What Can We Learn from Canine Atopic Dermatitis History?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnderstanding the origin and shaping the current knowledge of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) with an emphasis on its similarities and differences with its human counterpart, human atopic dermatitis (hAD), has been the purpose of this study.Recent FindingFundamental research on the ethiopathogenesis and recent specific therapeutic findings have gradually reclassified cAD from a single disease to a multifactorial syndrome.SummaryFrom first being referred to as “red mange” or “canine eczema” in a dog reacting to ragweed pollen, cAD has then been considered to be the canine coun...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 28, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Bimekizumab
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBimekizumab, a novel monoclonal antibody directed against both interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F, is in clinical development as a treatment for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the roles of IL-17A and IL-17F in psoriatic inflammation as well as the clinical data on bimekizumab that has been reported to date.Recent FindingsPhase 2 efficacy results with bimekizumab have demonstrated high levels of rapid skin clearance in psoriasis patients, and high levels of joint disease improvement in psoriatic arthritis patients. Thus far, safety concerns have been limit...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 21, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Risk, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Cellulitis and Erysipelas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarises the most recent evidence which will inform therapeutic guidance and discusses areas of uncertainty which might benefit from further investigation.Recent FindingsThere are variable definitions of cellulitis and erysipelas, and of recovery and cure, which make it difficult to combine results from studies. The etiology of cellulitis is more clearly associated with beta-hemolytic streptococci. The diagnosis can be more accurately made using scoring systems and measurements of skin surface temperature. Antibiotic therapy should be oral in most cases and need not be prolonged despi...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Phototherapy: a Review and Update of Treatment Options in Dermatology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper is intended to review common uses of phototherapy in the treatment of dermatologic disease and to highlight recent updates in the field.Recent FindingsPhototherapy is effective in the treatment of several dermatologic conditions and offers a safe alternative to systemic treatments. Overall, limited studies on the use of phototherapy have been conducted. However, recent studies have demonstrated superior efficacy of various phototherapy options in comparison with other systemic or topical treatments for diseases such as psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria, mycosis fu...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photoaging: a Review of Current Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhotoaging, also known as extrinsic aging, consists of premature skin changes secondary to damage caused by chronic sun exposure. This review highlights epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, and pathological features of photoaging.Recent FindingsUV radiation is the central driver of photoaging. However, there is growing evidence that other environmental factors —including ambient air pollution and visible/infrared light—also play a key role. Furthermore, newer research suggests that skin phototype, ethnicity, and sex can all differentially mediate the process of photoaging.SummaryUV rad...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Sunscreen Safety: a Review of Recent Studies on Humans and the Environment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an up-to-date synopsis of the literature on the safety of sunscreen active ingredients in humans and the environment and highlight regulatory changes in the USA.Recent FindingsCurrently, as per the US Food and Drug Administration, the only ultraviolet filters generally recognized as safe and effective are inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). In vivo human systemic absorption studies found that common organic filters attain sufficient plasma concentrations to require carcinogenicity and reproductive studies. In vivo human skin penetration studies showed ZnO nanoparticle...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Update on Sleep and Pulmonary Comorbidities in Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of sleep and pulmonary comorbidities in patients with psoriasis and summarize important recent findings.Recent FindingsEvidence continues to show that patients with psoriasis experience greater chronic sleep impairment when compared to healthy counterparts. In addition to other comorbidities seen in psoriasis patients, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have increased frequency in this population.SummarySleep and pulmonary comorbidities in psoriasis co...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Management of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: a Review and Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights current concepts in the management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN).Recent FindingsA new scoring system, the ABCD-10, was recently developed to better estimate mortality among SJS/TEN patients. Supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment, and includes wound care, fluid and electrolyte management, management of medical co-morbidities, and infection control. The value of adjuvant therapy remains unclear, but new recent retrospective studies suggest that the combination therapies may be efficacious. Recent prospective studies investigating c...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - December 6, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

An Approach to Retiform Purpura for the Inpatient Dermatologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRetiform purpura is a potentially ominous cutaneous sign that develops secondary to vascular compromise by either vasculitis or a vasculopathic disorder. The wide array of associated complications mandate a thorough investigation in a timely fashion. This review provides an overview of the frequent causes of retiform purpura in hospitalized adult patients and proposes a diagnostic approach for the inpatient dermatologist.Recent FindingsEarly recognition of the primary cutaneous morphology in retiform purpura is especially important as this can help generate a focused differential and workup plan. A...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - December 3, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

New Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in Horses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTreatment of equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) needs to be improved. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT), the only curative treatment of allergy, currently has only a limited efficacy for treatment of IBH. This review highlights the latest findings in prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.Recent FindingsProphylactic vaccination against IBH using recombinantCulicoides allergen has been developed in unexposed Icelandic horses and is ready to be tested. Therapeutic virus-like particle (VLP) –based vaccines targeting equine interleukin- (IL-) 5 or IL-31 improved clinical signs of IBH...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 26, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Canine Atopic Dermatitis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to evaluate new insights into allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and review the mechanism, different protocols used, and response rate of this treatment option for canine atopic dermatitis.Recent FindingsAIT is the only etiological treatment available for canine atopic dermatitis. Selection of allergens is based on clinical history in conjunction with positive reactions on intradermal and serum testing. During decades AIT was applied subcutaneously (SCIT) using aqueous or aluminum-precipitated solution of allergens, but in the last few years, new routes like sublingual (SLIT), intralymph...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 21, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Lymphedema: New Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review ’s aim is to coalesce current evidence regarding the lymphatic system and lymphedema, bridge the gap from traditional approaches to emerging concepts, and present simple strategies that can be immediately implemented into everyday clinical practice.Recent FindingsNew evidence of the microcirculation redefines all edema as lymphedema and having the potential to result in chronic inflammation and deleterious soft tissue changes. These soft tissue changes are easily identifiable through simple manual tests that also help direct interventions. CDT is the gold standard of treatment, bu...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 18, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Wound Care in the Developing World - Gaps, Opportunities, and Realities
AbstractPurpose of NarrativeTo enlighten the audience and suggest potential gaps and areas of future interest for further exploration and discussion related to wound care in developing regions of the world.Recent FindingsBeyond limited case reports and a relative handful of typical epidemiological studies and clinical trials, there exist little significant information on the topic of wound care in the developing markets which significantly departs from that which has been published on the topic about the developed markets. As such, there was a need for a corresponding narrative to add context and depth to existing and futu...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 12, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Review of Clinical Applications and Outcomes of Automated Epidermal Grafting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCommercialization of an automated epidermal harvesting device (CelluTome ™, Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX) in the last 6 years has led to numerous publications describing a growing number of clinical applications. The current article reviews this literature while summarizing outcomes.Recent FindingsA total of 20 published reports including 284 automated graft recipients have been published. Complete reepithelialization occurs in 50 –92% of recipient sites, often within 4–18 weeks of graft placement. Donor sites heal without scarring within 1–2 weeks.S...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 12, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Inpatient Management of Mucocutaneous GVHD
This article provides current clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations relevant to the hospitalist for both acute and chronic mucocutaneous GVHD. Optimal inpatient management of these diseases requires an interdisciplinary team. (Source: Current Dermatology Reports)
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Update on Tildrakizumab for Psoriasis
This article will review recent publications on tildrakizumab to evaluate its pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety.Recent FindingsTildrakizumab maintains efficacy in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis for up to 3  years with low risk of adverse events.SummaryIL-23p19 inhibition with tildrakizumab is a useful therapy for treating moderate-to-severe psoriasis. It is superior to placebo and etanercept in clinical trials as measured by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI), Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Clinical improvements are maintained for up to 3  years. I...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhotoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to a photoactivated allergen applied to the skin. The purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive information about the mechanism of photoallergic contact dermatitis and to make an outline of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment methods.Recent FindingsPACD lesions are generally localized in areas which are exposed to light. However, reactions may spread to covered areas of the body. Most prevalent photoallergens are present in sunscreens and NSAIDs. The diagnosis of PACD is based on patient ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 7, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Review of Outcome Measures in Trials and Practice for Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to determine the most frequently utilized outcome measures in clinical trials and to review the scoring criteria, advantages, disadvantages, and application in research and clinical settings, as well as provide an overview of the published guidelines on the use of outcome measures in clinical practice.Recent FindingsThe most frequently utilized physician-reported outcome measurement instruments in clinical trials from 2018 to 2019 were Physician Global Assessment (PGA), Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI), and body surface area. The most frequently utilized patient-r...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 5, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic Syndromes for the Inpatient Dermatologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere are a variety of distinct clinical presentations of skin diseases associated with an internal malignancy. Herein, we review some of the cutaneous manifestations of paraneoplastic syndromes and dermatoses that may be evaluated in the inpatient setting. Descriptions of clinical findings, associated systemic signs and symptoms, and diagnostic work-up are presented.Recent FindingsParaneoplastic syndromes are very rare. Isolated case reports with subsequent pooled literature reviews make up the majority of recent published literature.SummaryThe association between certain skin conditions and malig...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 16, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A Review of Botanicals Exhibiting Antifungal Activity Against Malassezia spp. Implicated in Common Skin Conditions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe integration of botanicals in commercial cosmeceuticals, personal care products, and home remedies has fostered a need for a better understanding of the potential efficacies of these interventions. This review identified plants with antifungal activity againstMalassezia, a commensal yeast implicated in inflammatory skin conditions. We sought to discover plants with potent activity comparable or superior to current antifungal agents.Recent FindingsMalassezia plays a unique role in the pathology of skin disease, encoding for extracellular lipases that initiate an inflammatory response on the surfa...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Inpatient Management of Autoimmune Blistering Diseases: an Update, Review, and Practical Guide
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview the evaluation, management, and treatment of hospitalized autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) patients based on the current literature and expert opinion.Recent FindingsThe cost and prevalence of hospitalization for AIBD patients are increasing in the USA. Many factors associated with hospitalization of AIBD patients are related to patient access to dermatology care. Infections are a major cause for hospital admission among AIBD patients. The use of rituximab, especially early in the disease course, has transformed the outcomes among patients with pemphigus.SummaryAfter reading this review...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Screening and Managing Melanoma: Who Is (Should Be) Doing It?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe detection and management of melanoma is moving toward a more interdisciplinary approach. This review provides a specialty-based framework to characterize the roles of dermatologists and non-dermatologist healthcare professionals in detecting and managing cutaneous melanoma and data on outcomes of management by specialty and training.Recent FindingsDermatologists manage thinner, earlier stage melanoma compared with surgical specialties and have higher survival rates than non-dermatologists. While teledermatology, primary care physicians, and advance practice practitioners offer potential solutio...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 30, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Non-invasive Imaging for Skin Cancers —the European Experience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this work is to review the role of advanced non-invasive imaging, such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in malignant melanomas and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) using data coming from the most recent literature, with a particular highlight on the results of the European experience.Recent FindingsExamination with RCM and OCT increases the accuracy of diagnosis. The most recent diagnostic clues for melanoma and NMSCs are revised. In addition, the application of these techniques in presurgical margin definition and in monitoring the effica...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 23, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Updates on Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Field Cancerization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewField cancerization describes the phenomenon that multiple heterogenous mutations may arise in an area exposed to chronic carcinogenic stimuli. Advances in the understanding of cutaneous field cancerization have led to novel therapeutic approaches to the management of actinic keratoses (AKs). Herein, we review the literature on the pathophysiology and emerging research of field cancerization in dermatology.Recent FindingsThe classification systems for grading AK lesions are being refined with investigations focusing on their clinical utility. There is a growing shift toward field-directed treatment...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 19, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Skin Cancer
AbstractPurposeTo review recent developments in artificial intelligence for skin cancer diagnosis.Recent FindingsMajor breakthroughs in recent years are likely related to advancements in utilization of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for dermatologic image analysis, especially dermoscopy. Recent studies have shown that CNN-based approaches perform as well as or even better than human raters in diagnosing close-up and dermoscopic images of skin lesions in a simulated static environment. Several limitations for the development of AI include the need for large data pipelines and ground truth diagnoses, lack of metadata, ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 6, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Clinic-Based Surgical Treatment for Hidradenitis Suppurativa
AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe provide an evidence-based review of current procedures and provide a practical guide to surgically treating hidradenitis suppurativa in the office setting.Recent FindingsOutpatient procedural management of hidradenitis suppurativa may include incision and drainage, intralesional triamcinolone, deroofing, excision, and lasers that achieve follicular destruction. Managing recurrent lesions, scarring, and sinus tracts often requires deroofing or excision. Recurrence rates are likely similar between deroofing and excision by sharp or laser techniques, and high patient satisfaction is consistently re...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 1, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Teledermatology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes current and prospective applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and smartphone technologies to automated diagnosis and teledermatology.Recent FindingsHealthcare institutions are rapidly scaling up telehealth programs and embracing long-distance consultation. New developments in deep learning, a type of artificial intelligence, have reached dermatologist-level performance in diagnosing cases of melanoma from lesion images. The smartphone industry projects that next-generation devices and widespread adoption will put deep learning-capable hardware in the hands of consumers...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 13, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Chronic Actinic Dermatitis: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo update readers on the current understandings of chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD) in regard to epidemiology, clinical findings, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis.Recent FindingsCAD is classically thought to be primarily a disease of elderly Caucasian males, though recent evidence suggests that in skin of color, the disease manifests more often in younger females. Recent studies suggest the pathogenesis of CAD involves a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction, similar to allergic contact dermatitis. There is also evidence of resistance to UV-induced immunosuppression in these patients, similar ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 8, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma: What ’s New?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAdvanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), though rare, is fatal with an 89% 5-year mortality rate. The diagnostic criteria for advanced basal cell carcinoma were recently redefined with the introduction of hedgehog inhibitors such as vismodegib. Similarly, the authors suggest redefining the diagnostic criteria of advanced cSCC given the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors in order to broaden the patient population that can benefit from both new and old treatment options as potential neoadjuvants.Recent FindingsCemiplimab is a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor recently FDA-approv...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 4, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Polymorphous Light Eruption: a Review
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo update readers on the current understandings of polymorphous light eruption (PMLE) in regard to epidemiology, clinical findings, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis.Recent FindingsPMLE is known to be the most common photodermatosis seen in individuals with light skin types; however, recent evidence shows that it is also commonly observed in individuals with skin of color. Resistance to UV-induced immunosuppression is now known to be an essential part of pathogenesis; this could be secondary to unique cytokine or antimicrobial peptide expressions in these patients. Photohardening, done at t...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 29, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Current Advances in the Prevention, Risk, and Management of Infection in Patients Receiving Biologic Therapy for Dermatologic Disorders
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBiologic agents such as adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, certolizumab, ustekinumab, brodalumab, secukinumab, ixekizumab, dupilumab, alefacept, rituximab, omalizumab, tildrakizumab, and guselkumab are now indicated in the treatment of dermatologic disorders. This review reports on current prevention, risk, and management of infection in patients receiving biologic therapy for dermatologic disorders.Recent FindingsAlthough risk of infection in patients receiving biologic agents for management of a dermatologic disorder is well-known, it appears to continue to be a low risk. However, optimal prevent...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 24, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Teledermatology in Underserved Populations
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTeledermatology holds promise as a tool to bridge distances and enhance access for populations that are underserved by conventional means of dermatologic care. This review delineates underserved populations and examines recent investigations of teledermatology for these populations. An analysis of the benefits and ongoing challenges for teledermatology for underserved people is presented.Recent FindingsMany studies demonstrate enhancement of access dermatologic service particularly when using store and forward modes. Many countries and states within the USA are beginning to reimburse for teledermat...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 18, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Solar Urticaria
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSolar urticaria (SU) is a rare photodermatosis, characterized by an abrupt onset of urticaria lesions appearing within minutes of light exposure. The disease may have a significant impact on patients ’ quality of life. This review provides an overview of SU, with attention to pathogenesis, workup, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Additionally, we present our stepwise therapeutic approach.Recent FindingsTreatment with omalizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-IgE antibody used as a third line treatment for SU, was shown to be beneficial in 80% of patients with antihistamine refractory dis...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Infections in Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAtopic dermatitis (AD) is a common and chronic inflammatory skin disease. The purpose of this review article is to assess recent changes in the understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of infections in AD.Recent FindingsRecent epidemiological studies have confirmed that AD is not only associated with cutaneous infections, but also extra-cutaneous systemic infections. Basic studies have provided evidence that allergic inflammation contribute to increased infections in AD. Clinical use of diluted bleach to prevent infections in AD remains controversial. On the other hand, progress ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Legal and Regulatory Issues with Teledermatology
This article provides an overview of the legal and regulatory requirements that providers engaging in teledermatology must consider when structuring telemedicine arrangements and developing a telehealth strategy.Recent FindingsThe numerous state and federal legal and regulatory considerations applicable to teledermatology offerings are rapidly changing: new laws and regulations are proposed and adopted every year.SummaryAt the state level, requirements are often state specific and address a wide variety of topics such as establishing the physician-patient relationship, technology-specific requirements, and practice and pre...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 3, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Implementation of Teledermatology: Theory and Practice
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMultiple factors influence the success and failure of teledermatology programs. We evaluate the current teledermatology literature using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework developed for implementation research. We introduce this framework to encourage a thorough examination of teledermatology ’s implementation including its sustainability. In this way, programs can better realize teledermatology’s promise for enhancing patients’ access to expert dermatologic care in real-world healthcare settings.Recent FindingsWhile teledermatol...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - May 2, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Risk, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Post-Operative Cutaneous Infection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDermatologic surgery procedures have low but non-negligible infection rates. This review summarizes current understanding of the risk of post-operative wound infections after cutaneous surgery, the diagnosis and management of post-operative infections, and appropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis in dermatologic surgery.Recent FindingsAside from specific situations associated with risk for infective endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections, and high-risk cutaneous surgeries, routine prophylactic, or post-operative antibiotic use is no longer the standard of care. Preliminary data suggests that po...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 24, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photocutaneous Porphyrias
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPorphyrias are a group of eight uncommon-to-rare inherited or acquired metabolic disorders, each caused by enzyme dysfunction at various steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Photocutaneous porphyrias are a subset characterized by acute skin pain and/or chronic skin lesions as major features of disease signs and symptoms. Clinical and laboratory features, epidemiology, genetics, pathologic mechanisms, and current and future therapies of the photocutaneous porphyrias are discussed, with emphasis on information reflected in recent literature.Recent FindingsClinical and laboratory investigations of ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Actinic Prurigo and Hydroa Vacciniforme
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize current knowledge pertaining to two photodermatoses, actinic prurigo (AP) and hydroa vacciniforme (HV), both of which routinely have onset in childhood.Recent FindingsAP is an immune-mediated photodermatosis associated with human leukocyte antigen DR4 that commonly features cheilitis and conjunctivitis. It mostly affects American Indian/Latin American Mestizos and rarely white and Asian patients, who manifest different disease phenotypes. The diagnosis is clinical, but follicular cheilitis is a characteristic mucosal biopsy finding, and phototesting may be helpful. Hallmarks of treatme...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 16, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Biosimilars for Psoriasis —Experience from Europe
The objectives of this review are to describe the use of biosimilars in selected European countries, using “real-life” information from members of the International Psoriasis Council (IPC) who are key opinion leaders in dermatology. The use of biosimilars for patients with psoriasis is continuously discussed and reviewed by the IPC, through in-person meetings by members of the Biosimilar Working Grou p (BSWG).Recent FindingsIn preparation for this paper, we surveyed the use of biosimilars for patients with psoriasis through European BSWG members, who were asked to describe the situation in their countries. The ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - February 7, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Nanotechnology for Psoriasis Therapy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the use of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for psoriasis therapies, focusing on recent studies of treatment efficacy in humans and murine models.Recent FindingsBoth topical and oral psoriasis medications, in addition to alternative psoriasis therapies and siRNAs targeting genes involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, have been incorporated into nanocarriers. Numerous studies demonstrate that nanocarriers can enhance the efficacy and reduce side effects of their included drugs through increased skin retention, sustained release, and decreased systemic absorption. However, ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 30, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Update on Risankizumab for Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights the latest data on risankizumab, including efficacy and safety data from recent clinical trials.Recent FindingsIn multiple phase 3 clinical trials, risankizumab was shown to be safe and efficacious. Risankizumab demonstrated superior efficacy to leading active comparators for the induction and maintenance of clear skin and was shown to have a safety profile similar to other biologic therapies currently on the market.SummaryTargeted biologic medications for plaque psoriasis have provided insight into the complex immune pathways that are now understood to lead to the developmen...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 18, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Tildrakizumab for Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Plaque Psoriasis: a Review of the Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo highlight the most recent findings regarding the efficacy and safety of tildrakizumab in the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis.Recent FindingsRecent clinical trials have shown tildrakizumab to be more efficacious than placebo or etanercept. There are no head-to-head trials directly comparing tildrakizumab to any IL-23 p19, IL-17, or IL-17R inhibitor. Common adverse effects included headache, upper respiratory infection, nasopharyngitis, and cough.SummarySince tildrakizumab is a new biologic, there is currently a paucity of available evidence evaluating tildrakizumab in a comparative manor wi...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 16, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis —a Potential Treatment Target?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) frequently colonize the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The abundance ofS. aureus increases during flares, accompanied by a reduction in bacterial diversity. This flare-associated imbalance in the cutaneous microflora (dysbiosis) correlates with disease severity. However, the causality of this association has not yet been fully established, and this review aims to further explore the relation between the skin microbiome and AD along with the clinical implications hereof.Recent FindingsRecently, it has been shown that the skin microbiome in clinically ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 8, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Use of Lasers in Wound Healing: How to Best Utilize Laser Technology to Prevent Scar Formation
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of early intervention in wound healing on scar formation across multiple scar types and progressions. The types of scars consist of hypertrophic, atrophic, keloid, and contracture scars. The sources of scarring include inflammatory diseases (e.g., acne), surgery, burn, and trauma.Recent FindingsMinimal published research has been done regarding laser treatment in wound healing. Some studies have found promise in minor treatment of surgical wounds but few have sufficient clinical relevance. Recently, further studies have been conducted including...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 5, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Updates on Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Skin Cancer
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkin cancer is the most common malignancy in the USA, arising when mutated cells escape the host ’s natural immune surveillance. Immunotherapy helps boost the host’s immune system, augmenting the antitumor response. Given the ability of the immune system to evolve with a tumor’s evasive maneuvers, it is not surprising that immunotherapy has demonstrated durable clinical benefit in patient s with cancer, including certain types of skin cancers. Significant progress has been made with the recent development of immunotherapy for skin cancers.Recent FindingsHere, we review the literat...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 3, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Patient Education in Atopic Dermatitis: Why It Is Needed and How to Improve It
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDemonstrate the need and objectives of patient education in atopic dermatitis (AD), provide an overview of the most recent studies regarding patient education, and propose new approaches to improve educational programs.Recent FindingsDifferent models of patient education programs exist, and their structures depend on social and economic conditions. An active participation of patients is needed to improve new models of educational programs. Healthcare professionals who work with AD patients must have a comprehensive view of the many aspects involved in this disease, which includes psychological, env...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 29, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pediatric Inpatient Dermatology: New Insights on Severe Eruptions and Cutaneous Adverse Reactions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis manuscript reviews important advances in our understanding of severe eruptions and cutaneous adverse reactions in children.Recent FindingsThe latest research provides significant insights regarding severe cutaneous eruptions including coxsackievirus eruptions, mycoplasma-induced rash and mucositis, urticaria multiforme, erythema multiforme, and severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Recent literature expands our understanding of the incidence and cost, pathophysiology, and management considerations for pediatric patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.SummaryPediatri...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Wound Healing with Botanicals: a Review and Future Perspectives
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBotanicals have long played a crucial role in the management of chronic and infected wounds, yet the mechanistic basis of these therapies remains largely poorly understood by modern science.Recent FindingsStudies have begun to unveil the mechanistic bases of botanical therapies for wound healing, but more work is necessary. Most notably, investigation into the growing conditions, post-harvest treatment, and pharmacological preparation of these botanicals has demonstrated their importance in terms of the chemical makeup and pharmacological activity of the final product used in pre-clinical and clini...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 25, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Dermatologic Reactions to Novel Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
AbstractPurpose of ReviewDermatologic toxicities secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors are prevalent and can be difficult to manage in the setting of underlying malignancy. This review summarizes the mucocutaneous adverse events associated with these agents and provides management options for varying degrees of presentation.Recent FindingsPruritus and rash are the most common dermatologic findings, but other manifestations such as vitiligo, lichenoid reactions, bullous pemphigoid, alopecia, and mucosal lesions have been observed. More recently, novel cases of rarer side effects, such as immunotherapy-induced scleroderm...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 24, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research