Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Al-Jabri AA, Hosni A, Nzeako B, Nsanze H, Ghazi HO, Abu-Sabaah AH, Mak CM, Pang RWC, Chan GCF, Wong WK, Tam S PMID: 28705125 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Prevalence of Fusobacterium necrophorum and other upper respiratory tract pathogens isolated from throat swabs.
Authors: Batty A, Wren MWD Abstract Fusobacterium necrophorum, an anaerobic, Gram-negative rod, has been identified recently as a significant cause of persistent sore throat syndrome (PSTS). This disease is characterised by chronic, recurrent or persistent sore throat, which is believed to respond poorly to penicillin in vivo. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of F. necrophorum in all throat swabs received in our diagnostic microbiology department and to compare the results with those for other recognised respiratory pathogens. All throat swabs received in the laboratory over a four-week period wer...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Embryopathy in experimental diabetic gestation: assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence.
Authors: El-Bassiouni EA, Helmy MH, Rawash A, El-Zoghby SM, El-Nabi Kamel A, Abou Rayah N Abstract Maternal diabetes is associated with an increased rate of congenital fetal anomaly. In the present study, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in female rats one week prior to conception and the embryos were examined during organogenesis. Experimental diabetes is associated with over-production of free radicals and disturbed antioxidant defence, particularly in malformed embryos. Oxidative stress is demonstrated by increased MDA accumulation and reduced glutathione levels. Despite large differences in the reduced/ox...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Laboratory diagnosis of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella species.
This study compares two combination disc methods (Oxoid and Mast Diagnostics) containing cepodoxime with and without clavulanate with Vitek 2 for routine detection of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from blood cultures. From December 2003 to April 2005, a total of 58 potential ESBL-producing isolates (resistant to cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime) by BSAC disc susceptibility were tested by the combination discs and Vitek 2. The Advanced Expert System, a feature of Vitek 2 reports possible mechanisms of resistance, based on interpretive reading of MICs. This study detected 7.4% more ESBL-producing isolat...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Stimulatory effects of Antidesma madagascariense on D-glucose, L-tyrosine, fluid and electrolyte transport across rat everted intestine, comparable to insulin action in vitro.
This study investigates the effects of Antidesma madagascariense (AM) extract on the transport of D-glucose, L-tyrosine, fluid and electrolytes (Na(+) and K(+)) across rat everted intestinal sacs. These sacs were mounted in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate (KHB) buffer. Experimental findings showed that incubation with graded aqueous AM extracts above 0.375 mg/mL significantly (P
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Mortlock S, Gillow C, Shaw A, Moore JE, Elborn JS, Murphy PG, Moore JE, Xu J, Millar BC, Windsor JJ, Bamber AI, Macfarlane L PMID: 28705130 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Book Reviews.
Authors: Foster JR, Cook J, Mernagh D PMID: 28705131 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

First isolation and molecular characterisation of a cryptic plasmid from urease-negative Campylobacter lari.
Authors: Batori H, Sekizuka T, Murayama O, Moore JE, Millar BC, Matsuda M PMID: 28705132 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Bactericidal activity of human milk: stability during storage.
In conclusion, maternal milk has bactericidal capacity, providing defence and protection against infection for newborn infants. This property can be altered during the storage of milk. Consequently, if storage in excess of 48 hours is required, freezing is preferable to refrigeration. PMID: 28705133 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of tumour necrosis factor- α, soluble P-selectin, γ-glutamyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase-π and α-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before and during chemotherapy.
Evaluation of tumour necrosis factor-α, soluble P-selectin, γ-glutamyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase-π and α-fetoprotein in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma before and during chemotherapy. Br J Biomed Sci. 2006 Jan;63(2):74-78 Authors: Morsi MI, Hussein AE, Mostafa M, El-Abd E, Abd El-Moneim NA Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an environmentally related cancer, with both viral and chemical carcinogens involved in a multistage process. To date, it has been difficult to detect the asymptomatic precursor lesions in early HCC. Therefore, the majority of HCC pat...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Kenny F, Xu J, Millar BC, Mcclurg RB, Moore JE, Miles KI, Wren MWD, Benson S, Zhang B, Huo X, Xu X, Qi Z, Yang H, Peng L, Qiu B, Zheng L PMID: 28705135 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Laboratory diagnosis of bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella species.
This study compares two combination disc methods (Oxoid and Mast Diagnostics) containing cepodoxime with and without clavulanate with Vitek 2 for routine detection of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolated from blood cultures. From December 2003 to April 2005, a total of 58 potential ESBL-producing isolates (resistant to cefotaxime and/or ceftazidime) by BSAC disc susceptibility were tested by the combination discs and Vitek 2. The Advanced Expert System, a feature of Vitek 2, reports possible mechanisms of resistance, based on interpretive reading of MICs. This study detected 7.4% more ESBL-producing isola...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Modified double-disc test for detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
This study evaluates the performance of a modified double-disc test (MDDT) for the detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ninety-six isolates of E. coli and 40 K. pneumoniae are studied for ESBL production by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) combination disc tests and MDDT. A total of 112 (82%) isolates (80 [83%] E. coli, 32 [80%] K. pneumoniae) were positive for ESBL by MDDT compared to 102 (75%; 72 [75%] E. coli and 30 [75%] K. pneumoniae) by the NCCLS method. In 10 (7.4%) isolates, ESBLs were detected on...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Book Reviews.
Authors: Clarke SC, Foster JR, Cook DJ, Knight R, Overfield JA, McLellan DS, Moore GW, Munro RI, Overfield JA, Pitt SJ, Hardy SP PMID: 28705138 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Cooke RPD, O'Neill WA, Xu J, Moore JE, Elborn JS, Moore JE, Nagano Y, Millar BC, Mccalmont M, Elborn JS, Rendall J, Pattison S, Dooley JSG, Goldsmith CE, D'Souza Y, Jones CJP, Bonshek R, Shigematsu M, Nagano Y, Millar BC, Kenny F, Lowery CJ, Xiao L, Rao JR, Nicholson V, Watabe M, Heaney N, Sunnotel O, Mccorry K, Rooney PJ, Snelling W, Dooley JSG, Elborn JS, Matsuda M, Moore JE PMID: 28705140 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Cellular Pathology An introduction to techniques and applications.
Authors: Warren P PMID: 28705141 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Association of body mass index and Trp64Arg polymorphism of the β3-adrenoreceptor gene and leptin level in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.
In this study the association between β3-adrenoceptor gene polymorphism and serum concentration of leptin with body mass index (BMI) is investigated. Using subjects in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, genotyping of the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the β3-adrenoreceptor gene was performed using a restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique was used and the association with obesity was investigated. At total of 197 men and 204 women were divided into four groups (BMI
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Relationship between level of circulating modified LDL and the extent of coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients.
Authors: El-Bassiouni EA, Helmy MH, El-Zoghby SM, Kamel EN, Hosny RM Abstract The impact of diabetes on health is due almost entirely to a series of complications that characterise the disease. It is associated with an increased incidence of macrovascular complications including coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible relationship between the circulating levels of the modified derivatives of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the development of angiopathy in type 2 diabetic patients with CAD. The status of the antioxidant defences and the role of supplementation with a...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Efficacy of Raphanus sativus in the treatment of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.
Authors: Chaturvedi P, Machacha CNE Abstract In the present study, the efficacy of a methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root (RSME) is tested in albino rats that developed hepatic damage due to administration of paracetamol (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. Twenty rats were divided into three experimental groups (E1, E2, E3) and one control group (EC). Two doses of RSME (80 and 120 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to E1 and E2, respectively, and a mixture of RSME (120 mg/kg) and paracetamol (100 mg/kg) was administered to E3 for 21 days. Group EC and another group of normal rats (EN) that served as ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Characterization of (Uropathogenic) E. coli isolated from urinary tract infections: phylogenetic typing and distribution of virulence-associated traits.
Authors: Salehzadeh A, Zamani H PMID: 28709389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 17, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Incidence of Blastocystis hominis in faecal samples submitted for routine microbiological analysis.
Authors: Windsor JJ, MacFarlane L, Hughes-Thapa G, Jones SKA, Whiteside TM Abstract Over a one-year period, 1390 faecal samples were submitted to Aberystwyth Public Health Laboratory for routine microbiological examination. All were stained using a commercial trichrome method. Blastocystis hominis was detected in 96 (6.9%), making it the most common parasite found in the study. Of the B. hominis-positive specimens, 73% were missed on direct microscopy. Molecular typing of B. hominis has revealed extensive genetic diversity in morphologically identical strains and thus detection by microscopy alone may not be suffic...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Haematological influences of potassium adaptation in normotensive and renally-hypertensive Wistar rats.
Authors: Ozolua RI, Omogbai EKI, Famodu AB, Ebeigbe AB, Ajayi OI Abstract Dietary potassium is known to cause reduction in blood pressure in several models of hypertension in human and animal studies but its haematological effects are not known. Here, experiments are designed to study the haematological effects of potassium adaptation (achieved by administering 0.75% KCl solution in drinking water for five weeks) in Wistar rats. The animals are divided into four groups comprising controls, potassium-adapted, renal hypertensive, and renal hypertensive with later adaptation to potassium. Packed cell volume (PCV) and ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Impact of host genetics on susceptibility to human Chlamydia trachomatis disease.
Authors: Mahdi OSM Abstract Evidence that host genetic factors play a major role in susceptibility or resistance to many infectious diseases is increasing, due to major advances in genetic epidemiological methodology. Recent human genome mapping information and the identification of a large number of candidate genes provide the tools for such studies. The information obtained is important for understanding the pathogenesis of disease and for the design of preventive and therapeutic strategies. In the study of Chlamydia trachomatis disease pathogenesis, much research focuses on how bacterial factors modulate the imm...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection: history and clinical aspects.
Authors: Clarke SC, Haigh RD, Freestone PPE, Williams PH Abstract Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli remains an important cause of diarrhoeal disease worldwide. In terms of global public health, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli are the most important. However, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli has emerged as a cause of disease in developed countries in recent years, and a number of large outbreaks have been reported. Therefore, the importance of research into diarrhoeagenic E. coli remains an important issue. EPEC is the most widespread of the diarrhoeagenic E. coli and provides a good virulence mo...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Effect of aestivation of Biomphalaria pfeifferi on the survival and infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.
Authors: Badger LI, Oyerinde JPO Abstract Schistosoma mansoni cercariae from post-aestivated Biomphalaria pfeifferi remain motile for 20 hours after release. Thereafter, their activity decreases with age. The difference in mortality rate of cercariae from aestivated and non-aestivated B. pfeifferi studied here proved to be statistically significant (P
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Synthetic organic food colouring agents and their degraded products: effects on human and rat cholinesterases.
In this study, the effects of synthetic azo dyes (sunset yellow FCF and carmoisine), as well as their degraded products (sulphanilic acid and naphthionic acid), on both true and pseudo-cholinesterases (ChEs) are studied. The results indicate that the synthetic azo dyes and their degraded products inhibit both human true and pseudo-ChE activities in vitro. The concentration of coloured additive that cause 50% inhibition (IC50) and enzyme inhibitor dissociation constant (Ki) show that sunset yellow FCF produces greater inhibition of both true and pseudo-ChEs than does carmoisine and sulphanilic acid, while naphthionic acid p...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

In vitro cytotoxicity testing of a nanocrystalline silver dressing (Acticoat) on cultured keratinocytes.
In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of Acticoat on cultured keratinocytes is tested. Human keratinocytes are cultivated on a pliable hyaluronatederived membrane (Laserskin) using dermal fibroblasts as the feeder layer. When the cultured Laserskin (CLS) is subconfluent it is covered by Acticoat, which is exposed to water (Group 1), phosphate-buffered saline (Group 2) or culture medium (Group 3). The control group is not exposed to the Acticoat. After 30 minutes incubation at 37˚C, the inhibitory effect of the nanocrystalline silver on keratinocyte growth is measured by an MTT assay. Compared with the control, the rela...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Book Reviews.
Authors: Macey MG, Scott TG, Scott TG PMID: 28700860 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Letters to the Editor.
Authors: Carson RJ, Edirisinghe SP, Needs M PMID: 28700861 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Moore JE, Shaw A, Millar BC, Martin SL, Murphy PG, Downey DG, Ennis M, Elborn JS, Xu J, Moore JE, Murphy PG, Millar BC, Redmond AOB, Elborn JS, Conroy S, Morrish N, Wassif WS, Mak CM, Pang RWC, Tam S, Windsor JJ, Clark CG, Macfarlane L, Abutaleb A, Abed E, Qasem L, Memish ZA, Hajeer AH PMID: 28700862 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Differential growth of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in vancomycin.
This study examines the ability of isolates representing the 17 epidemic methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus to grow in increasing levels of vancomycin. Only EMRSAs 1, 2, 8, 11, 12 and 15 showed any growth and were designated EMRSAs 1A, 2A, 8A, 11A, 12A and 15A. On population analysis, these strains all produced clones that grew on 32 µg/mL vancomycin, while EMRSA 12A and 15A grew at 128 µg/mL. This was associated with increased resistance to lysostaphin and teicoplanin, a loss of phage sensitivity and an increase in cell wall diameter. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following Sma...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Mechanised one-day fat clearance method to increase the lymph node yield in rectal cancer specimens.
Authors: Prabhudesai AG, Dalton P, Kumar D, Finlayson CJ Abstract The Royal College of Pathologists' guidelines for reporting colorectal cancer state that all lymph nodes in a colorectal cancer specimen should be sampled, regardless of site or size. The only means by which one can be certain that all nodes have been sampled is to clear the fat and visualise the lymph nodes. Methods of fat clearance have been available for many years, but few are acceptable in routine practice. Here, a simple, effective and economical solution to the problem is described, which should be amenable to any laboratory with a spare or ba...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Lack of association of CCR gene polymorphisms and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension.
This study investigates a possible relationship between LVH and two chemokine receptor (CCR) gene polymorphisms: CCR5∆32 and CCR264I. Essential hypertensive out-patients (n=118, grade I-II, age 27-54) were recruited from the Catholic University Hypertension Centre. For each subject, clinical data on office blood pressure and M-mode/2D echocardiography were collected. Statistical analysis did not show a significant association between the CCR polymorphisms and LVH in the study population. PMID: 28700865 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Batori H, Sekizuka T, Murayama O, Moore JE, Millar BC, Matsuda M, Nicholas RE, Winstanley TG, Ridgway EJ, Perry JD, Gibbs GJ PMID: 28700866 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Use and limitations of imatinib mesylate (Glivec), a selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinaseAbl transcript in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Authors: Knight GWA, Mclellan D Abstract Chronic myeloid leukaemia is associated with a specific translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 that results in the formation of a chimaeric gene. This gene, when transcribed, produces the BCR-Abl oncoprotein which has tyrosine kinase activity and the ability to prevent apoptosis, but has no effect on cellular proliferation. Imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of the BCR-Abl transcript modelled on the ATP binding pocket of the Abl oncoprotein, prevents phosphorylation of effector molecules and induces apoptosis. Imatinib has limited effectiveness when BCR-Abl cells are in the...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Book Reviews.
Authors: Hancock JT, Hill B, Clarke SC, Rogers DJ, Bridson EY, Clench M PMID: 28700868 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Rich M, Memish ZA, Mak CM, Ng KF, Pang RWC, Tam S, Alenzi FQB PMID: 28700869 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Links between apoptosis, proliferation and the cell cycle.
Authors: Alenzi FQB Abstract Many physiological processes, including proper tissue development and homeostasis, require a balance between apoptosis and cell proliferation. All somatic cells proliferate via a mitotic process determined by progression through the cell cycle. Apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs in a wide variety of physiological settings, where its role is to remove harmful, damaged or unwanted cells. Apoptosis and cell proliferation are linked by cell-cycle regulators and apoptotic stimuli that affect both processes. This review covers recent developments in the field and examines new evidence o...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Erythrocyte autoantibodies and expression of CD59 on the surface of red blood cells of polytransfused patients with ß-thalassaemia major.
This study aims to investigate the presence of erythrocyte autoantibodies and CD59 expression on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in patients with ß-thalassaemia major, and any relationship to frequency of blood transfusion. The study looks at a total of 49 patients (both children and adults) with ß-thalassaemia major, divided into four groups according to the number of blood transfusions received and the presence or absence of the spleen. Glycosylated haemoglobin, Coombs' test (direct and indirect) and CD59 level on the RBC surface (by flow cytometry) are estimated in all patients studied. Glycosylated ha...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Embryopathy in experimental diabetic gestation:assessment of PGE2 level, gene expression of cyclooxygenases and apoptosis.
Authors: El-Bassiouni EA, Helmy MH, Rawash A, El-Zoghby SM, El-Nabi Kamel A, Raya A Abstract The causes of, and predisposing conditions for, increased congenital anomalies in embryos of experimental diabetic gestation are not fully identified. In the present study, some possible factors involved in diabetes-induced embryopathy are explored. The concentration of PGE2, the gene expression of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and level of apoptosis (measured by caspase-3 activity) are assessed during organogenesis in the embryos of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The concentrations of PGE2 in the embryos of diab...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Characterisation of potentially probiotic vaginal lactobacilli isolated from Argentinean women.
This study aims to evaluate potentially beneficial properties of 20 strains of vaginal lactobacilli isolated from women in Tucumán, Argentina, by determining acid and hydrogen peroxide production and auto-aggregation ability. The microorganisms were characterised genetically by amplified ribosomal 16S-DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Lactobacillus gasseri and L. rhamnosus were the predominant species identified among the 20 vaginal lactobacilli strains. Most achieved low pH values after 12 h incubation at 37°C and produced hydrogen peroxide in static culture. However, pH decrease and semi-quantitative hydrogen ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of three commercial agar preparations for the presumptive identification of significant urinary isolates.
Authors: Miles KI, Wren MWD Abstract Three commercially available pre-poured chromogenic preparations - chromogenic urinary tract infection (UTI) medium (chromogenic UTI, Oxoid), CHROMagar Orientation (Becton Dickinson) and CPS ID2 (bioMérieux) - are evaluated in comparison to routine urine microbiology using cysteine lactose electrolytedeficient (CLED) medium and conventional methods of identification and susceptibility testing by Vitek 1 for the majority of isolates. Most isolates were Escherichia coli, and a chromogenic medium has been shown to be a reliable, rapid and more economic medium on which to pre...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

What can cytologists learn from25 years of investigations in visual search?
Authors: Evered A Abstract This review aims to provide an insight into the nature and mechanisms of the visual screening of cytological preparations and to discuss the implications for current practice. Visual perception in cytology is under-researched and deserves further investigation. Fundamental issues to be addressed include the mechanisms of visual scanning of cytological preparations and the factors affecting search performance. Answers to these questions will have wide reaching impact on issues such as liquid-based technology, automated screening, training, quality assurance, recruitment and selection of st...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Effect of a liquid nutritional supplement on viral load and haematological parameters in HIV-positive/AIDS patients.
Authors: Oguntibeju OO, Van Den Heever WMJ, Van Schalkwyk FE Abstract The effect of a nutritional supplement on the immune status and haematological parameters of HIV-positive/ AIDS patients is tested using standard procedures. This clinical trial of 35 patients consists of a baseline visit and three months of supplementation from April to September 2003. Results showed that viral load decreased significantly (P
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Vangueria infausta root bark: in vivo and in vitro antiplasmodial activity.
In this study, concentrations of fractions of the V. infausta root bark extract that produce 50% inhibition (IC50) are determined using the ability of the extract to inhibit the uptake of [G(3)H]-hypoxanthine by P. falciparum cultured in vitro. The root bark extract showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice. It gave a parasite suppression of 73.5% in early infection and a repository effect of 88.7%. One fraction obtained from a chloroform extract gave an IC50 value of 3.8±1.5 µg/mL and 4.5±2.3 µg/mL against D6 and W2 strains of P. falciparum, respectively, and another from th...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

First restriction and genetic mapping of the genomic DNA of urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC), and small restriction fragment sequencing.
Authors: Aritomi T, Sekizuka T, Imamaki R, Murayama O, Millar BC, Moore JE, Matsuda M PMID: 28700878 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Otuonye NM, Odunukwe NN, Adeneye AK, Smith SI, Chigbo RC, Onwuatuelo RI, Oparaugo CT, Onwuamah CK, Fowora MA, Uwah H, Idigbe EO, O'gorman K, Xu J, Elborn JS, Boyle L, Millar BC, Goldsmith CE, Moore JE, Mavin S, Evans R, Appleyard K, Joss AWL, Ho-Yen DO, Smith SI, Oyedeji KS, Odeniyi OAM, Arigbabu AO, Coker AO PMID: 28700879 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Book Reviews.
Authors: Flannagan R, Heath M, Watson P, Wilkinson M, Mera SL, Overfield JA, Edwards-Jones V, McLellan DS PMID: 28700880 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Better diagnosis and treatment of throat infections caused by group A β-haemolytic streptococci.
This study aims to assess the diagnostic value of a rapid streptococcal antigen test in addition to four clinical features in patients with sore throat, using throat culture and antibody titre as reference tests, and to evaluate the efficacy of the current antibiotics used in the treatment of throat infections caused by group A β-haemolytic streptococcus (GABHS). Four clinical features (fever [history of] ≥38˚C, lack of cough, tonsillar exudate, and anterior cervical lymphadenopathy) are recorded in 355 patients aged four years to ≥15 years. A rapid antigen diagnostic test (RADT) is performed, as well as a thro...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Biomedical Science in Brief.
Authors: Lotfy M, Badra G, Burham W, Alenzi FQ, Bermejo-Martin JF, Bernardo D, Dominguez-Gil M, Alonso A, Garcia-Arevalo MC, Pino M, De Lejarazu O, Eiros JM, Ardura J, Leön AJ, Garrote JA, Resino S, Blanco-Quirös A, Muñoz-Fernández A, Arranz E, Gopinath VK, Musa M, Samsudin AR, Sosroseno W, Shigematsu M, Harada Y, Sekizuka T, Murayama O, Takamiya S, Millar BC, Moore JE, Matsuda M, Elshibly S, Xu J, Millar BC, Armstrong C, Moore JE PMID: 28700882 [PubMed] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - July 15, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research