K, Trypsianis G, Papazoglou D, Maltezos E, Papanas N Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies affecting women of reproductive age. The hormonal alterations of PCOS have been linked with a higher risk of metabolic disturbances in young, reproductively active women. However, it remains to be clarified whether the presence of PCOS increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Aging ameliorates the clinical manifestations of PCOS; hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic abnormalities, however, persist beyond the menopause. On the other hand, aging and menopause increase CVD risk in the general female population. T...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - August 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lambrinoudaki I, Armeni E Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research