Rapid identification of bacteria from bioMérieux BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS.
Rapid identification of bacteria from bioMérieux BacT/ALERT blood culture bottles by MALDI-TOF MS. Br J Biomed Sci. 2013;70(4):149-55 Authors: Haigh JD, Green IM, Ball D, Eydmann M, Millar M, Wilks M Abstract Several studies have reported poor results when trying to identify microorganisms directly from the bioMérieux BacT/ALERT blood culture system using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The aim of this study is to evaluate two new methods, Sepsityper and an enrichment method for direct identification of microorganisms from this sys...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter in a temperate north Indian State.
This study aims to determine drug sensitivity, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production and elaboration of bla(OXA)-type carbapenemases in Acinetobacter spp. in a temperate climate area in north India with a heavy influx of tourists. Antimicrobial sensitivity of 165 isolates was performed. Imipenem-resistant isolates were subjected to combined disk (CDT) and double-disk diffusion tests (DDT) for MBL detection. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and MBL production were tested by Etest. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the detection of genes encoding bla(OXA)-23 like, bla(OXA-24) like, bla(OXA...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Vitamin D in health and disease: a literature review.
Authors: Basit S Abstract Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is synthesised in response to sunlight. Vitamin D requires two metabolic conversions, 25-hydroxylation in the liver and 1alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney, to become active hormone. The active form, 1alpha,25-(OH)2D, binds to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) to modulate gene transcription and regulate mineral ion homeostasis. Vitamin D plays several roles in the body, influencing bone health as well as serum calcium and phosphate levels. Furthermore, vitamin D may modify immune function, cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Vitamin D deficienc...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Increased susceptibility to antibiotics in gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, at lower temperature: is antibiotic resistance reversal possible?
Authors: Moore JE, Moore RJ, Downey D, Millar BC, Coulter WA, Goldsmith CE PMID: 24400429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of different methods to extract DNA from serum seeded with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Authors: Awad S, Alshami I, Alharbi AE PMID: 24400430 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Non-beta-haemolytic variants of Streptococcus pyogenes: a challenge for the microbiology laboratory.
Authors: Purcell M, Phelan E, Doyle M PMID: 24400431 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Blood sample contamination by glucose-containing solutions: effects and identification.
Authors: Lippi G, Avanzini R, Sandei F, Aloe R, Cervellin G PMID: 24400432 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Use of large-volume, fixed-depth, disposable slides for post-vasectomy semen analysis.
Authors: Hancock R, Lindsay K, Tomlinson MT Abstract Vasectomy is the surgical procedure used for male contraception. Traditionally, operative success has been established by the issue of a laboratory report stating the achievement of azoospermia. The purpose of this study is to establish if this is an achievable or realistic status and if a change to the current best practice would provide an acceptable and cost-effective alternative. In principle, human fecundity is complex and measured in probabilities, which is inconsistent with the implied absolute requirement to establish the complete absence of spermatozoa. ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Development of nalidixic acid amphotericin B vancomycin (NAV) medium for the isolation of Campylobacter ureolyticus from the stools of patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis.
Authors: O'Doherty A, Koziel M, De Barra L, Corcoran D, Bullman S, Lucey B, Sleator RD Abstract Recently, Campylobacter ureolyticus has been detected for the first time in the faeces of patients with acute gastroenteritis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Cultural isolation of C. ureolyticusis is not possible using the established selective methods for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. from faeces. The aim of the current study is to develop a new selective medium capable of isolating C. ureolyticus from faecal samples. The newly-developed medium consists of Anaerobe Basal Agar with 10...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in Egyptian patients with chronic calcular cholecystitis.
This study aims to detect H. pylori in the bile and gall bladder (GB) of patients with chronic calcular cholecystitis (CCC), and to determine the association of H. pylori infection with gallstone type. Thirty patients with CCC admitted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were investigated, including upper gastro-endoscopy before cholecystectomy. Rapid urease test and histopathological examination were performed on gastric biopsies. The GB specimens were investigated for the presence of H. pylori by immunohistochemistry (IHC). H. pylori antigen in bile was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Chemical analysis of gallstones was per...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Molecular structural analysis of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene clusters in Campylobacter lari.
Authors: Nakajima T, Ara W, Saito K, Moores JE, Millar BC, Matsuda M Abstract Southern hybridisation shows that urease-negative (UN) Campylobacter lari JCM2530(T) carries two putative major outer membrane protein (MOMP) genes. Sequences of approximately 2.1 kbp, encoding non-coding (NC) regions, with possible open reading frames (ORFs) for MOMP (porA1 or porA2) of approximately 1.2 kbp, NC regions and partial and putative Cla_0435 or Cla_1109 ORFs were identified in all five UN C. lari isolates examined, following polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning and sequencing. Each putative MOMP structural gene carried sta...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Elevated levels of serum sialic acid and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein: markers of systemic inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure.
This study aims to assess the serum levels of inflammatory markers such as sialic acid and hs-CRP in chronic heart failure (CHF). Forty-eight patients with CHF and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-associated sialic acid (LASA), and the inflammatory marker hs-CRP, were assayed in all study subjects. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was assayed in the patient group only. Serum mean TSA and LASA were significantly higher in CHF patients when compared to healthy controls (P
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of tamoxifen and metabolites by LC-MS/MS and HPLC methods.
This study analysed a randomly selected batch of blood samples from participants enrolled in a breast cancer study to compare results from this reference method in 40 samples with those obtained from a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection. The mean (SD) concentrations for the LC-MS/MS method (endoxifen 12.6 [7.5] ng/mL, tamoxifen 105 [44] ng/mL, 4-HT 1.9 [1.0] ng/mL, ND-tam 181 [69] ng/mL) and the HPLC method (endoxifen 13.1 [7.8] ng/mL, tamoxifen 108 [55] ng/mL, 4-HT 1.8 [0.8] ng/mL, ND-tam 184 [81] ng/mL) did not show any significant differences. The results ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Fever of unknown origin: a retrospective study of 95 children in an Iranian referral hospital.
Authors: Mahmoudi S, Mehrazmay A, Salesi M, Mamishi S Abstract Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a common manifestation in paediatrics and is a diagnostic problem especially in primary care. The present study aims to revue the causes of FUO in an Iranian referral tertiary care hospital. Information on 95 patients referred to the Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, between 2004 and 2006 with a primary diagnosis of FUO was evaluated retrospectively. Infectious diseases were diagnosed in 26.3% (n = 25) of the cases, while malignant and non-infectious inflammatory diseases constituted 7.4% (n = 7) and 14.7% (n =...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Zinc chloride inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth and reduces expression of interleukin-1beta by gastric epithelial cells.
Authors: Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Jafri W, Usman MW, Awan S PMID: 24693575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Bacterial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in central Greece.
Authors: Neocleous CH, Gerogianni I, Liakopoulos A, Gourgoulianis K, Petinaki E PMID: 24693576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Scottish patients: a novel approach.
Authors: Mavin S, Watson EJ, Evans R Abstract Traditional two-tier (enzyme immunoassay [EIA] screening and Western blot confirmation) testing for the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is expensive, lacks sensitivity in the diagnosis of early LB, cannot distinguish between current and past infection and cannot be used as a marker for treatment response. The aims of the present study is to investigate the role of the C6 EIA as a screening assay, as part of two-tier EIA test strategy, and its use as a marker of treatment response or resolving infection in a routine diagnostic laboratory. The C6 EIA was sig...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from veterinary clinical cases in the UK.
This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period. Identification was based on standard microbiological identification methods, and by S. pseudintermedius-specific nuc polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PBP2a latex agglutination and mecA PCR. Susceptibility against non-beta-lactam antibiotics was carried out using a disc-diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In addition, susceptibility to pradofloxacin--a new veterinary fluoroquinolone-...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Construction and expression of a recombinant urease gene cluster from Campylobacter sputorum biovar paraureolyticus.
Authors: Nakajima T, Kuribayashi T, Yamamoto S, Moore JE, Millar BC, Matsuda M Abstract Recombinant full-length urease gene cluster and seven 100% deletion recombinant variants of urease subunits genes, (ureG, ureH, ureA, ureB, ureC, ureE and ureF) were constructed in vitro from the Campylobacter sputorum biovar paraureolyticus LMG17591 strain and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 cells. A urease-positive reaction (1.885 micromol/min/mg protein) in the log-phase cultured E. coli cells transformed with pGEM-T vector carrying the recombinant full-length urease genes cluster was detected. Among the seven 100% deleti...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Effects of Candida on insulin secretion of human adult pancreatic islets and possible onset of diabetes.
This study aims to determine the origin of Candida contamination of pancreatic tissue cultures, as well as its influence on insulin secretory activity of the pancreatic islets. Pancreatic tissue was obtained after pancreatectomy in patients who had chronic pancreatitis or benign tumours. Islets were isolated under aseptic conditions by a manual method. Microbiological analysis was performed by standard procedures and secretory activity was determined on the first, third and seventh day of cultivation. Insulin stimulation index (SI) on the first day of incubation was 0.665 +/- 0.082 and 0.982 +/- 0.167 for sterile and infec...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Haptoglobin 2-2 phenotype is associated with decreased serum iron levels in endstage renal disease patients resistant to rhEPO therapy.
Authors: Martins F, Catarino C, Rocha-Pereira P, Reis F, Sameiro-Faria M, Miranda V, Belo L, Bronze-da-Rocha E, Costa E, Santos-Silva A PMID: 24974683 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Detection of the prodigiosin biosynthesis protein (pigC) from Serratia marcescens: development of a novel PCR assay.
Authors: Tasaki E, Nakajima T, Millar BC, Goldsmith CE, Coulter WA, Matsuda M, Elborn JS, Moore JE PMID: 24974684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Comparability of high-sensitivity CRP methods to detect maturity-onset diabetes of the young due to HNF1A mutations.
Authors: Shah N, Thanabalasingham G, Owen KR, James TJ PMID: 24974685 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Immunohistochemistry for CDX2 expression in non-goblet-cell Barrett's oesophagus.
This study aims to assess expression of the transcription factor CDX2 specifically in non-goblet-cell cardia and fundic oesophageal metaplastic tissue, and to compare the location of CDX2 expression in non-goblet-cell specimens to that in goblet-cell specimens. A total of 43 patient specimens (20 fundic-type metaplasia, 42 cardia-type metaplasia and 18 intestinal metaplasia goblet cell-positive) were examined in this study. These were selected over six months from a patient database using the systematised nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine coding system (SNOMED). CDX2 was detected in patient specimens with an an...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Association of plasma proteins at multiple stages of glycation and antioxidant status with erythrocyte oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes.
This study examines the individual stages of plasma protein glycation, antioxidant status and their association with erythrocyte oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Study was carried out on blood from 70 patients with T2DM and 40 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers. Biomarkers of plasma protein glycation (fructosamine, protein carbonyls, advanced glycation end products [AGEs], amyloid), antioxidant status (thiols, total antioxidant capacity and erythrocyte oxidative parameters), osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase were determined. Plasma ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

ERK and RAF1 genes: analysis of methylation and expression profiles in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
This study analyses the promoter methylation and RNA expression profiles of ERK and RAF1 genes with risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) along with the promoter methylation status of ERK and RAF1 genes using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) in 86 paraffin-wax embedded samples of OSCC and 68 normal control tissues. Furthermore, ERK and RAF1 expression was analysed in 19 cases and 20 normal samples by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Frequency of promoter methylation was detected for ERK (93.02% and 6.98%) and RAF1 (95.35% and 4.65%) genes in cases and controls, respectively. Messenger RNA...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Sickle cell solubility test: evaluation of an in-house method.
This study aims to assess the performance of an in-house sickle cell solubility test (SCT) and compare it against data published on other in-house and commercial methods. Also assessed are the effects of possible interference due to haemoglobin (Hb) level, Hb F and Hb S levels, as well as lipaemia, icterus and haemolysis index. A total of 1030 patient samples were tested by the SCT and subsequently confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-five (7.3%) samples revealed a positive SCT whereas 955 (92.7%) were negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the method was 100% and it was shown to detect...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Human herpesvirus 6 infection in febrile children: frequency in an Iranian referral hospital.
Authors: Farshadmoghadam H, Pourakbari B, Mahmoudi S, Sadeghi RH, Mamishi S Abstract Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for virus in blood and saliva are frequently positive in persons with past infection, re-infection with new strains or latency with or without repeated reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of HHV6 infections in children aged two years or under with an initial diagnosis of fever during an evaluation in the paediatric emergency department of the Children's Medical Center, an Iranian referral hospital, using PCR methodology. In all childre...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Rubella antibody status of patients attending a south-west London antenatal clinic, 2007-2012.
In this study, samples were collected in serum separator tubes at the West Middlesex University Hospital (WMUH) ANC and sent to the laboratory. Rubella status was determined using a third-generation rubella IgG enzyme immunoassay. Any negative results were retested and confirmed using an alternative method. The concentrations were expressed as iu/mL (World Health Organization [WHO] standard). Over a five-year period, the number of rubella-susceptible patients increased from 4.1% to 6.8% of the total number of specimens tested. The current population susceptibility levels seem to be influenced by a number of factors: the ta...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection among immunodeficient individuals: review of concordance between interferon-gamma release assays and the tuberculin skin test.
Authors: Mamishi S, Pourakbari B, Marjani M, Mahmoudi S Abstract Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains as a major threat to global health. Nearly a third of the world's population is estimated to have latent M. tuberculosis infection, and this is considered to be a major reservoir of potential active disease. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with chronic renal failure requiring haemodialysis, solid organ transplant recipients, and individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased likelihood of progression from latent infection to active disease, due to impaired cell-mediate...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis in individuals with recent exposure: tuberculin skin test versus interferon-gamma release assay.
Authors: Shokrollahi MR, Noorbaksh S, Nasehi L, Movahedi Z PMID: 25265758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Vitamin D immunoassay systems: a comparison.
Authors: Dafterdar R, Al-Fayoumi M, Saadeddin S, Khan R, Alothaim A, Hasanato R, Al-Shangiti A, Fakhoury H, Tamimi W PMID: 25265759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Observations on the variation in volumes of self-collected oral fluid samples submitted for HIV antibody detection.
Authors: Mortlock S, McLean F, Jones E, Willis S PMID: 25265760 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Misidentification of Providencia stuartii as Serratia fonticola by Vitek 2.
Authors: Lam JT, Ng TK PMID: 25265761 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae: prospective detection among community lower respiratory isolates in Eastern Saudi Arabia.
Authors: Alnimr AM Abstract Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae is a distinct pathogen and the available evidence suggests its significance in lower respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this study is to investigate the occurrence of this new species in patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia in a university hospital setting using routine laboratory tests. Sputum samples (n = 213) submitted to the microbiology laboratory for culture from cases clinically diagnosed as community-acquired pneumonia are studied. Optochin variability in ambient air and 5% CO2 was the criterion used to identify S. pseudop...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Factors influencing elevated serum apolipoprotein B48 in diabetic and control participants.
This study assesses some possible contributing factors including the presence of type 2 diabetes and gender using an established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Apo B48 and triglyceride (TG) levels were measured before and for two, four and six hours post-prandially in 49 poorly controlled participants with type 2 diabetes and in 60 apparently healthy participants (controls). Apo B48 levels in the control participants increased post-prandially, peaking at four hours (14.81 ± 7.72 μg/mL) with similar responses demonstrated in TG concentrations. Post-prandial apo B48 levels were significantly high...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Interleukin-6: a possible inflammatory link between vitiligo and type 1 diabetes.
In conclusion, this is the first study to show an inflammatory link between vitiligo and T1D. The data conclude that IL-6 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Vt-T1D patients and is likely to gain favour as a therapeutic target in these patients. PMID: 25562992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs): a view from the laboratory.
Authors: Blann AD Abstract Disadvantages with traditional anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists and heparinoids) have led to the development on non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). These agents are set to replace the traditional anticoagulants in situations such as following orthopaedic surgery, in atrial fibrillation, and in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. Although superior to vitamin K antagonists and heparinoids in several aspects, NOACs retain the ability to cause haemorrhage and, despite claims to the contrary, may need monitoring. This review aims to summarise key aspe...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Nephrotoxic nephritis and glomerulonephritis: animal model versus human disease.
Authors: Muhammad S Abstract Glomerulonephritis (GN) encompasses a range of immune-mediated disorders that cause inflammation within the glomerulus of the kidney. The pathogenesis of GN is complex. Intricacy arises from factors such as autoimmunity, cancer and structural abnormalities within the kidney. Studies using animal models have highlighted crucial interaction between inflammatory cells and cells intrinsic to the kidney, both of which are fundamental to the pathogenesis of GN. This review aims to provide insight on a 'suitable' model for nephrotoxic nephritis and glomerulonephritis (NTN GN) and relate its ex...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Cilostazol and blood viscoelasticity in homozygous sickle cell disease.
Authors: Lester DA, Richards AA, Younger-Coleman NO, Pepple DJ PMID: 25562995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Urease production as a marker of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Authors: Bradbury RS, Reid DW, Champion AC PMID: 25562996 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori infection in a Greek cohort with biliary disease.
Authors: Kountouras J, Tsiaousi E, Trigonis S, Zavos C, Kouklakis G PMID: 25562997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

RT-Bst: an integrated approach for reverse transcription and enrichment of cDNA from viral RNA.
Authors: Kabir MS, Clements MO, Kimmitt RT Abstract The synthesis of cDNA from RNA is challenging due to the inefficiency of reverse transcription (RT). In order to address this, an RT-Bst method was developed for sequential RT of RNA and Bst DNA polymerase amplification for enrichment of cDNA in a single-tube reaction. Using genomic RNA from bacteriophage MS2, the yield of cDNA produced by RT alone and RT-Bst were compared by analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products. A superior performance was observed when amplifying MS2 cDNA with random primers following RT-Bst compared to RT alone, indicat...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Chromosomal ampC mutations in cefpodoxime-resistant, ESBL-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli.
This study sets out to determine the prevalence of ampC promoter mutations present in a group of uropathogenic E. coli strains. A total of 50 clinical strains of E. coli were collected from urine samples between June 2011 and November 2011. Strains were investigated for the presence of mutations in the chromosomal ampC promoter region by amplification and sequencing of a 271 bp product. The presence of ampC-carrying plasmids derived from other species was also determined, to exclude these from further analysis. ampC-carrying plasmids were found in 10 of the 50 strains, all of which were of the CIT-type. Analysis of the chr...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Formation of a carbapenemase resistance detection algorithm for use in the routine laboratory.
Authors: Boran N, Vivian B, Logan C, Grogan J Abstract The increasing prevalence of carbapenem non-susceptible Gram negative organisms demands prompt and accurate identification of resistance mechanisms to limit their transmission. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rapid CARB screen (Rosco Diagnostica, Denmark), the 'KPC/MBL in P. aeruginosa/Acinetobacter Confirm Kit' (Rosco Diagnostica), Check-MDR Carba and Check-Direct CPE kits (Check-Points, The Netherlands). The purpose of this study is the formation of a carbapenemase resistance detection algorithm that can be used in the routine laboratory. Results of ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Sebia Capillarys 2 versus the Helena Biosciences V8 capillary electrophoresis analyser for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin measurement: comparison and analytical evaluation.
This study compares two automated capillary electrophoresis (CE) systems, the Capillarys 2 (Sebia, Surrey, UK) and V8 (Helena Biosciences, Tyne and Wear, UK) for the measurement of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT). Analytical imprecision was calculated for both platforms using internal quality control material from Sebia and Helena Biosciences, while a patient comparison was performed on 150 patient samples with CDT% levels ranging from 0.3% to 23.7%. Inter- and intra-assay imprecision between the two platforms were comparable. The correlation between platforms using patient samples was r2 = 0.985. However, there w...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.
In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended. PMID: 25906488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Mycobacterium diagnostics: from the primitive to the promising.
Authors: O'Connor JA, O'Reilly B, Corcoran GD, O'Mahony J, Lucey B Abstract The field of clinical microbiology has been revolutionised by genomic and proteomic methods, which have facilitated more rapid diagnosis and characterisation of infection in many cases. In contrast, mycobacteriological evolution has tended to retain the traditional methods of smear microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli to indicate mycobacteria, along with culture, and in synergy with more modern molecular methods. Thus, efforts have been focused on reducing the time to diagnosis of infection, while increasing the amount of diagnosti...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Renal point-of-care testing: collaboration between biomedical scientists and community pharmacists.
Authors: Muhammad S Abstract The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing with the prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, elevated blood pressure and other cardiovascular-renal risk factors. Wider point-of-care testing (POCT) strategies in the community setting are needed to prevent CKD and delay progressive loss of renal function. Since publication of the Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS) Point of Care Testing (Near-Patient Testing) Guidance on the Involvement of the Clinical Laboratory, the biomedical scientist can now provide enhanced services including tests for blood glucose, cholesterol...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Emergence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.
In this study of 48 HA-MRSA isolates, 13 (27%), three (6.2%), five (10.4%) and one (2%) belonged to SCCmec subtypes IVa, IVb, IVc and IVd, respectively. Only two isolates (4.2%) belonged to SCCmec types V Notably, one isolate was found to harbour concurrent SCCmec subtypes IVb and IVd. MRSA containing SCCmec subtype IVb, IVc and IVd as well as type V isolates were all susceptible to chloramphenicol, clindamycin and rifampicin, while the sensitivity to these antibiotics was lower among MRSA containing SCCmec subtype IVa. The most frequently observed spa ttype was t037, accounting for 88% (22/25). Three other spa type was t0...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research