Calciphylaxis: Diagnostic and Treatment Advances for the Inpatient Dermatologist
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the risk factors, classification, and pathogenesis of calciphylaxis, and summarizes current evidence for diagnostic testing and multi-disciplinary therapeutic management.Recent FindingsThe two major subtypes of calciphylaxis tend to present in different anatomic locations, with non-uremic lesions favoring the distal extremities. Skin biopsies obtained on the distal extremities are more sensitive in detecting calciphylaxis-related vascular calcifications, compared to other sites. Underlying hypercoagulable disorders are common among calciphylaxis patients, implicating thromb...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 18, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Vitamin D Update
AbstractPurposeThe goal of this review is to provide an update in the field of vitamin D, in particular, the role of vitamin D in non-skeletal health, the complexity of providing patient guidance regarding obtaining sufficient vitamin D, and the possible involvement of vitamin D in morbidity and mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).Recent FindingsIn addition to bone health, vitamin D may play a role in innate immunity, cardiovascular disease, and asthma. Although rickets is often regarded as an historical disease of the early twentieth century, it appears to be making a comeback worldwide, including “first-world&rd...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 14, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Management of Immune-Related Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to PD-1 and PD-L1 Inhibitors for the Inpatient Dermatologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewProgrammed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are immunotherapeutic agents associated with a range of auto-inflammatory cutaneous toxicities. This paper reviews the clinical approach to the diagnosis and management of immune-related cutaneous adverse events (irCAEs) to PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, with emphasis on disease processes practitioners may encounter in hospitalized patients.Recent FindingsA systematic approach for suspected irCAEs has been well-detailed in recent clinical guidelines. However, the breadth of irCAE manifestations and treatment options co...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 28, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Considerations in Diagnosis and Management for the Inpatient Dermatologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHospitalization of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is frequent and most often due to disease flares and infection. Herein, we describe the clinical features and therapy for specific and nonspecific cutaneous manifestations of hospitalized lupus patients.Recent FindingsNew insights of the pathogenic mechanisms of SLE allow consideration of novel therapeutic targets and strategies. The precise role of these treatments for hospitalized SLE patients requires further study.SummarySevere lupus-specific cutaneous eruptions important for the inpatient dermatologist include acute cutaneous lupus...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 23, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Epidemiologic Burden of Skin Cancer in the US and Worldwide
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkin cancer is one of the leading causes of skin disease burden worldwide. This systematic review provides an overview of the United States (US) and global melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) epidemiologic studies published in the last 5  years.Recent FindingsThe incidence of melanoma and NMSC continues to rise both in the US and worldwide. The highest global age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) for melanoma were Australasia, North America, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Central Europe. Various results were reported for the mortality of skin cancer; however, overall, the mort...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 17, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Correction to: Systemic Photoprotection
The original version of this article did not include the results from articles showing a more favorable side effect profile with a controlled-release subcutaneous implant of afamelanotide. (Source: Current Dermatology Reports)
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 16, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Approaching Target and Targetoid Eruptions in Inpatient Dermatology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo summarize the differential diagnosis and describe a clinical approach for the evaluation of target and targetoid lesions in hospitalized patients.Recent FindingsImportant diagnostic considerations for target and targetoid lesions in an inpatient setting include erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, mycoplasma-associated rash and mucositis, fixed drug eruption, urticaria multiforme, subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and Rowell syndrome. Less frequent diagnoses may include erythema migrans, arthropod bite, erythema gyratum repens, erythema annulare centrif...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 25, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Climate Change and Inpatient Dermatology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewClimate change represents a major existential threat facing the global community, and it has already begun to affect human health in a multitude of ways. This review highlights and discusses the implications that climate change has already had and is expected to have for inpatient dermatologists.Recent FindingsThere are a variety of conditions affected by climate changes. The distribution and frequencies of infectious diseases and their vectors are changing in line with variations in climate conditions. Increased temperatures have already been associated with exacerbation of existing skin condition...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 21, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Light-Based Devices for Wound Healing
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe goal of this review is to provide a broad overview of light-based treatments that have shown effectiveness in enhancing various aspects of wound healing, examine the drawbacks that have impeded the translation of some light-based therapies into clinical use, and highlight scenarios where these treatments may confer benefits over current standards in wound care.Recent FindingsSeveral categories of light-based treatments, in particular laser debridement, fractional photothermolysis, and photodynamic therapy, have seen exciting recent clinical results that may justify expanding the use of these mo...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 21, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photocarcinogenesis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSkin cancers account for more than 40% of all cancers in the USA and continue to rise in incidence. It is prudent to understand the current burden and pathogenesis of photocarcinogenesis and preventive measures.Recent FindingsInsights into recently discovered mechanisms have paved way for potential targets for prevention and therapeutics. Nicotinamide has shown promising results as an oral chemopreventive agent. UVB affects the DHODH pathway of pyrimidine synthesis via STAT 3. DHODH inhibition by leflunomide may be a potential targeted chemoprevention strategy. A photolyase containing sunscreen, wh...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 12, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Systemic Photoprotection
AbstractPurpose of ReviewSystemic photoprotection is an attractive concept; however, its use has been limited by a lack of robust evidence. We performed a review to evaluate the evidence for systemic photoprotection and skin cancer prevention in humans by vitamins C, D and E, carotenoids, nicotinamide, retinoids, polyphenols,Polypodium leucotomos extract, NSAIDs and afamelanotide.Recent FindingsIn a randomized controlled trial, compared with placebo, a 13% reduction in actinic keratoses and a 23% reduction in keratinocyte carcinoma were found with continued nicotinamide use over 12  months, although the result should ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - June 26, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Current Economic Evidence for Teledermoscopy
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStore-and-forward teledermoscopy involves capturing dermoscopic images and sending them with relevant clinical information for review by a dermatologist. Teledermoscopy increases access to timely dermatology surveillance and diagnosis, which is important given the low ratio of dermatologists to the general population in many countries. Here we summarise the current economic evidence available for teledermoscopy, focusing on three stakeholders: the health system, consumers, and practitioners.Recent FindingsCompared with in-person consultations store-and-forward teledermoscopy has been found to have ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - April 6, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

The Skin Microbiome in Inflammatory Skin Diseases
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOngoing investigations of the human skin microbiome strongly suggest a connection to skin diseases and skin health. This review provides an overview of recent literature on the skin microbiome in relation to skin diseases, with a specific focus on common inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, acne, and rosacea.Recent FindingsIn healthy subjects, the skin microbiome mediates fundamental processes involving the immune response and epidermal development and differentiation. Microbiome characteristics in inflammatory skin diseases differ depending ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 16, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photosensitivity in Lupus Erythematosus and Dermatomyositis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhotosensitivity is a common symptom in the autoimmune diseases lupus erythematosus (LE) and dermatomyositis (DM). This review provides a framework for dermatologists, rheumatologists, and general practitioners to aid in recognizing and understanding photosensitivity reactions within the scope of these conditions.Recent FindingsPhotosensitivity reactions encompass not only cutaneous symptoms but also include systemic manifestations. Prevalence of photosensitivity is high in both LE and DM and tends to vary based on race and geographical location. Pathophysiology implicates the various effects of ul...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 15, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Phenotypes of Canine Atopic Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCanine atopic dermatitis is a model of human atopic dermatitis. This review provides an outline and discussion of clinical and other phenotypes of atopic dermatitis in dogs to better understand this disease in both dogs and humans.Recent FindingsAlthough phenotypes of canine atopic dermatitis can vary widely, there is little research in dogs that has identified reliable phenotypic markers to be able to predict disease progression or response to therapy.SummaryCurrently, canine atopic dermatitis patients need individually tailored therapy without the practitioner understanding why a certain treatmen...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 13, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

JAK Inhibitors for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis
This article reviews the utility and clinical significance of JAK inhibitors for the treatment of psoriatic disease —both psoriatic arthritis and plaque psoriasis—as demonstrated in clinical trials.Recent FindingsTofacitinib, the most widely studied of the JAK inhibitors in psoriatic disease, has demonstrated significant efficacy for the treatment of both psoriatic arthritis and plaque psoriasis. However, while it received approval from the US Food and Drug Association for the former indication, it was denied for the latter. This has not deterred the development of newer JAK inhibitors which hope to provide a b...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 9, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Teledermatology in Medical and Continuing Education
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTeledermatology improves access to dermatologic care and has the potential to lower health care costs. Although teledermatology use is increasing in practice, a minority of dermatology programs incorporate teledermatology into resident training. This review summarizes the current state of teledermatology education for both dermatologists and non-dermatologists.Recent FindingsLess than half of dermatology residency programs include teledermatology in their curriculum. Teledermatology offers educational opportunities for dermatology and non-dermatology trainees and practitioners through both remote a...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 8, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

“Teledermatopathology: A Review”
AbstractPurpose of ReviewIn this review, we will cover definitions of relevant terms, present need, technologic requirements, regulation, validation, and current and emerging applications of teledermatopathology.Recent FindingsNumerous studies have found no significant diagnostic discordance between teledermatopathology and glass microscopy in evaluation of melanocytic, non-melanocytic, and inflammatory diagnoses. Teledermatopathology has led to a significant difference in patient management in low-resource settings. Furthermore, studies using static images acquired using smartphones and microscope adapters have high diagn...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 8, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Recognition and Management of Angioinvasive Fungal Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo describe the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of angioinvasive fungal infections.Recent FindingsCandida auris is a recently discovered species with multi- to pan-drug resistance to azoles, amphotericin B, and echinocandins. The SECURE trial showed that isavuconazole was non-inferior to voriconazole for treatment ofAspergillus. Additionally, the VITAL study showed that there was no difference in mortality between those treated with either isavuconazole or amphotericin B. Isavuconazole is now approved by the FDA for the treatment ofAspergillus andMucor.SummaryInvasive fungal infections ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 6, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

New Developments in Bacterial, Viral, and Fungal Cutaneous Infections
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights clinically relevant updates to common and significant bacterial, viral, and fungal cutaneous infection within the past 5  years. Recent developments are presented so that the clinician may provide evidence-based, high-quality patient care.Recent FindingsNew resistance patterns in cutaneous pathogens have recently emerged as a result of inappropriate antimicrobial use. Several new FDA-approved antimicrobials have been approved to treat such infections, including multi-drug resistant pathogens. Several organizational guidelines for cutaneous infection management have been ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 4, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Teledermatology for Skin Cancer: The Australian Experience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to understand how Australia compares internationally in the practice of teledermatology for the diagnosis and management of skin cancer, and in the process, ascertain the robustness of the evidence for teledermatology, as well as identify its limitations and current difficulties for its adoption in Australia.Recent FindingsDiagnostic and treatment concordance, time to detection and action, as well as expected cost in Australia were comparable with international studies. Earlier detection of skin cancer and convenience such as reduced travel are main reasons supportive of teledermat...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Certolizumab Pegol for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the use of certolizumab pegol (Cimzia ®, UCB S.A.) for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and summarize important findings.Recent FindingsThree pivotal phase three clinical trials CIMPASI-1, CIMPASI-2, and CIMPACT have demonstrated efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) in patients with plaque psoriasis. In addition, another multicenter phase three clinical trial, RAPID-PsA, has shown long-term efficacy and safety data of CZP in psoriatic arthritis.SummaryWhen compared with other TNF-alpha blockers, CZP has demonstrated increased e...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - March 2, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Pediatric Teledermatology: a Review
This article reviews teledermatology terminology and summarizes the recent literature supporting pediatric teledermatology ’s diagnostic accuracy, efficacy, usability and cost-effectiveness.Recent FindingsDiagnoses rendered using pediatric teledermatology share high concordance rates with in-person diagnoses. While most dermatologists prefer store and forward compared to real-time interactive teledermatology, a hybrid model may be advantageous for complex cases. Physician-to-physician teledermatology is ideal for pediatric inpatient and outpatient consultations, while direct-to-patient teledermatology may be more eff...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - February 28, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Molluscum Contagiosum: Review and Update on Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, Risk, Prevention, and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewMolluscum contagiosum (MC) is a self-limited cutaneous viral infection that most commonly affects children and immunocompromised populations. This review provides an update on the clinical manifestations, risk, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this frequently encountered infection.Recent FindingsA recent Cochrane review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to establish the superiority of any specific treatment modality or to confirm that active intervention is superior to benign neglect (van der Wouden JC et al., Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD004767, 2017). Interim pilot study data...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - February 19, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Wound Management in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewStevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are severe mucocutaneous drug reactions associated with a potentially high mortality rate. They are characterized by epidermal necrosis and extensive detachment. For these reasons, wound care is a fundamental component of patient management. However, there is a lack of evidence-based data, and treatment approaches can vary drastically between institutions. Our aim was to analyze the available studies on this topic as an attempt to review various management strategies.Recent FindingsConsidering the rarity, variable presentations, and difficulty...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 29, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

What Can We Learn from Canine Atopic Dermatitis History?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewUnderstanding the origin and shaping the current knowledge of canine atopic dermatitis (cAD) with an emphasis on its similarities and differences with its human counterpart, human atopic dermatitis (hAD), has been the purpose of this study.Recent FindingFundamental research on the ethiopathogenesis and recent specific therapeutic findings have gradually reclassified cAD from a single disease to a multifactorial syndrome.SummaryFrom first being referred to as “red mange” or “canine eczema” in a dog reacting to ragweed pollen, cAD has then been considered to be the canine coun...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 27, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Bimekizumab
AbstractPurpose of ReviewBimekizumab, a novel monoclonal antibody directed against both interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F, is in clinical development as a treatment for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the roles of IL-17A and IL-17F in psoriatic inflammation as well as the clinical data on bimekizumab that has been reported to date.Recent FindingsPhase 2 efficacy results with bimekizumab have demonstrated high levels of rapid skin clearance in psoriasis patients, and high levels of joint disease improvement in psoriatic arthritis patients. Thus far, safety concerns have been limit...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 20, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Risk, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Management of Cellulitis and Erysipelas
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarises the most recent evidence which will inform therapeutic guidance and discusses areas of uncertainty which might benefit from further investigation.Recent FindingsThere are variable definitions of cellulitis and erysipelas, and of recovery and cure, which make it difficult to combine results from studies. The etiology of cellulitis is more clearly associated with beta-hemolytic streptococci. The diagnosis can be more accurately made using scoring systems and measurements of skin surface temperature. Antibiotic therapy should be oral in most cases and need not be prolonged despi...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 19, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Phototherapy: a Review and Update of Treatment Options in Dermatology
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis paper is intended to review common uses of phototherapy in the treatment of dermatologic disease and to highlight recent updates in the field.Recent FindingsPhototherapy is effective in the treatment of several dermatologic conditions and offers a safe alternative to systemic treatments. Overall, limited studies on the use of phototherapy have been conducted. However, recent studies have demonstrated superior efficacy of various phototherapy options in comparison with other systemic or topical treatments for diseases such as psoriasis, vitiligo, atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria, mycosis fu...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 19, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photoaging: a Review of Current Literature
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhotoaging, also known as extrinsic aging, consists of premature skin changes secondary to damage caused by chronic sun exposure. This review highlights epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, and pathological features of photoaging.Recent FindingsUV radiation is the central driver of photoaging. However, there is growing evidence that other environmental factors —including ambient air pollution and visible/infrared light—also play a key role. Furthermore, newer research suggests that skin phototype, ethnicity, and sex can all differentially mediate the process of photoaging.SummaryUV rad...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 19, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Sunscreen Safety: a Review of Recent Studies on Humans and the Environment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an up-to-date synopsis of the literature on the safety of sunscreen active ingredients in humans and the environment and highlight regulatory changes in the USA.Recent FindingsCurrently, as per the US Food and Drug Administration, the only ultraviolet filters generally recognized as safe and effective are inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). In vivo human systemic absorption studies found that common organic filters attain sufficient plasma concentrations to require carcinogenicity and reproductive studies. In vivo human skin penetration studies showed ZnO nanoparticle...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Update on Sleep and Pulmonary Comorbidities in Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of sleep and pulmonary comorbidities in patients with psoriasis and summarize important recent findings.Recent FindingsEvidence continues to show that patients with psoriasis experience greater chronic sleep impairment when compared to healthy counterparts. In addition to other comorbidities seen in psoriasis patients, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have increased frequency in this population.SummarySleep and pulmonary comorbidities in psoriasis co...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - January 16, 2020 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Management of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: a Review and Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review highlights current concepts in the management of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN).Recent FindingsA new scoring system, the ABCD-10, was recently developed to better estimate mortality among SJS/TEN patients. Supportive care remains the mainstay of treatment, and includes wound care, fluid and electrolyte management, management of medical co-morbidities, and infection control. The value of adjuvant therapy remains unclear, but new recent retrospective studies suggest that the combination therapies may be efficacious. Recent prospective studies investigating c...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - December 5, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

An Approach to Retiform Purpura for the Inpatient Dermatologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewRetiform purpura is a potentially ominous cutaneous sign that develops secondary to vascular compromise by either vasculitis or a vasculopathic disorder. The wide array of associated complications mandate a thorough investigation in a timely fashion. This review provides an overview of the frequent causes of retiform purpura in hospitalized adult patients and proposes a diagnostic approach for the inpatient dermatologist.Recent FindingsEarly recognition of the primary cutaneous morphology in retiform purpura is especially important as this can help generate a focused differential and workup plan. A...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - December 2, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

New Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in Horses
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTreatment of equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) needs to be improved. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT), the only curative treatment of allergy, currently has only a limited efficacy for treatment of IBH. This review highlights the latest findings in prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.Recent FindingsProphylactic vaccination against IBH using recombinantCulicoides allergen has been developed in unexposed Icelandic horses and is ready to be tested. Therapeutic virus-like particle (VLP) –based vaccines targeting equine interleukin- (IL-) 5 or IL-31 improved clinical signs of IBH...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 25, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Allergen Specific Immunotherapy in Canine Atopic Dermatitis: an Update
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review aims to evaluate new insights into allergen immunotherapy (AIT) and review the mechanism, different protocols used, and response rate of this treatment option for canine atopic dermatitis.Recent FindingsAIT is the only etiological treatment available for canine atopic dermatitis. Selection of allergens is based on clinical history in conjunction with positive reactions on intradermal and serum testing. During decades AIT was applied subcutaneously (SCIT) using aqueous or aluminum-precipitated solution of allergens, but in the last few years, new routes like sublingual (SLIT), intralymph...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 20, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Lymphedema: New Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review ’s aim is to coalesce current evidence regarding the lymphatic system and lymphedema, bridge the gap from traditional approaches to emerging concepts, and present simple strategies that can be immediately implemented into everyday clinical practice.Recent FindingsNew evidence of the microcirculation redefines all edema as lymphedema and having the potential to result in chronic inflammation and deleterious soft tissue changes. These soft tissue changes are easily identifiable through simple manual tests that also help direct interventions. CDT is the gold standard of treatment, bu...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 17, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Wound Care in the Developing World - Gaps, Opportunities, and Realities
AbstractPurpose of NarrativeTo enlighten the audience and suggest potential gaps and areas of future interest for further exploration and discussion related to wound care in developing regions of the world.Recent FindingsBeyond limited case reports and a relative handful of typical epidemiological studies and clinical trials, there exist little significant information on the topic of wound care in the developing markets which significantly departs from that which has been published on the topic about the developed markets. As such, there was a need for a corresponding narrative to add context and depth to existing and futu...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Evidence-Based Review of Clinical Applications and Outcomes of Automated Epidermal Grafting
AbstractPurpose of ReviewCommercialization of an automated epidermal harvesting device (CelluTome ™, Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX) in the last 6 years has led to numerous publications describing a growing number of clinical applications. The current article reviews this literature while summarizing outcomes.Recent FindingsA total of 20 published reports including 284 automated graft recipients have been published. Complete reepithelialization occurs in 50 –92% of recipient sites, often within 4–18 weeks of graft placement. Donor sites heal without scarring within 1–2 weeks.S...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 11, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Inpatient Management of Mucocutaneous GVHD
This article provides current clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations relevant to the hospitalist for both acute and chronic mucocutaneous GVHD. Optimal inpatient management of these diseases requires an interdisciplinary team. (Source: Current Dermatology Reports)
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 10, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Update on Tildrakizumab for Psoriasis
This article will review recent publications on tildrakizumab to evaluate its pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety.Recent FindingsTildrakizumab maintains efficacy in moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis for up to 3  years with low risk of adverse events.SummaryIL-23p19 inhibition with tildrakizumab is a useful therapy for treating moderate-to-severe psoriasis. It is superior to placebo and etanercept in clinical trials as measured by Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI), Physician Global Assessment (PGA), and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Clinical improvements are maintained for up to 3  years. I...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewPhotoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to a photoactivated allergen applied to the skin. The purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive information about the mechanism of photoallergic contact dermatitis and to make an outline of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment methods.Recent FindingsPACD lesions are generally localized in areas which are exposed to light. However, reactions may spread to covered areas of the body. Most prevalent photoallergens are present in sunscreens and NSAIDs. The diagnosis of PACD is based on patient ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 6, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Review of Outcome Measures in Trials and Practice for Psoriasis
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review was to determine the most frequently utilized outcome measures in clinical trials and to review the scoring criteria, advantages, disadvantages, and application in research and clinical settings, as well as provide an overview of the published guidelines on the use of outcome measures in clinical practice.Recent FindingsThe most frequently utilized physician-reported outcome measurement instruments in clinical trials from 2018 to 2019 were Physician Global Assessment (PGA), Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI), and body surface area. The most frequently utilized patient-r...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - November 4, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic Syndromes for the Inpatient Dermatologist
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThere are a variety of distinct clinical presentations of skin diseases associated with an internal malignancy. Herein, we review some of the cutaneous manifestations of paraneoplastic syndromes and dermatoses that may be evaluated in the inpatient setting. Descriptions of clinical findings, associated systemic signs and symptoms, and diagnostic work-up are presented.Recent FindingsParaneoplastic syndromes are very rare. Isolated case reports with subsequent pooled literature reviews make up the majority of recent published literature.SummaryThe association between certain skin conditions and malig...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 15, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

A Review of Botanicals Exhibiting Antifungal Activity Against Malassezia spp. Implicated in Common Skin Conditions
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe integration of botanicals in commercial cosmeceuticals, personal care products, and home remedies has fostered a need for a better understanding of the potential efficacies of these interventions. This review identified plants with antifungal activity againstMalassezia, a commensal yeast implicated in inflammatory skin conditions. We sought to discover plants with potent activity comparable or superior to current antifungal agents.Recent FindingsMalassezia plays a unique role in the pathology of skin disease, encoding for extracellular lipases that initiate an inflammatory response on the surfa...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - October 10, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Inpatient Management of Autoimmune Blistering Diseases: an Update, Review, and Practical Guide
AbstractPurpose of ReviewReview the evaluation, management, and treatment of hospitalized autoimmune blistering diseases (AIBD) patients based on the current literature and expert opinion.Recent FindingsThe cost and prevalence of hospitalization for AIBD patients are increasing in the USA. Many factors associated with hospitalization of AIBD patients are related to patient access to dermatology care. Infections are a major cause for hospital admission among AIBD patients. The use of rituximab, especially early in the disease course, has transformed the outcomes among patients with pemphigus.SummaryAfter reading this review...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - September 10, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Screening and Managing Melanoma: Who Is (Should Be) Doing It?
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe detection and management of melanoma is moving toward a more interdisciplinary approach. This review provides a specialty-based framework to characterize the roles of dermatologists and non-dermatologist healthcare professionals in detecting and managing cutaneous melanoma and data on outcomes of management by specialty and training.Recent FindingsDermatologists manage thinner, earlier stage melanoma compared with surgical specialties and have higher survival rates than non-dermatologists. While teledermatology, primary care physicians, and advance practice practitioners offer potential solutio...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 29, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Non-invasive Imaging for Skin Cancers —the European Experience
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe aim of this work is to review the role of advanced non-invasive imaging, such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in malignant melanomas and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) using data coming from the most recent literature, with a particular highlight on the results of the European experience.Recent FindingsExamination with RCM and OCT increases the accuracy of diagnosis. The most recent diagnostic clues for melanoma and NMSCs are revised. In addition, the application of these techniques in presurgical margin definition and in monitoring the effica...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - August 22, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Updates on Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Field Cancerization
AbstractPurpose of ReviewField cancerization describes the phenomenon that multiple heterogenous mutations may arise in an area exposed to chronic carcinogenic stimuli. Advances in the understanding of cutaneous field cancerization have led to novel therapeutic approaches to the management of actinic keratoses (AKs). Herein, we review the literature on the pathophysiology and emerging research of field cancerization in dermatology.Recent FindingsThe classification systems for grading AK lesions are being refined with investigations focusing on their clinical utility. There is a growing shift toward field-directed treatment...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 18, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Skin Cancer
AbstractPurposeTo review recent developments in artificial intelligence for skin cancer diagnosis.Recent FindingsMajor breakthroughs in recent years are likely related to advancements in utilization of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for dermatologic image analysis, especially dermoscopy. Recent studies have shown that CNN-based approaches perform as well as or even better than human raters in diagnosing close-up and dermoscopic images of skin lesions in a simulated static environment. Several limitations for the development of AI include the need for large data pipelines and ground truth diagnoses, lack of metadata, ...
Source: Current Dermatology Reports - July 5, 2019 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research