The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis —a Potential Treatment Target?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) frequently colonize the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The abundance ofS. aureus increases during flares, accompanied by a reduction in bacterial diversity. This flare-associated imbalance in the cutaneous microflora (dysbiosis) correlates with disease severity. However, the causality of this association has not yet been fully established, and this review aims to further explore the relation between the skin microbiome and AD along with the clinical implications hereof.Recent FindingsRecently, it has been shown that the skin microbiome in clinically ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of Lasers in Wound Healing: How to Best Utilize Laser Technology to Prevent Scar Formation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of early intervention in wound healing on scar formation across multiple scar types and progressions. The types of scars consist of hypertrophic, atrophic, keloid, and contracture scars. The sources of scarring include inflammatory diseases (e.g., acne), surgery, burn, and trauma.Recent FindingsMinimal published research has been done regarding laser treatment in wound healing. Some studies have found promise in minor treatment of surgical wounds but few have sufficient clinical relevance. Recently, further studies have been conducted including...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 5, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Updates on Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Skin Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkin cancer is the most common malignancy in the USA, arising when mutated cells escape the host ’s natural immune surveillance. Immunotherapy helps boost the host’s immune system, augmenting the antitumor response. Given the ability of the immune system to evolve with a tumor’s evasive maneuvers, it is not surprising that immunotherapy has demonstrated durable clinical benefit in patient s with cancer, including certain types of skin cancers. Significant progress has been made with the recent development of immunotherapy for skin cancers.Recent FindingsHere, we review the literat...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Patient Education in Atopic Dermatitis: Why It Is Needed and How to Improve It
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDemonstrate the need and objectives of patient education in atopic dermatitis (AD), provide an overview of the most recent studies regarding patient education, and propose new approaches to improve educational programs.Recent FindingsDifferent models of patient education programs exist, and their structures depend on social and economic conditions. An active participation of patients is needed to improve new models of educational programs. Healthcare professionals who work with AD patients must have a comprehensive view of the many aspects involved in this disease, which includes psychological, env...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pediatric Inpatient Dermatology: New Insights on Severe Eruptions and Cutaneous Adverse Reactions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis manuscript reviews important advances in our understanding of severe eruptions and cutaneous adverse reactions in children.Recent FindingsThe latest research provides significant insights regarding severe cutaneous eruptions including coxsackievirus eruptions, mycoplasma-induced rash and mucositis, urticaria multiforme, erythema multiforme, and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Recent literature expands our understanding of the incidence and cost, pathophysiology, and management considerations for pediatric patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.SummaryPediatri...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Wound Healing with Botanicals: a Review and Future Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBotanicals have long played a crucial role in the management of chronic and infected wounds, yet the mechanistic basis of these therapies remains largely poorly understood by modern science.Recent FindingsStudies have begun to unveil the mechanistic bases of botanical therapies for wound healing, but more work is necessary. Most notably, investigation into the growing conditions, post-harvest treatment, and pharmacological preparation of these botanicals has demonstrated their importance in terms of the chemical makeup and pharmacological activity of the final product used in pre-clinical and clini...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Dermatologic Reactions to Novel Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDermatologic toxicities secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors are prevalent and can be difficult to manage in the setting of underlying malignancy. This review summarizes the mucocutaneous adverse events associated with these agents and provides management options for varying degrees of presentation.Recent FindingsPruritus and rash are the most common dermatologic findings, but other manifestations such as vitiligo, lichenoid reactions, bullous pemphigoid, alopecia, and mucosal lesions have been observed. More recently, novel cases of rarer side effects, such as immunotherapy-induced scleroderm...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 24, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Healing Chronic Wounds: Current Challenges and Potential Solutions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to raise awareness, examine the challenges faced by wound care researchers, and explore opportunities for potential improvements.Recent FindingsChronic wounds are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and they represent a major medical and financial burden. Despite this, no new therapy has received FDA efficacy approval for the treatment of chronic wounds since 1997. Previous preclinical studies using animal models did not translate to human wounds due to inherent limitations of experimental models, variability in assessment methods, and overall experime...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 23, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Advances in Immune Pathways and Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent eczema accompanied by an intractable itch that leads to an impaired quality of life. This review aims to summarize the advances in immune pathways and pathogenesis of AD.Recent FindingsWe review and summarize the current literature characterizing immune pathways and pathogenesis of AD. The complex interplay among skin barrier deficiency, immunological derangement, microbiome dysbiosis especiallyStaphylococcus aureus predominance, and pruritus contribute to the development, progression, and chronicity of...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Immunopathogenesis of Psoriasis and Its Comorbidities
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWhile psoriasis has traditionally been considered primarily a skin and joint disorder, there is a new appreciation that psoriasis affects multiple organs. In fact, psoriasis is associated with several comorbidities that also affect the vasculature, guts, lung, kidney, and other tissues. This review aims to summarize the epidemiology and immunopathogenesis of psoriasis and its comorbidities.Recent FindingsWe reviewed the current literature characterizing the epidemiology and immune pathways of psoriasis and its comorbidities and report common inflammatory and immune pathways implicated in the pathog...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of Stem Cells in Wound Healing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review provides an overview of the principal stages of wound healing, the populations of endogenous and therapeutic stem cells, applications of stem cells in specific types of wounds, and current approaches of stem cell delivery for tissue regeneration.Recent FindingsNew uses of progenitor stem cells have been developed for the treatment of wounds. Stem cells improve wound healing through both local and paracrine effects. Stem cell populations of therapeutic utility include embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, adult bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, as we...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 6, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Current Psoriasis Efficacy Outcome Measures in Clinical Trials
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review sought to examine currently used psoriasis efficacy outcome measures. In particular, we wanted to know what outcome measures are currently being used most frequently, in addition to the advantages and disadvantages of each outcome measure.Recent FindingsIn the past year, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) was the most frequently used outcome measure in phase III and IV clinical trials evaluating psoriasis treatments. PASI scores were also the most frequently used primary outcome measure. Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) was the most commonly utilized regional physician report...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 5, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Erythroderma and Figurate Erythemas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewErythroderma and figurate erythemas are common reasons for inpatient dermatologic consultation. This review provides an overview of the frequent causes of erythroderma and figurate erythemas in adults and children as well as highlights recent advances in our understanding of the pathomechanisms of these entities.Recent FindingsWith the advent of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer, there are new medications that may result in drug-induced erythroderma. Additionally, the pathophysiology and immunologic milieu of erythroderma in psoriasis and cutaneous lymphoma has been investigated. More recen...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 2, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Immunology of Wound Healing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic wounds are a tremendous burden on the healthcare system and lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. Normal cutaneous wound healing occurs through an intricate and delicate interplay between the immune system, keratinocytes, and dermal cells. Each cell type contributes signals that drive the normal phases of wound healing: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. This paper reviews how various immunological cell types and signaling molecules influence the way wounds develop, persist, and heal.Recent FindingsConcurrent with the achievement of hemostasis, neutrophi...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 28, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Immune and Inflammatory Reponses to Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere have been recent advances in our understanding of cutaneous immune responses to the important human skin pathogen,Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). This review will highlight these insights into innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in host defense and cutaneous inflammation in response toS. aureus skin infections.Recent FindingsAntimicrobial peptides, pattern recognition receptors, and inflammasome activation function in innate immunity as well as T cells and their effector cytokines play a key role in adaptive immunity againstS. aureus skin infections. In addition, certain mechanisms by wh...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 22, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Dress for Success: a Review of Dressings and Wound Care in Hidradenitis Suppurativa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHidradenitis suppurativa is characterized by lesions and draining sinus tracts in intimate locations. Although often overlooked, the selection of an effective, comfortable dressing can dramatically improve patients ’ lives. We aimed to review dressings based on management of post-surgical and non-surgical wound dressings. We reviewed the characteristics and types of dressings used in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa and addressed recommendations for dressing post-surgical and non-surgical wounds.Recent FindingsAvailable studies on dressings are few in number with small sample sizes. The...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 12, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Complementary and Alternative Methods for Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current literature regarding complementary and alternative treatment options for acne vulgaris.Recent FindingsAcne vulgaris is an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide. While conventional methods of treatment are still primarily used to treat acne, complementary and alternative methods of treatment are becoming utilized in conjunction or in place of prescription medications.SummaryStudies have shown comparable benefit of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies to conventional treatment. Oral green tea extract was a moderately effective treatment of inflammatory acne ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Skin Barrier Function and Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of the skin barrier in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD).Recent FindingsSkin barrier function relies on the stratum corneum (SC) and tight junction. These components are deranged in the AD epidermis. Deficiency in filaggrin gives rise to abnormal epidermal integrity. The intercellular lipid composition, ratio, and organization are found to be disturbed. Keratinocyte shedding from the SC is also impaired. Tight junction proteins are reduced and result in sweat leakage into the skin surface.SummaryStrategies to enhance skin barrier st...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Complementary and Alternative Methods for Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: a Systematic Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo review the current literature regarding complementary and alternative treatment options for acne vulgaris.Recent FindingsAcne vulgaris is an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide. While conventional methods of treatment are still primarily used to treat acne, complementary and alternative methods of treatment are becoming utilized in conjunction or in place of prescription medications.SummaryStudies have shown comparable benefit of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies to conventional treatment. Oral green tea extract was a moderately effective treatment of inflammatory acne ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Skin Barrier Function and Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of the skin barrier in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD).Recent FindingsSkin barrier function relies on the stratum corneum (SC) and tight junction. These components are deranged in the AD epidermis. Deficiency in filaggrin gives rise to abnormal epidermal integrity. The intercellular lipid composition, ratio, and organization are found to be disturbed. Keratinocyte shedding from the SC is also impaired. Tight junction proteins are reduced and result in sweat leakage into the skin surface.SummaryStrategies to enhance skin barrier st...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 3, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Leg Ulcers: Expanding the Differential
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCutaneous lower extremity ulcerations are major source of morbidity and mortality. It can be challenging to identify an underlying etiology. This review provides a systematic framework for generating a thoughtful differential diagnosis and workup approach. We also highlight recent discoveries in the pathophysiology and treatment approaches of leg ulceration.Recent FindingsVenous leg ulceration is being treated with a number of promising new modalities including pentoxifylline, statin therapy, topical timolol, connexin-43 peptide antagonists, photodynamic therapy, and punch grafting. The role of vit...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pain Management in Patients with Chronic Wounds
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic wounds are increasing in prevalence and are often associated with significant pain, which can have a major impact on quality of life. Safe and effective pain management can be challenging, an unfortunate reality that is highlighted by the ongoing opioid crisis. This review aims to provide an evidence-based framework for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic pain management in patients with chronic wounds.Recent FindingsAs reflected in the new CDC guidelines, no study has shown that long-term opioid use mitigates chronic pain. Non-pharmacologic therapies, including virtual reality and acupunct...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Livedoid Vasculopathy: an Updated Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight the most recent findings in the literature on livedoid vasculopathy while providing a basic review of the disease.Recent FindingsLipoprotein(a) and plasminogen activator inhibitor continue to develop evidence supporting their involvement in the pathogenesis of livedoid vasculopathy. Systematic review of the literature has revealed that anticoagulants are the most commonly reported treatments in case series followed by anabolic steroids, antiplatelets, and intravenous immunoglobulins. No randomized or controlled trials have been performed studying treatment efficacy.SummaryThe literatur...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pyoderma Gangrenosum: What Do We Know Now?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the recent literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum.Recent FindingsA complex interplay between both the innate and adaptive immune systems underlies the pathogenesis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). Diagnosis remains a challenge, as there is no gold standard test to confirm the presence of the disease. Efforts to establish diagnostic criteria based on clinical findings have recently been proposed. Definitive management strategies are also lacking; however, current trends in treatment have favored the use of immunosuppressive medications, wound ca...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Dermatoses in Hospitalized Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHospitalized patients are at risk of skin injury from drugs and procedures. These complications carry a high risk of morbidity, mortality, and internal organ involvement. This review examines updates in the treatment of drug eruptions and diagnosis of newly reported iatrogenic skin injuries that accompany novel procedures.Recent FindingsDrug eruptions are a common cause of iatrogenic injury and they vary in presentation and severity. Recent research suggests that medications such as cyclosporine and etanercept may improve mortality in patients with epidermal necrosis although a randomized controlle...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Updates on Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe updates on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).Recent FindingsSequencing studies revealed that MCCs have either a low mutational burden and integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), or they have a high number of ultraviolet-associated somatic mutations and no MCPyV. Clinically, prognosis was better for stage III MCC of unknown primary than known primary. Similarly, lack of immunosuppression conferred better prognosis. The immunogenicity of MCC was reflected in high response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors.SummaryMCC is a rare but aggre...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Urticaria, Urticarial Vasculitis, Angioedema, and Related Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDermatologists are frequently called to evaluate patients with urticaria in the emergency room, urgent care clinics, and hospitals. Many acute urticarial eruptions will resolve without long-term sequelae; however, there are red flags that clinicians must be aware of.Recent FindingsFirst-line treatment for acute urticaria is regular dose H1 antagonists; however, the dose can be increased up to fourfold for refractory disease. Short courses of corticosteroids should be avoided as rebound urticaria is common upon discontinuation. Urticarial vasculitis presents with persistent, atypical urticaria, burn...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Updates on Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe updates on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).Recent FindingsSequencing studies revealed that MCCs have either a low mutational burden and integrated Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), or they have a high number of ultraviolet-associated somatic mutations and no MCPyV. Clinically, prognosis was better for stage III MCC of unknown primary than known primary. Similarly, lack of immunosuppression conferred better prognosis. The immunogenicity of MCC was reflected in high response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors.SummaryMCC is a rare but aggre...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 26, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Dermatoses in Hospitalized Patients
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHospitalized patients are at risk of skin injury from drugs and procedures. These complications carry a high risk of morbidity, mortality, and internal organ involvement. This review examines updates in the treatment of drug eruptions and diagnosis of newly reported iatrogenic skin injuries that accompany novel procedures.Recent FindingsDrug eruptions are a common cause of iatrogenic injury and they vary in presentation and severity. Recent research suggests that medications such as cyclosporine and etanercept may improve mortality in patients with epidermal necrosis although a randomized controlle...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 21, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pyoderma Gangrenosum: What Do We Know Now?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the recent literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum.Recent FindingsA complex interplay between both the innate and adaptive immune systems underlies the pathogenesis of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). Diagnosis remains a challenge, as there is no gold standard test to confirm the presence of the disease. Efforts to establish diagnostic criteria based on clinical findings have recently been proposed. Definitive management strategies are also lacking; however, current trends in treatment have favored the use of immunosuppressive medications, wound ca...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 16, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Leg Ulcers: Expanding the Differential
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCutaneous lower extremity ulcerations are major source of morbidity and mortality. It can be challenging to identify an underlying etiology. This review provides a systematic framework for generating a thoughtful differential diagnosis and workup approach. We also highlight recent discoveries in the pathophysiology and treatment approaches of leg ulceration.Recent FindingsVenous leg ulceration is being treated with a number of promising new modalities including pentoxifylline, statin therapy, topical timolol, connexin-43 peptide antagonists, photodynamic therapy, and punch grafting. The role of vit...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 13, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Urticaria, Urticarial Vasculitis, Angioedema, and Related Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDermatologists are frequently called to evaluate patients with urticaria in the emergency room, urgent care clinics, and hospitals. Many acute urticarial eruptions will resolve without long-term sequelae; however, there are red flags that clinicians must be aware of.Recent FindingsFirst-line treatment for acute urticaria is regular dose H1 antagonists; however, the dose can be increased up to fourfold for refractory disease. Short courses of corticosteroids should be avoided as rebound urticaria is common upon discontinuation. Urticarial vasculitis presents with persistent, atypical urticaria, burn...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 11, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pain Management in Patients with Chronic Wounds
AbstractPurpose of ReviewChronic wounds are increasing in prevalence and are often associated with significant pain, which can have a major impact on quality of life. Safe and effective pain management can be challenging, an unfortunate reality that is highlighted by the ongoing opioid crisis. This review aims to provide an evidence-based framework for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic pain management in patients with chronic wounds.Recent FindingsAs reflected in the new CDC guidelines, no study has shown that long-term opioid use mitigates chronic pain. Non-pharmacologic therapies, including virtual reality and acupunct...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 2, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Livedoid Vasculopathy: an Updated Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight the most recent findings in the literature on livedoid vasculopathy while providing a basic review of the disease.Recent FindingsLipoprotein(a) and plasminogen activator inhibitor continue to develop evidence supporting their involvement in the pathogenesis of livedoid vasculopathy. Systematic review of the literature has revealed that anticoagulants are the most commonly reported treatments in case series followed by anabolic steroids, antiplatelets, and intravenous immunoglobulins. No randomized or controlled trials have been performed studying treatment efficacy.SummaryThe literatur...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 2, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Confocal Microscopy in Skin Cancer
This article provides an overview of strengths and limitations of non-invasive RCM in skin cancer diagnosis.Recent FindingsRCM features of common melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin neoplasms such as melanoma, actinic keratosis/squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and nevi have been well defined and show good correlation with dermoscopic and histopathologic findings. Due to its technical properties, RCM is especially suitable for the examination of flat skin lesions.SummaryIn vivo RCM has been shown to increase the accuracy of non-invasive diagnosis of common skin neoplasms and is a valuable adjunct to dermoscop...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

What Is New in CTCL —Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatments
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin ’s lymphoma primarily affecting the skin, of which mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) account for the majority of cases. The pathogenesis of CTCL is poorly understood with no strongly associated environmental or genetic risk factors identified to date. As such, the development of dis ease-specific therapies has been limited by a lack of understanding of potentially actionable targets. Moreover, the diagnosis of CTCL remains challenging with nonspecific diagnostic criteria, especially in early-stage di...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Actinic Keratosis —Can Dermoscopy or RCM Differentiate AK (Not Full Thickness Atypia) from Full-Thickness Atypia/Invasive SCC?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewActinic keratosis (AK) is the most common sun-induced preneoplastic lesion, and together with photo-aging and skin cancer, it places a huge burden on healthcare systems. The clinical distinction between AK and incipient squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be difficult, and therefore, clinical diagnosis is not always reliable and certain. Skin biopsies are sometimes mandatory, and physicians must be aware of the importance of accurate diagnosis and management, as other malignant neoplasms (melanoma, basal cell carcinoma) cannot always be reliably distinguished from AK, especially when pigmented and in...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of Dermoscopy to Diagnose and Select BCCs that can be Treated Empirically
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe diagnostic value of dermoscopy for basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is well established. This paper aims to review available data on the role of dermoscopy not only in the management of BCCs in everyday practice and mainly in selecting tumors that may be treated non-surgically.Recent FindingsSeveral factors influence the selection of treatment for BCC, including the histopathologic subtype, tumor depth, the presence of pigmentation or ulceration, the anatomic site, and patient ’s physical profile. Dermoscopy was shown to provide additional information to the naked eye examination about severa...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Risk Stratification: Should All Actinic Keratoses in All Patients Be Treated?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewActinic keratoses (AKs) are foci of dysplastic keratinocytes in the epidermis. They are markers of both photodamage and risk of keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) formation. Individual AKs are thought to progress to KC uncommonly, although they arise from the same UV-induced mutations which give rise to KC. Thus, the rationale for treatment of AKs is to reduce the risk of KC formation since AKs are not dangerous in themselves. An estimated $1.68 billion is spent on treatment of AKs in the United States annually. Treatment of a region of skin (e.g., face, scalp, or forearms) to clear AKs is termed field tr...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

IL-23 Inhibitors for Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to review current understanding of the role of IL-23 in psoriasis and the available results to date on clinical trials establishing the efficacy and safety of IL-23 inhibitors for use in adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.Recent FindingsInterleukin-23, a cytokine involved in activation and maintenance of the T-helper 17 pathway, plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. While antibodies to IL-12 and IL-23 have been approved in psoriasis treatment for several years, robust evidence on the key role of IL-23 has led to the newest class of biol...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 1, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Actinic Keratosis —Can Dermoscopy or RCM Differentiate AK (Not Full Thickness Atypia) from Full-Thickness Atypia/Invasive SCC?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewActinic keratosis (AK) is the most common sun-induced preneoplastic lesion, and together with photo-aging and skin cancer, it places a huge burden on healthcare systems. The clinical distinction between AK and incipient squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) can be difficult, and therefore, clinical diagnosis is not always reliable and certain. Skin biopsies are sometimes mandatory, and physicians must be aware of the importance of accurate diagnosis and management, as other malignant neoplasms (melanoma, basal cell carcinoma) cannot always be reliably distinguished from AK, especially when pigmented and in...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 5, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Confocal Microscopy in Skin Cancer
This article provides an overview of strengths and limitations of non-invasive RCM in skin cancer diagnosis.Recent FindingsRCM features of common melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin neoplasms such as melanoma, actinic keratosis/squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and nevi have been well defined and show good correlation with dermoscopic and histopathologic findings. Due to its technical properties, RCM is especially suitable for the examination of flat skin lesions.SummaryIn vivo RCM has been shown to increase the accuracy of non-invasive diagnosis of common skin neoplasms and is a valuable adjunct to dermoscop...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 25, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

What Is New in CTCL —Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatments
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin ’s lymphoma primarily affecting the skin, of which mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) account for the majority of cases. The pathogenesis of CTCL is poorly understood with no strongly associated environmental or genetic risk factors identified to date. As such, the development of dis ease-specific therapies has been limited by a lack of understanding of potentially actionable targets. Moreover, the diagnosis of CTCL remains challenging with nonspecific diagnostic criteria, especially in early-stage di...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 16, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

IL-23 Inhibitors for Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this article is to review current understanding of the role of IL-23 in psoriasis and the available results to date on clinical trials establishing the efficacy and safety of IL-23 inhibitors for use in adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.Recent FindingsInterleukin-23, a cytokine involved in activation and maintenance of the T-helper 17 pathway, plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. While antibodies to IL-12 and IL-23 have been approved in psoriasis treatment for several years, robust evidence on the key role of IL-23 has led to the newest class of biol...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 16, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Risk Stratification: Should All Actinic Keratoses in All Patients Be Treated?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewActinic keratoses (AKs) are foci of dysplastic keratinocytes in the epidermis. They are markers of both photodamage and risk of keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) formation. Individual AKs are thought to progress to KC uncommonly, although they arise from the same UV-induced mutations which give rise to KC. Thus, the rationale for treatment of AKs is to reduce the risk of KC formation since AKs are not dangerous in themselves. An estimated $1.68 billion is spent on treatment of AKs in the United States annually. Treatment of a region of skin (e.g., face, scalp, or forearms) to clear AKs is termed field tr...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 14, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of Dermoscopy to Diagnose and Select BCCs that can be Treated Empirically
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe diagnostic value of dermoscopy for basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is well established. This paper aims to review available data on the role of dermoscopy not only in the management of BCCs in everyday practice and mainly in selecting tumors that may be treated non-surgically.Recent FindingsSeveral factors influence the selection of treatment for BCC, including the histopathologic subtype, tumor depth, the presence of pigmentation or ulceration, the anatomic site, and patient ’s physical profile. Dermoscopy was shown to provide additional information to the naked eye examination about severa...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 13, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research