The lipaemic index: clinical observations.
This study found that males were more likely to have a high lipaemic index (56%) and neonates were the group most frequently producing lipaemic samples (30.6%). The correlation between the lipaemic index and the triglyceride concentration showed an r2 value of only 0.37 (r = 0.61), and the correlation between cholesterol and lipaemic index showed an r2 value of 0.16 (r = -0.41). Male and neonatal samples were most likely to show a raised lipaemic index. There was a positive correlation between sample triglyceride and lipaemic index and an inverse correlation with cholesterol concentration and the lipaemic index, although t...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

25-hydroxy vitamin D and ischaemia-modified albumin levels in psoriasis and their association with disease severity.
This study examined 25-hydroxy vitamin D, IMA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with psoriasis, in comparison with healthy controls and their possible association with disease severity. A total of 43 cases of psoriasis and 43 controls were included in this cross-sectional study, and severity grading was performed according to psoriasis area severity index (PASI) scoring. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, IMA and hs-CRP were evaluated in all study subjects. In psoriasis, 25-hydroxy vitamin D showed a significant decline, while hs-CRP and IMA levels were significantly elevated, as compared with co...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Pan-cytokeratin markers for rapid frozen section immunocytochemistry from head and facial Mohs cases of basal cell carcinoma: a comparison and evaluation to determine the marker of choice.
This study evaluates the use of pan-cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, MNF116 and AE1/AE3+PCK26) in the assessment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on frozen tissue debulk specimens. Fifty-five cases of BCC, all from head and facial sites, were assessed in the study. In addition to staining all cases for the three cytokeratin antibodies under investigation, sections were also stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) to demonstrate tumour architecture and morphology. All sections for immunocytochemistry were stained on a Roche Ventana BenchMark Ultra automated platform employing a rapid frozen section protocol. Results were assessed ...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori: correlation of the virulence marker iceA allele with clinical outcome in a high prevalence area.
Authors: Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Khan R, Salim SA, Abrar A, Awan S, Ahmad Z Abstract The association of Helicobacter pylori virulence marker 'induced by contact with epithelium A' (iceA) allele types was determined in H. pylori-related diseases and virulence markers. Gastric biopsies were obtained at EGD from patients for culture, histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for iceA types, cagA and vacA alleles. Two hundred and eighty-four H. pylori isolates were examined. iceA type 1 was positive in 177 (62%) and iceA type 2 in 158 (56%). In iceA type 2, gastric ulcer was present in 34 (21%) (P
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Stem cells as a novel therapy for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Authors: Moore PJ PMID: 26126323 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Investigation into the misidentification of Hazard Group 3 gastrointestinal pathogens and associated health and safety risks.
Authors: Connell S, Chattaway M, Powell D, Jenkins C, Grant K, De Pinna E, Godbole G PMID: 26126324 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Lung cancer: the immune system and radiation.
Authors: Mendes F, Antunes C, Abrantes AM, Gonçalves AC, Nobre-Gois I, Sarmento AB, Botelho MF, Rosa MS Abstract Lung cancer has a known relationship with smoking and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Although the number of studies discussing lung cancer is vast, treatment efficacy is still suboptimal due to the wide range of factors that affect patient outcome. This review aims to collect information on lung cancer treatment, specially focused on radiation therapy. It also compiles information regarding the influence of radiotherapy on the immune system and its response to tumo...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?
Authors: Maule WJ Abstract Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alterna...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Effects of propofol and isoflurane on haemodynamics and the inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Authors: Sayed S, Idriss NK, Sayyedf HG, Ashry AA, Rafatt DM, Mohamed AO, Blann AD Abstract Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes reperfusion injury that when most severe is clinically manifested as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The anaesthetic propofol may have anti-inflammatory properties that may reduce such a response. We hypothesised differing effects of propofol and isoflurane on inflammatory markers in patients having CBR Forty patients undergoing elective CPB were randomised to receive either propofol or isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia. CRP, IL-6, IL-8, HIF-1α (ELISA), CD11 and CD...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Elevated fibrinogen and lowered homocysteine-vitamin determinants and their association with left atrial thrombus in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis.
In this study, fibrinogen, vitamin B12 and folate were independently associated with the occurrence of thrombus in patients with rheumatic MS. Hence, our results suggest that increase in procoagulant mechanisms contribute to increased risk of thrombosis in the left atrium in patients with rheumatic MS. PMID: 26510264 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Snail transcript levels in diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma with fine-needle aspirate.
Authors: Wang Z, Zhao L, Xiao Y, Gao Y, Zhao C Abstract Expression of the transcription factor Snail that mediates epithelial-mesenchymal transition is correlated with poor prognosis in many tumour types. The aim of this study is to determine, as a proof of principle, whether Snail messenger RNA (mRNA) could be detected in fine-needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and could accurately differentiate malignant from benign pancreatic tissues. We also investigate the expression of Snail mRNA and its clinical significance in PDAC. FNA (22- or 25-gauge needle) samples were obtained fr...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Platelet transfusion in chemotherapy patients: comparison of the effect of intravenous infusion pumps versus gravity transfusion.
Authors: Meess A Abstract Platelet concentrates are given to patients suffering with severe thrombocytopenia usually by a gravity transfusion procedure. Increasing patient numbers that are in need of this treatment increase the pressure on hospital staff and space. In order to combat time issues, the use of medical devices such as intravenous infusion pumps are thought to be beneficial for time and simultaneously for safety in transfusion practices. By using infusion pumps, platelet concentrates can be transfused in less time and provide accurate volume measurements. Manufacturers of infusion pumps claim that these...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa displays an altered phenotype in vitro when grown in the presence of mannitol.
Authors: Moore JE, Rendall JC, Downey DG Abstract D-mannitol has been approved in dry powder formulation as an effective antimucolytic agent in patients with cystic fibrosis. What is not known is the effect of adding a metabolisable sugar on the biology of chronic bacterial pathogens in the CF lung. Therefore, a series of simple in vitro experiments were performed to examine the effect of adding D-mannitol on the phenotype of the CF respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Clinical isolates (n = 86) consisting of P. aeruginosa (n = 51), B. cenocepacia (n = 26), P. putida (n = 4), S...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Evaluation of rep-PCR/DiversiLab versus PFGE and spa typing in genotyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Authors: Aguadero V, González Velasco C, Vindel A, Gonzalez Velasco M, Moreno JJ Abstract Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the 'gold standard' for genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, the DiversiLab (DL) system, based on rep-PCR, is faster, simpler and could be better adapted to daily routine hospital work. We genotyped 100 MRSA isolates using PFGE, DL, and spa typing, and evaluated the discriminatory power of each technique and the correlation between them by Simpson's index(SI) and adjusted Rand coefficient (ARI), respectively. The isolates were from clinical...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Application of RT-Bst to enhance detection of pathogenic viruses of the respiratory tract.
Authors: Kabir MS, Clements MO, Atkins M, Kimmitt PT Abstract Inefficiency of RT-PCR can be associated with the suboptimal process of reverse transcription as only 40-80% of RNA is converted to cDNA. We employed a novel method, RT-Bst, to enrich the concentration of cDNA for subsequent multiplex PCR detection of selected RNA viruses. The RT-Bst method amplifies cDNA through reverse transcription of viral RNA using reverse transcriptase and amplification of cDNA using Bst DNA polymerase. Viral RNA was extracted from 25 nasopharyngeal samples for detection of influenza A, B and C; parainfluenza 1-4; human coronavirus...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.
This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriu...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Development of new and accurate measurement devices (TruSlice and TruSlice Digital) for use in histological dissection: an attempt to improve specimen dissection precision.
Authors: Orchard GE, Shams M, Nwokie T, Bulut C, D'Amico C, Gabriel J, Ramji Z, Georgaki A, Neichcial A, Shams F, Neesam H, Haine N, Brewer C Abstract Histological dissection of human tissue has relied on conventional procedures, which have largely remained unchanged for decades. Practices to determine measurement parameters employed in these procedures have largely relied on the use of rulers and weighing scales. It is well documented in the scientific literature that both fixation and processing of tissue can significantly affect the viability of the of tissue sections both for tinctorial and immunocytochemical i...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research

Comparison of the in vitro susceptibility of veterinary antibiotics with human antibiotics within aminoglycosides, β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotic classes to highly resistant Gram-negative pathogens from human medicine.
Comparison of the in vitro susceptibility of veterinary antibiotics with human antibiotics within aminoglycosides, β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotic classes to highly resistant Gram-negative pathogens from human medicine. Br J Biomed Sci. 2015;72(3):146-9 Authors: Moore JE, Alcorn M, Rendall JC, Downey DG PMID: 26510272 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - December 2, 2015 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research