Scope and Efficacy of Preventive Measures in Contact Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo describe the scope and review the efficacy of interventions to prevent contact dermatitis.Recent findingsUniversal measures to prevent contact dermatitis start at the population level with legislation regulating exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. Primary measures include health education on skin care and protection, use of moisturisers and proper use of protective gloves. The overall epidemiological evidence regarding the efficacy of such preventive measures varies from low to moderate. Secondary prevention comprises the application of specific diagnostic procedures and early interventi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Role of TF-Triggered Activation of the Coagulation Cascade in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo overview recent understanding of the relationship between the blood coagulation cascade and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU).Recent FindingsThe relationship between severities of CSU and the increase of coagulation markers, and the effectiveness of anti-coagulants, such as warfarin, suggest a causative role of the blood coagulation in the pathogenesis of CSU. However, mechanisms of the initiation of blood coagulation, and the link between blood coagulation and wheal formation in urticaria, remained unclear. In blood vessels, vascular endothelial cells and eosinophils may express tissue factor...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 5, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dietary and Nutritional Influences on Allergy Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNutritional status has a profound effect on immune function, and vitamin D, omega-3 fats, and other nutrients have long been suspected of influencing the development of the allergic march, and the incidence and severity of allergic conditions. This review provides an overview of research and opinion published during the past decade and summarizes clinically actionable information about dietary and nutritional influences on allergy prevention.Recent FindingsThere is now enough evidence of effects of vitamin D, omega-3 fats, the Mediterranean diet, and antioxidants to recommend their use in routine c...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nutritional Management of Patients With Pollen Food Syndrome: Is There a Need?
AbstractPurpose of reviewPollen food syndrome (PFS) is a highly prevalent condition causing mild oropharyngeal reactions to plant foods due to recognition by pollen-specific antibodies. It is most frequent in adults, but it can also occur in children. This review aims to establish the pitfalls of diagnosis and the nutritional consequences, and whether individuals with PFS require an individualised dietary and nutritional management strategy.Recent findingsThe diagnosis of PFS can be made through history alone but is greatly enhanced by undertaking component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) tests to individual allergens in birch p...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Allergy and Asthma: Is There a Link?
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo describe and understand the links and interactions between food allergy and asthmaRecent findingsFood allergy and asthma are characterized by an increasing prevalence. Moreover, food allergy and asthma often coexist. Both conditions are associated with each other in different ways. It has been shown that food allergy is a risk factor of developing asthma. Atopic dermatitis appears to be the common denominator in this interaction. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin mutation result in an impaired epidermal barrier function and have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of atop...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dietary and Nutritional Influences on Allergy Prevention
AbstractPurpose of ReviewNutritional status has a profound effect on immune function, and vitamin D, omega-3 fats, and other nutrients have long been suspected of influencing the development of the allergic march, and the incidence and severity of allergic conditions. This review provides an overview of research and opinion published during the past decade and summarizes clinically actionable information about dietary and nutritional influences on allergy prevention.Recent FindingsThere is now enough evidence of effects of vitamin D, omega-3 fats, the Mediterranean diet, and antioxidants to recommend their use in routine c...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nutritional Management of Patients With Pollen Food Syndrome: Is There a Need?
AbstractPurpose of reviewPollen food syndrome (PFS) is a highly prevalent condition causing mild oropharyngeal reactions to plant foods due to recognition by pollen-specific antibodies. It is most frequent in adults, but it can also occur in children. This review aims to establish the pitfalls of diagnosis and the nutritional consequences, and whether individuals with PFS require an individualised dietary and nutritional management strategy.Recent findingsThe diagnosis of PFS can be made through history alone but is greatly enhanced by undertaking component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) tests to individual allergens in birch p...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food Allergy and Asthma: Is There a Link?
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo describe and understand the links and interactions between food allergy and asthmaRecent findingsFood allergy and asthma are characterized by an increasing prevalence. Moreover, food allergy and asthma often coexist. Both conditions are associated with each other in different ways. It has been shown that food allergy is a risk factor of developing asthma. Atopic dermatitis appears to be the common denominator in this interaction. Loss-of-function variants of the filaggrin mutation result in an impaired epidermal barrier function and have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of atop...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - October 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergen Immunotherapy for the Prevention of Allergic Asthma
AbstractPurpose of review:Children with allergic rhinitis (AR) have a high risk of developing asthma. An effect beyond end of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been demonstrated, and moreover a preventive effect on the development of asthma in children with AR is suggested. The aim of this review is to discuss the evidence for the asthma preventive capacity of AIT.Recent findings:According to the recently published systematic review and clinical practice AIT guideline from The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), there is sufficient evidence to recommend a 3-year course of AIT for children and adoles...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - September 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

What Do We Really Know About Intralymphatic Immunotherapy?
AbstractPurpose of reviewAllergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only causal treatment method of IgE-mediated allergies that may lead to long-term symptom amelioration even after the end of treatment, positively interfere with the course of disease, and improve the immunological situation of the patient. While AIT in general requires treatment periods over 3 up to 5  years, intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT) needs only three ultrasound-guided injections of low allergen doses into inguinal lymph nodes with 4-week time interval making the entire treatment possible within 2 months.Recent findingsThe number of ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - September 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Duration of Allergen Immunotherapy for Long-Term Efficacy in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis
AbstractRationaleSubcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy are effective for allergic rhinitis. An important question is whether allergen immunotherapy provides a sustained clinical effect after treatment cessation. In view of potential side effects, cost and the necessary patient commitment, long-term benefit is an important consideration for the recommendation of immunotherapy over standard pharmacotherapy.Purpose of reviewIn this review, we analyse the existing evidence for long-term effects of both routes of administration in the context of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trials that included a fo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - September 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nettle Allergy: a Review and Clinical Perspective
The objectives of this article are to review the available literature regarding the geographic distribution of nettle, allergen(s) involved, cross-reactivity, role in allergic rhinitis, immunotherapy efficacy, and provide a clinical perspective on the evaluation and treatment of nettle sensitized patients.Recent findingsStinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a bi-annual pollinator with worldwide distribution and wide use in homeopathy. Limited data suggest that nettle pollen allergens may be considered clinically relevant and that nettle pollen allergy may be underestimated. More recent allergomic analysis of nettle pollen has...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - September 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanism of Synthetic Peptide Immuno-Regulatory Epitopes and Their Clinical Efficacy in the Treatment of Allergic Disease
AbstractPurpose of reviewPeptide immunotherapy with synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs) is a safer alternative to conventional allergen immunotherapy (AIT) owing to the reduced risk of IgE-mediated adverse reactions and shorter treatment schedules. Over the last 5  years, significant advances have been made in evaluating SPIREs for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review includes a summary of recent phase II and III clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of SPIREs and a brief discussion on their mechanism of action.Recent findingsTo date, SPIREs have been developed for cat, house dust mite (...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - September 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contact Urticaria and Protein Contact Dermatitis —a Frequently Hidden Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of reviewWe hope that this review can assist in the classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a contact urticaria syndrome (CUS), a syndrome in which the understanding of such is still evolving.Recent findingsCUS and protein contact dermatitis (PCD) can be defined as an immediate inflammatory reaction of the skin following contact with an external substance. Erythema, wheals, and eczema, as well as other manifestations can occur as a result of this inflammatory reaction. Many low molecular weight substances and proteins are known to produce these immediate skin contact reactions. These reactio...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - September 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Duration of Allergen Immunotherapy for Long-Term Efficacy in Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis
AbstractRationaleSubcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy are effective for allergic rhinitis. An important question is whether allergen immunotherapy provides a sustained clinical effect after treatment cessation. In view of potential side effects, cost and the necessary patient commitment, long-term benefit is an important consideration for the recommendation of immunotherapy over standard pharmacotherapy.Purpose of reviewIn this review, we analyse the existing evidence for long-term effects of both routes of administration in the context of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trials that included a fo...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - August 31, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Mechanism of Synthetic Peptide Immuno-Regulatory Epitopes and Their Clinical Efficacy in the Treatment of Allergic Disease
AbstractPurpose of reviewPeptide immunotherapy with synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs) is a safer alternative to conventional allergen immunotherapy (AIT) owing to the reduced risk of IgE-mediated adverse reactions and shorter treatment schedules. Over the last 5  years, significant advances have been made in evaluating SPIREs for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review includes a summary of recent phase II and III clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of SPIREs and a brief discussion on their mechanism of action.Recent findingsTo date, SPIREs have been developed for cat, house dust mite (...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - July 18, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Nettle Allergy: a Review and Clinical Perspective
The objectives of this article are to review the available literature regarding the geographic distribution of nettle, allergen(s) involved, cross-reactivity, role in allergic rhinitis, immunotherapy efficacy, and provide a clinical perspective on the evaluation and treatment of nettle sensitized patients.Recent findingsStinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a bi-annual pollinator with worldwide distribution and wide use in homeopathy. Limited data suggest that nettle pollen allergens may be considered clinically relevant and that nettle pollen allergy may be underestimated. More recent allergomic analysis of nettle pollen has...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - July 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis Inception and Control
This article summarizes the main consequences of the complex relationship that exists between allergic rhinitis, environmental pollution, and climate change and presents some potential measures aiming at modifying some aspects of this intriguing relationship to achieve a clinical benefit in patients suffering from allergic diseases, especially allergic rhinitis. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewFood-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a form of anaphylaxis that occurs associated with exercise, in which symptoms develop by the combination of food ingestion and physical activity. We aimed to review and discuss the main clinical recommendations for management of FDEIA, focusing on individual factors.Recent findingsNew diagnostic strategies have been developed to optimize the accuracy of provocation challenges, taking in consideration augmenting factors, such as alcohol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, FDEIA is still insufficiently diagnosed and a high index of...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Are Large Local Reactions Useful to Predict Future Anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera Stings?
AbstractPurpose of reviewUnaware of the natural history of large local reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings, patients and clinicians are often concerned when faced with these reactions. These concerns include the difficulty in avoiding stings, the local discomfort, and the fear that the local reaction portends systemic, potentially life-threatening subsequent reactions. This review presents the historical studies that have assessed the natural history of large local reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings and, in doing so, provides rationale for the current consensus guidelines for the management of these reactions.Recent...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

ARIA 2017: a Review of Major Changes and Innovations
ConclusionARIA guideline has evolved to a technology-based implementation strategy to help rhinitis sufferers to have an active and healthy life and to reduce health and social inequalities caused by this very common disease, irrespective of their age, sex, or socio-economic status. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Use of a Combination of Allergen Immunotherapy and Omalizumab for Prevention of Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewAllergen immunotherapy (AIT) is aimed at the etiological treatment of respiratory allergy and Hymenoptera venom allergy, while it is still under investigation for food allergy. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions to AIT is generally low, but may hamper its completion and makes needed preventive treatment.Recent findingsSeveral studies focused the attention on the use of the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab to prevent anaphylaxis in patients at high risk of systemic reactions, that is especially elevated during food allergy AIT and, in certain circumstances, during venom immunotherapy (VIT).SummaryW...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impact and Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Adults and Children with Allergic Rhinitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the impact and the treatment of sleep disturbance caused by allergic rhinitis (AR) in adult and pediatric patients.Recent FindingsAlthough intranasal corticosteroids (INS) remain the mainstay treatments for AR-induced sleep disturbance, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been suggested to be effective in altering the course and progression of moderate-to-severe AR that is refractory to pharmacotherapy. MP-AzeFlu is a recently developed formulation containing azelastine, an intranasal antihistamine (INAH), and fluticasone propionate, an INS. MP-AzeFlu has been reported to ha...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Cofactors for Severe Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewSevere anaphylaxis is a generalized reaction in which cardiovascular and respiratory involvement lead to a fatal or near-fatal outcome. Triggers of severe anaphylaxis differ from one age group to another and are mostly represented by drugs and hymenoptera stings in adults and food in children. Several risk factors and cofactors can increase the odds of severe anaphylaxis by different and still undefined mechanisms.Recent findingsMajor risk factors for severe anaphylaxis include old age, male sex, and preexisting medical conditions such as mast cell disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and uncontroll...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Allergic Conjunctivitis
AbstractPurpose of the reviewThe purpose of this review is to define the classification, diagnosis, and management in adults and children with allergic conjunctivitis with emphasis on recent findings.Recent findingsCurrent literature divides allergic conjunctivitis according to severity and frequency, facilitating its diagnosis, study, and treatment choices. Novel pharmacological therapies aim at inhibiting inflammatory pathways at a specific molecular level and include selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists, kinase inhibitors, and IL-1 receptor antagonists.SummaryOcular allergies are a group of heterogeneous diseases ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Update on the Management of Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo highlight the latest evidence supporting management recommendations in anaphylaxis and discuss the implications for further research in anaphylaxis management.Recent findingsThe acute management of anaphylaxis is largely centered on resuscitation and administration of epinephrine. There is little evidence to support the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids in the acute management of anaphylaxis.SummaryAnaphylaxis is an acute, systemic, potentially life-threatening reaction caused by the release of mast cell and basophil mediators that could lead to distributive shock. Anaphylaxis is associa...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergic Rhinitis and Other Atopic Diseases in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
AbstractPurpose of reviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) constitute high-prevalence entities in the pediatric population, and both affect the quality of life of children and their families. Over the last decade, it has been stated that a high number of patients with ADHD show comorbidities with allergic diseases. The aim of this review is to assess the current information about the relationship between both entities.Recent findingsAccording to some authors, a causal association between them has been proposed since they have genetic, environmental, and inflammatory physiopathologic...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis Inception and Control
Unfortunately, the original publication of this article contained mistakes. The publisher introduced an error after proofreading where the family name of the co-author was mistakenly captured as “Fenández Caldas”. The correct family name should be “Fernández-Caldas”. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - June 1, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Allergic Rhinitis and Other Atopic Diseases in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
AbstractPurpose of reviewAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic rhinitis (AR) constitute high-prevalence entities in the pediatric population, and both affect the quality of life of children and their families. Over the last decade, it has been stated that a high number of patients with ADHD show comorbidities with allergic diseases. The aim of this review is to assess the current information about the relationship between both entities.Recent findingsAccording to some authors, a causal association between them has been proposed since they have genetic, environmental, and inflammatory physiopathologic...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 26, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Are Large Local Reactions Useful to Predict Future Anaphylaxis to Hymenoptera Stings?
AbstractPurpose of reviewUnaware of the natural history of large local reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings, patients and clinicians are often concerned when faced with these reactions. These concerns include the difficulty in avoiding stings, the local discomfort, and the fear that the local reaction portends systemic, potentially life-threatening subsequent reactions. This review presents the historical studies that have assessed the natural history of large local reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings and, in doing so, provides rationale for the current consensus guidelines for the management of these reactions.Recent...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 25, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Penicillin and Cephalosporin-Induced Anaphylaxis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of reviewBeta-lactams (BL) are the most widely used antibiotics and the first-choice drugs for many bacterial infections. Their consumption has increased in the last decades being now three times higher than the second most highly consumed group. However, they have a high potential for inducing allergic reactions, being the compounds most frequently involved in drug reactions induced by specific immunological mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to summarize the sensitization patterns, the methods used for diagnosing, and the management of BL-induced anaphylaxis.Recent findingsBL can cause severe react...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewFood-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a form of anaphylaxis that occurs associated with exercise, in which symptoms develop by the combination of food ingestion and physical activity. We aimed to review and discuss the main clinical recommendations for management of FDEIA, focusing on individual factors.Recent findingsNew diagnostic strategies have been developed to optimize the accuracy of provocation challenges, taking in consideration augmenting factors, such as alcohol or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, FDEIA is still insufficiently diagnosed and a high index of...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 22, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis Inception and Control
Unfortunately, the original publication of this article contained mistakes. The publisher introduced an error after proofreading where the family name of the co-author was mistakenly captured as “Fenández Caldas”. The correct family name should be “Fernández-Caldas”. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 21, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Contact Urticaria and Protein Contact Dermatitis —a Frequently Hidden Diagnosis
AbstractPurpose of reviewWe hope that this review can assist in the classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a contact urticaria syndrome (CUS), a syndrome in which the understanding of such is still evolving.Recent findingsCUS and protein contact dermatitis (PCD) can be defined as an immediate inflammatory reaction of the skin following contact with an external substance. Erythema, wheals, and eczema, as well as other manifestations can occur as a result of this inflammatory reaction. Many low molecular weight substances and proteins are known to produce these immediate skin contact reactions. These reactio...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 17, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

ARIA 2017: a Review of Major Changes and Innovations
ConclusionARIA guideline has evolved to a technology-based implementation strategy to help rhinitis sufferers to have an active and healthy life and to reduce health and social inequalities caused by this very common disease, irrespective of their age, sex, or socio-economic status. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - May 16, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Association Between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis Inception and Control
This article summarizes the main consequences of the complex relationship that exists between allergic rhinitis, environmental pollution, and climate change and presents some potential measures aiming at modifying some aspects of this intriguing relationship to achieve a clinical benefit in patients suffering from allergic diseases, especially allergic rhinitis. (Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy)
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - April 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Risk Factors and Cofactors for Severe Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewSevere anaphylaxis is a generalized reaction in which cardiovascular and respiratory involvement lead to a fatal or near-fatal outcome. Triggers of severe anaphylaxis differ from one age group to another and are mostly represented by drugs and hymenoptera stings in adults and food in children. Several risk factors and cofactors can increase the odds of severe anaphylaxis by different and still undefined mechanisms.Recent findingsMajor risk factors for severe anaphylaxis include old age, male sex, and preexisting medical conditions such as mast cell disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and uncontroll...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - April 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and Management of Allergic Conjunctivitis
AbstractPurpose of the reviewThe purpose of this review is to define the classification, diagnosis, and management in adults and children with allergic conjunctivitis with emphasis on recent findings.Recent findingsCurrent literature divides allergic conjunctivitis according to severity and frequency, facilitating its diagnosis, study, and treatment choices. Novel pharmacological therapies aim at inhibiting inflammatory pathways at a specific molecular level and include selective glucocorticoid receptor agonists, kinase inhibitors, and IL-1 receptor antagonists.SummaryOcular allergies are a group of heterogeneous diseases ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - April 27, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Use of a Combination of Allergen Immunotherapy and Omalizumab for Prevention of Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewAllergen immunotherapy (AIT) is aimed at the etiological treatment of respiratory allergy and Hymenoptera venom allergy, while it is still under investigation for food allergy. The incidence of anaphylactic reactions to AIT is generally low, but may hamper its completion and makes needed preventive treatment.Recent findingsSeveral studies focused the attention on the use of the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab to prevent anaphylaxis in patients at high risk of systemic reactions, that is especially elevated during food allergy AIT and, in certain circumstances, during venom immunotherapy (VIT).SummaryW...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - April 23, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Impact and Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Adults and Children with Allergic Rhinitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this article, we review the impact and the treatment of sleep disturbance caused by allergic rhinitis (AR) in adult and pediatric patients.Recent FindingsAlthough intranasal corticosteroids (INS) remain the mainstay treatments for AR-induced sleep disturbance, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been suggested to be effective in altering the course and progression of moderate-to-severe AR that is refractory to pharmacotherapy. MP-AzeFlu is a recently developed formulation containing azelastine, an intranasal antihistamine (INAH), and fluticasone propionate, an INS. MP-AzeFlu has been reported to ha...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - April 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

An Update on the Management of Anaphylaxis
AbstractPurpose of reviewTo highlight the latest evidence supporting management recommendations in anaphylaxis and discuss the implications for further research in anaphylaxis management.Recent findingsThe acute management of anaphylaxis is largely centered on resuscitation and administration of epinephrine. There is little evidence to support the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids in the acute management of anaphylaxis.SummaryAnaphylaxis is an acute, systemic, potentially life-threatening reaction caused by the release of mast cell and basophil mediators that could lead to distributive shock. Anaphylaxis is associa...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - April 20, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Precision Medicine in the Management of Drug Allergy
AbstractPurpose of studyThe term precision medicine has been developed in the last five or more years to describe the concept of treating patients individually based on a variety of factors. Precision medicine can be applied to the field of drug allergy where phenotypes, endotypes, and biomarkers have been defined.Recent findingsPhenotypes of drug allergy can be based on (1) the mechanism of the underlying reaction; (2) the clinical presentation of the reaction; and (3) the timing of the reaction in regards to exposure to the drug. Endotypes of drug allergy can be defined based on mechanisms, pharmacologic processes, and h...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - February 15, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Lessons of Drug Allergy Management Through the World Health Organization ’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11
AbstractPurposes of reviewIn order to introduce the advances and use of the new sub-section addressed to the drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in the World Health Organizations ’ International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 revision, we here proposed a used case document and discuss the perspective of this new framework.Recent findingsWe expect that the construction of the new section addressed to DHRs in the ICD-11 will allow the collection of more accurate epidemiological data to support quality management of patients with drug allergies, and better facilitate health care planning to implement public heal...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - February 9, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Occupational Asthma, Not a Trivial Disorder and a Source of Fatal and N ear-Fatal Events
Opinion statementPurpose of reviewAsthma is one of our society ’s heaviest health burdens, which is estimated to be responsible for 250,000 deaths every year. Whenever severe asthma with fatal or near-fatal events is described, occupational asthma is not specifically mentioned, but its importance should not be underestimated.Recent findingsOccupational asthma (OA) is the most prevalent work-related pulmonary disease. Therefore, it is a very important concern for health prevention and occupational health professionals. Although asthma treatments and earlier diagnosis have improved this condition ’s control, seve...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - February 7, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

How to Manage Antibiotic Allergy in Cystic Fibrosis? Epidemiologic, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Aspects
AbstractPurpose of studyCystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex genetic disease with high mortality, of which 85% is a result of lung disease characterized by serious endobronchial infections.Recent findingsAntibiotic therapy is one of the main treatments of CF, both during acute exacerbations and as chronic maintenance medications, contributing to a prolonged survival. Since neonatal CF screening programs have been implemented universally and the longevity of patients with CF steadily increases, antibiotic hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are becoming more important. HSR to antibiotics in CF has been reported since the 1980s a...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - February 6, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Asthma and Cleaning: What ’s New?
AbstractProfessional and domestic cleanings are associated with work-related asthma (WRA). Increased risk of asthma has been shown in many epidemiological and surveillance studies, and several case reports describe the relationship between exposure to one or more cleaning agents and WRA. Moreover, exposure to cleaning chemicals could be associated with severe uncontrolled asthma. Cleaning sprays, bleach, ammonia, disinfectants, mixing products, and specific job tasks have been identified as specific causes and/or triggers of asthma or airway respiratory diseases. Their measurements at the workplace could be interesting but...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - February 2, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Options in Hypersensitivity Reactions to Chemotherapeutics
This article has tried to highlight and summarize the most recent scientific progress concerning risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of these reactions.Recent findingsIdentification of patients at high risk of developing hypersensitivity reactions allows risk stratification to guide clinical decision-making. Therefore, the most recent researches evaluated the possibility to perform risk stratification in case of hypersensitivity reactions to platinum compounds and taxanes. In addition, new data are now available regarding the role of in vitro test for the diagnosis of reactions to platins and the role of d...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - January 30, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Hypersensitivity Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media: Is it a True Allergy?
Opinion statementClassically, hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) have been termed pseudoallergic, allergy-like, or anaphylactoid. The origin of these terms to define ICM hypersensitivity reactions could be in relation to the use of traditional, classic, ionic ICMs. These ionic ICMs have a high osmolality, and the reactions have been considered as secondary to non-specific histamine release. Currently, ionic ICMs have been replaced by non-ionic compounds with low or iso-osmolality, which, although to a lesser extent, can also produce hypersensitivity reactions. In recent years, there has been growi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Allergy - January 29, 2018 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research