Hard Block Degradable Polycarbonate Urethanes: Promising Biomaterials for Electrospun Vascular Prostheses.
We report biodegradable thermoplastic polyurethanes for soft tissue engineering applications, where frequently used carboxylic acid ester degradation motifs were substituted with carbonate moieties to achieve superior degradation properties. While the use of carbonates in soft blocks has been reported, their use in hard blocks of thermoplastic polyurethanes is unprecedented. Soft blocks consist of poly(hexamethylene carbonate), and hard blocks combine hexamethylene diisocyanate with the newly synthesized cleavable carbonate chain extender bis(3 hydroxypropylene)carbonate (BHPC), mimicking the motif of poly(trimethylene car...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ehrmann K, Potzmann P, Dworak C, Bergmeister H, Eilenberg M, Grasl C, Koch T, Schima H, Liska R, Baudis S Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

α-Synuclein penetrates mucin hydrogels despite its mucoadhesive properties.
α-Synuclein penetrates mucin hydrogels despite its mucoadhesive properties. Biomacromolecules. 2019 Nov 13;: Authors: Marczynski M, Rickert CA, Semerdzhiev SA, van Dijk WR, Segers-Nolten IMJ, Claessens MMAE, Lieleg O Abstract Recent research indicates that the progression of Parkinson's disease can start from neurons of the enteric nervous system, which are in close contact with the gastrointestinal epithelium: α synuclein molecules can be transferred from these epithelial cells in a prion-like fashion to enteric neurons. Thin mucus layers constitute a defense line against the exposure of ...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Marczynski M, Rickert CA, Semerdzhiev SA, van Dijk WR, Segers-Nolten IMJ, Claessens MMAE, Lieleg O Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Post-fabrication Tethering of Molecular Gradients on Aligned Nanofibers of Functional Poly( ԑ-caprolactone)s.
Post-fabrication Tethering of Molecular Gradients on Aligned Nanofibers of Functional Poly(ԑ-caprolactone)s. Biomacromolecules. 2019 Nov 13;: Authors: Silantyeva EA, Willits RK, Becker ML Abstract Substrates with combinations of topographical and biochemical cues are highly useful for a number of fundamental biological investigations. Tethered molecular concentration gradients in particular are highly desired for cell migration applications. Herein, we report a versatile method for the fabrication of aligned nanofiber substrates with a tunable concentration gradient along the fiber direction. 4-diben...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 13, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Silantyeva EA, Willits RK, Becker ML Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Designing Cellulose Nanofibrils for Stabilization of Fluid Interfaces.
Abstract Particles of biological origin are of increasing interest for the Pickering stabilization of biocompatible and environmentally friendly foams and emulsions. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are readily employed in that respect, however, the underlying mechanisms of interfacial stabilization remain widely unknown. For instance, it has not been resolved why CNFs are unable to stabilize foams while efficiently stabilizing emulsions. Here, we produce CNFs with varying contour length and charge density to investigate their behavior at the air-water phase boundary. CNFs adsorbing at the air-water interface reduce s...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bertsch P, Arcari M, Geue T, Mezzenga R, Nystrom G, Fischer P Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Double-Network Hydrogels Including Enzymatically Crosslinked Poly-(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline)s for 3D Bioprinting of Cartilage Engineering Constructs.
Abstract Double-network (DN) hydrogels are fabricated from poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOXA)-peptide conjugates, which can be enzymatically crosslinked in the presence of Sortase A (SA), and physical networks of alginate (Alg), yielding matrices with improved mechanical properties with respect to the corresponding PEOXA and Alg single networks, and excellent biocompatibility towards encapsulated human auricular chondrocytes (hACs). The addition of a low content of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) within DN hydrogel formulations provides to these the rheological properties that ensure their subsequent extrusion-based 3D...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Trachsel L, Johnbosco C, Lang T, Benetti EM, Zenobi-Wong M Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Additive Manufacturing of Bovine Serum Albumin-based Hydrogels and Bioplastics.
Abstract Bio-sourced and biodegradable polymers for additive manufacturing could enable the rapid fabrication of parts for a broad spectrum of applications ranging from healthcare to aerospace. However, a limited number of these materials are suitable for vat photopolymerization processes. Herein, we report a two-step additive manufacturing process to fabricate robust protein-based constructs using a commercially available laser-based SLA printer. Methacrylated bovine serum albumin (MA-BSA) was synthesized and formulated into aqueous resins that were used to print complex 3D objects with a resolution comparable to...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Smith PT, Narupai B, Tsui JH, Millik SC, Shafranek RT, Kim DH, Nelson A Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Synthesis of anthracene-conjugates of truncated antifreeze protein sequences. Effect of end-group and photo-controlled dimerization on ice recrystallisation inhibition activity.
Abstract Biomacromolecular antifreezes distinguish ice from water, function by binding to specific planes of ice and could have many applications from cryobiology to aerospace where ice is a problem. In biology, antifreeze protein (AFP) activity is regulated by protein expression levels via temperature and light regulated expression systems but in the laboratory (or applications) the antifreeze activity is 'always on' without any spatial nor temporal control and hence methods to enable this switching represent an exciting synthetic challenge. Introduction of abiotic functionality into short peptides (e.g. from sol...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 12, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Graham B, Fayter AER, Gibson MI Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Addition to "DNA-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Based on the Biodegradable Polyphosphoesters Tackified by a Nucleobase".
Addition to "DNA-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Based on the Biodegradable Polyphosphoesters Tackified by a Nucleobase". Biomacromolecules. 2019 Nov 11;: Authors: Wang W, Liu S, Chen B, Yan X, Li S, Ma X, Yu X PMID: 31710216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomacromolecules)
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang W, Liu S, Chen B, Yan X, Li S, Ma X, Yu X Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Cell-membrane permeable redox phospholipid polymers induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Abstract Induction of oxidative stress is an effective approach to causing apoptotic death of cancer cells. Since oxidative stress is generally caused by an intracellular redox imbalance, altering the intracellular redox is a promising strategy toward the growth suppression of cancer cells. Here, we attempted to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by adding a cell-membrane permeable redox phospholipid polymer that can alter the intracellular redox. We found that apoptosis and the deactivation of oxidative phosphorylation were induced in the MDA-MB-231 cells in the presence of the oxidized form...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kaneko M, Ishikawa M, Ishihara K, Nakanishi S Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Efficient removal of Cu2+ in water by carboxymethylated cellulose nanofibrils: performance and mechanism.
Abstract Simultaneous production and functionalization of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) for heavy metal ions removal is an economical and promising solution to expedite their use in water treatment. In this work, carboxymethylated CNFs (CMCNFs) with a carboxylate content up to 2.7 mmol/g are prepared by a combination of carboxymethylation and homogenization, which show a 3.40-3.53 nm in diameter and a 1210.6-383.3 nm in length. The effect of experimental conditions (including pH, carboxylate content, contact time, initial Cu2+ concentration) on the removal performance of CMCNFs for Cu2+ is investigated in detail. A...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qin F, Fang Z, Zhou J, Sun C, Chen K, Ding Z, Li G, Qiu X Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Sensitization of hypoxic tumor to photodynamic therapy via oxygen self-supply of fluorinated photosensitizers.
Abstract Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes photosensitizers to convert innoxious oxygen to cytotoxic reactive oxygen species under an appropriate light thus induce cancer cells necrosis. However, PDT performs in an oxygen-dependent method to destroy cells while hypoxia is a feature for most solid tumors. To effectively improve the PDT effect against solid tumors, an oxygen self-supplying and pH-sensitive therapeutic nanoparticle (PTFC) has been developed by the self-assembly of a tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl) chlorin (TFPC)-conjugated block copolymer (POEGMA-b-P(DEAEMA-co-GMA)). PTFC nanoparticles can transport ox...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Liu Z, Xue Y, Wu M, Yang G, Lan M, Zhang W Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Hierarchical collagen-hydroxyapatite nanostructures designed through layer-by-layer assembly of crystal-decorated fibrils.
lsi J Abstract A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism by which type I collagen (Col) interacts with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Hap NPs) in aqueous solutions is a pivotal step for guiding the design of biologically relevant nanocomposites with controlled hierarchical structure. In this paper we use a variety of Hap NPs differing by their shape (rod vs platelet) and their size (~30 vs ~130 nm) and investigate their mechanism(s) of interaction with collagen. The addition of collagen to the Hap suspensions induces different effects that strongly depend on the nanoparticle type. Interestingly, the use of sma...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Colaço E, Brouri D, Aissaoui N, Cornette P, Dupres V, Domingos RF, Lambert JF, Maisonhaute E, El Kirat K, Landoulsi J Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Natural eumelanin and its derivatives as multifunctional materials for bio-inspired applications: a review.
Abstract Natural melanin is a ubiquitous material that plays critical biofunctional roles in different living organisms. Scientists have dedicated significant efforts to elucidate the biofunctional roles of melanin since its discovery. It has been confirmed that natural melanin possesses a number of intriguing properties such as broadband light absorption, free radical scavenging ability, redox activity, metal ion chelating and electric-ionic conductivity, enabling natural melanin as a versatile functional material in various applications. Natural eumelanin is the most investigated type of melanin in the past few ...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xie W, Pakdel E, Liang Y, Kim YJ, Liu D, Sun L, Wang X Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

The Mechanism of UVA Degradation of Synthetic Eumelanin.
Abstract Eumelanin is a ubiquitous natural pigment that has a broad absorption across ultraviolet (UV, 100-400 nm) and visible wavelengths (400-700 nm), and can protect against radiation. Synthetic eumelanin with properties similar to natural eumelanin has been made using dopamine or dihydroxyindole (DHI). Here, we use solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to elucidate the chemical structure of synthetic eumelanins (made from dopamine and L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) precursors) and investigate how their structures change after inten...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li W, Wang Z, Xiao M, Miyoshi T, Yang X, Hu Z, Liu C, Chuang SSC, Shawkey MD, Gianneschi NC, Dhinojwala A Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Correction to "Nanocarrier Composed of Magnetite Core Coated with Three Polymeric Shells Mediates LCS-1 Delivery for Synthetic Lethal Therapy of BLM-Defective Colorectal Cancer Cells".
Correction to "Nanocarrier Composed of Magnetite Core Coated with Three Polymeric Shells Mediates LCS-1 Delivery for Synthetic Lethal Therapy of BLM-Defective Colorectal Cancer Cells". Biomacromolecules. 2019 Nov 07;: Authors: Gupta A, Ahmad A, Singh H, Kaur S, Neethu KM, Ansari MM, Jayamurugan G, Khan R PMID: 31697069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomacromolecules)
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Gupta A, Ahmad A, Singh H, Kaur S, Neethu KM, Ansari MM, Jayamurugan G, Khan R Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Marcromolecular Architecture and Encapsulation of the Anticancer Drug Everolimus Controls the Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Polypeptide-Containing Hybrids.
Abstract Macromolecular architecture has an important role in the self-assembly process of block copolymer amphiphiles. Herein, two series of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic 3-miktoarm star hybrid terpolypeptides and their corresponding linear analogues were synthesized and exhibited the same overall composition and molecular weight but different macromolecular architecture. The macromolecular architecture was found to be a key parameter in defining the morphology of the nanostructures formed in aqueous solutions as well as to alter the self-assembly behavior of the polymers independently of the composition. In add...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Karatzas A, Haataja JS, Skoulas D, Bilalis P, Varlas S, Apostolidi P, Sofianopoulou S, Stratikos E, Houbenov N, Ikkala O, Iatrou H Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Synergistic chemical and photodynamic antimicrobial therapy for enhanced wound healing mediated by multifunctional light-responsive nanoparticles.
Abstract Recently, rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance, increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and slow healing of infected wound lead to vast difficulties in developing innovative antimicrobial agent to obliterate pathogenic bacteria and simultaneously accelerate wound healing. To effectively solve this problem, we designed light-responsive multifunctional nanoparticles with conjugation of quaternary ammonium chitosan and photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) to merge chemical and photodynamic therapy to efficient anti-bacteria. Mg/EGCG complex rapidly responded to the light irradiati...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 7, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hu C, Zhang F, Kong Q, Lu Y, Zhang B, Wu C, Luo R, Wang Y Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

High-throughput synthesis, analysis, and optimization of injectable hydrogels for protein delivery.
Abstract The development of in situ-gelling hydrogels that can enable prolonged protein release is increasingly important due to the emergence of a growing number of protein-based therapeutics. Herein, we describe a high-throughput strategy to fabricate, characterize, and subsequently optimize hydrazone-crosslinked in situ-gelling hydrogels for protein delivery. Hydrogels are fabricated using an automated high-throughput robot to mix a variety of thermoresponsive, non-thermoresponsive, charged, neutral, naturally-sourced, and synthetic polymers functionalized with hydrazide or aldehyde groups, generating in situ-g...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xu F, Corbett B, Bell S, Zhang C, Budi Hartono M, Farsangi ZJ, MacGregor JF, Hoare T Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Filament Rigidity Vies with Mesh Size in Determining Anomalous Diffusion in Cytoskeleton.
Abstract The diffusion of microscopic particles through the cell, important to processes such as viral infection, gene delivery, and vesicle transport, is largely controlled by the complex cytoskeletal network - comprised of semiflexible actin filaments and rigid microtubules - that pervades the cytoplasm. By varying the relative concentrations of actin and microtubules, the cytoskeleton can display a host of different structural and dynamic properties that in turn impact the diffusion of particles through the composite network. Here we couple single-particle tracking with differential dynamic microscopy to charac...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Anderson SJ, Matsuda C, Garamella J, Peddireddy KR, Robertson-Anderson RM, McGorty R Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Design of degradable polyphosphoester networks with tailor-made stiffness and hydrophilicity as scaffolds for tissue engineering.
ocirc;me C Abstract In the recent decades, biodegradable and biocompatible polyphosphoesters (PPEs) gain wide attention in the biomedical field as relevant substitutes for conventional aliphatic polyesters. These amorphous materials of low glass transition temperature offer promise for the design of soft scaffolds for tissue engineering. Advantageously, the easy variation of the nature of the lateral pendant groups of PPEs allows the insertion of pendent unsaturations valuable for their further crosslinking. In addition, varying the length of the pendent alkyl chains allows tuning their hydrophilicity. The present...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Riva REL, Shah U, Thomassin JM, Yilmaz Z, Lecat A, Colige A, Jérôme C Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Photosensitive Supramolecular Micelles with Complementary Hydrogen Bonding Motifs to Improve the Efficacy of Cancer Chemotherapy.
Abstract Photosensitive supramolecular micelles, a combination of intermolecular hydrogen bonds between complementary adenine (A) and uracil (U) groups and a blend of two types of supramolecular polymer, can stably self-assemble into structurally stable, spherical micelles in aqueous solution before and after photoirradiation. The resulting micelles possess unique amphiphilic properties, photo-induced tunable phase-transition behavior, excellent biocompatibility, well-controlled spherical morphology and can be tailored in size. Moreover, the drug content and entrapment efficiency can be finely tuned and release ki...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 5, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Abebe Alemayehu Y, Tewabe Gebeyehu B, Cheng CC Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Tackling the Limitations of Copolymeric Small Interfering RNA Delivery Agents by a Combined Experimental-Computational Approach.
In this study, we tackle the drawbacks of the existing systems by a combined experimental-computational in-depth investigation of the influence of the polymer architecture over the binding and transfection efficiency. For that purpose, a library of diblock copolymers with a molar mass of 30 kDa and a narrow dispersity (Đ
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tabujew I, Heidari M, Freidel C, Helm M, Tebbe L, Wolfrum U, Nagel-Wolfrum K, Koynov K, Biehl P, Schacher FH, Potestio R, Peneva K Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Additive Manufacturing of Bioactive Poly(trimethylene carbonate)/ β-tricalcium phosphate Composites for Bone Regeneration.
Additive Manufacturing of Bioactive Poly(trimethylene carbonate)/β-tricalcium phosphate Composites for Bone Regeneration. Biomacromolecules. 2019 Nov 04;: Authors: Dienel KEG, van Bochove B, Seppälä JV Abstract Implants of bioresorbable materials combined with osteoconductive calcium phosphate ceramics show promising results to replace and repair damaged bone tissue. Here we present additive manufacturing of patient-specific porous scaffolds of poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) including high amounts of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) . Tensile testing of composite networks s...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Dienel KEG, van Bochove B, Seppälä JV Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Injectable Polymer-Nanoparticle Hydrogels for Local Immune Cell Recruitment.
Abstract The ability to engineer immune function has transformed modern medicine, highlighted by the success of vaccinations and recent efforts in cancer immunotherapy. Further directions in programming the immune system focus on the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials that can recruit, engage with, and program immune cells locally in vivo. Here, we synthesized shear-thinning and self-healing polymer-nanoparticle (PNP) hydrogels as a tunable and injectable biomaterial platform for local dendritic cell (DC) recruitment. PNP gels were formed from two populations of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide (PEG-b-...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 4, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Fenton OS, Tibbitt MW, Appel EA, Jhunjhunwala S, Webber MJ, Langer R Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Tetraphenylsilane-Cored Star-Shaped Polymer Micelles with pH/Redox Dual-Response and Active-Targeting Function for Drug Controlled Release.
Abstract This paper presents the design and synthesis of star-shaped copolymers with two poly[2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] and poly[ethylene glycol] blocks linked via disulfide bond and each end of the four arms capped by folic acid, from which the prepared nano-drug carriers simultaneously possess pH/redox dual-response and active targeting functions. The polymer micelles exhibit excellent stability as reflected by their low CMC values of 1.03-2.51 mg/L. The DOX-loaded polymer micelles are in the range from 108 to 143 nm, and the DOX-loading capacities are found to be up to 32.3%. The sensitive pH and redo...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shang Y, Zheng N, Wang Z Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Biorefinery by-products and epoxy biorenewable monomers: a structural elucidation of humins and triglycidyl ether of phloroglucinol crosslinking.
Abstract TThe need for thermosets from renewable resources is permanently increasing in order to find eco-friendly alternatives to petroleum-derived materials. Products obtained from biomass have shown to play an important role in this challenge. Here we present the structural characterization of new bio-based thermosets made by humins, a by-product of lignocellulosic biorefinery, and glycidylated phloroglucinol coming from biomass phenolic fraction. By employing ATR-FTIR and NMR spectroscopies, we elucidated the connections between these two systems contributing to clarify their molecular structure and their reac...
Source: Biomacromolecules - November 1, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cantarutti C, Dinu R, Mija A Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Polymer-Mediated Penetration-Independent Cancer Therapy.
Abstract The development of polymer-based drug delivery systems provides efficient modalities for cancer therapy. Most of the polymer pharmaceuticals make the action on the cancer cells while the insufficient penetration results in unsatisfactory anticancer efficacy always. To break the above bottleneck, the strategies of penetration-independent cancer therapy have been developed as advanced treatments for various cancers in the past decade. In this perspective article, we discussed the pros and cons of polymer-mediated biological and physical penetration-independent approaches for cancer therapy and highlighted t...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 31, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ding J, Feng X, Jiang Z, Xu W, Guo H, Zhuang X, Chen X Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Cancer Nanomedicines Based on Synthetic Polypeptides.
Abstract Nanomedicines are deemed as a most promising treatment modality for malignant cancers. Particularly, cancer nanomedicines based on synthetic polypeptides have gained interest because they possess excellent safety, unique hierarchical structure, and tailorable functionalities to suit for delivery of diverse drugs including synthetic drugs, peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids. A few polypeptide-based nanoformulations (e.g. NK105, NC6004, NK911, CT2103) are under phase I-III clinical investigation for treating patients with advanced solid tumors. In recent years, progress has been made in development of ro...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sun H, Gu X, Zhang Q, Xu H, Zhong Z, Deng C Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Soft bacterial cellulose microcapsules with adaptable shapes.
Abstract Microcapsules with controlled stability and permeability are in high demand for applications in separation and encapsulation. We have developed a bio-interfacial process to fabricate strong, but flexible, porous microcapsules from bacterial cellulose at an oil-water emulsion interface. A broad range of microcapsule sizes has been successfully produced, from 100 um to 5 cm. The three-dimensional capsule microstructure was imaged using confocal microscopy, showing a cellulose membrane thickness around 30 um that is highly porous, with some pores larger than 0.5 um that are permeable to most macromolecules b...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Song J, Babayekhorasani F, Spicer PT Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Modulating Bioglass Concentration in 3D Printed Poly(propylene fumarate) Scaffolds for Post-Printing Functionalization with Bioactive Functional Groups.
Abstract Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) has shown potential for the treatment of bone defects as it can be 3D printed into scaffolds to suit patient-specific needs with strength comparable to that of bone. However, the lack of specific cell attachment and osteogenic signaling moieties have limited their utility as it is necessary to provide these signals to aid in bone tissue formation. To address this issue and provide a platform for functionalization, Bioglass (~1-2 µm) microparticles have been incorporated into PPF to create a 3D printable resin with concentrations ranging from 0-10 wt%. The zero-shear vi...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 29, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kleinfehn AP, Lammel Lindemann JA, Razvi A, Philip P, Richardson K, Nettleton K, Becker ML, Dean D Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

An Antibiofilm Platform based on the Combination of Antimicrobial Polymers and Essential Oils.
This study thus highlights the advantage of combining essential oils and antimicrobial polymers as an effective avenue for antibacterial applications. PMID: 31657209 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomacromolecules)
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 28, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Namivandi-Zangeneh R, Yang Y, Xu S, Wong EHH, Boyer C Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Physical Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals with Synthesized Triblock Copolymer and Rheological Thickening in Silicone Oil/Grease.
This study investigates the rheological thickening effect of surface-modified cellulose nanocrystals (mCNC) with the triblock copolymer for the silicone oil. An amphipathic copolymer comprising of hydrophilic methoxypolyethylene glycols (MPEG) and hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) segments is synthesized and introduced in the physical adsorption of rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). The surface-modified copolymer serves as the "bridge" to enhance the compatibility between CNC and base oil, which produces the hybrid oils/greases containing homogeneously-dispersed mCNC at varied loading levels of 5-20 wt%...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 25, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xia T, Huang Y, Lan P, Lan L, Lin N Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Molecular orientation and organization of technical lignin based composite nanofibers and films.
In this study, isolated softwood kraft lignin (SKL) was electrospun into aligned fibers utilizing a special collector. The molecular organization of lignin within the aligned nanofibers was investigated by polarized light optical microscopy (POM). Further, the functional groups that had preferred alignment along the fiber axis were identified with polarized Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy based on dichroism measurements. In addition, nanocrystalline cellulose was added to the lignin solutions in order to create composite nanofibers. Both the orientation of this component within the nanoscale fibers and the i...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 24, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cho M, Ko FK, Renneckar S Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Adaptive Polymeric Assemblies for Applications in Biomimicry and Nanomedicine.
Abstract Dynamic and adaptive self-assembly systems are able to sense an external or internal (energy or matter) input and respond via chemical or physical property changes. Nanomaterials that show such transient behavior have received increasing interest in the field of nanomedicine due to improved spatiotemporal control of the nanocarrier function. In this regard, much can be learned from the field of systems chemistry and bottom-up synthetic biology, in which complex and intelligent networks of nanomaterials are designed that show transient behavior and function to advance our understanding of the complexity of...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 23, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Altay Y, Cao S, Che H, Abdelmohsen LKEA, van Hest JCM Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Super Strong and Tough Hydrogel through Physical Crosslinking and Molecular Alignment.
Abstract Hydrogels are attracting increasing attention due to their potential use in various fields. However, most of the existing hydrogels have limitations in either dissipating mechanical energy or maintaining high stretchability under deformation, thus don't possess high mechanical properties. Herein, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-tannic acid (TA) hydrogels with both high mechanical strength and stretchability were obtained via a step by step physical crosslinking and molecular alignment method. Saline triggered physical interactions serve as "sacrifice domains" to dissipate energy and endow PVA based h...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 23, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chen W, Li N, Ma Y, Minus ML, Benson K, Lu X, Wang X, Ling X, Zhu H Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Nanohydroxyapatite based ceramic carrier promotes bone formation in femoral neck canal defect in osteoporotic rats.
In this study we have used calcium sulphate/nanohydroxyapatite based nanocement (NC) as carrier of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), zoledronate (ZA) and bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived exosomes (EXO) to enhance bone formation and defect healing in femur neck canal defect model in osteoporotic rats. A cylindrical defect in femur neck canal with dimensions of 1 mm (diameter) ⅹ 8 mm (length) starting from later cortex towards the apex of femur head was developed. The defect was impacted using NC alone or functionalized as; a) NC+ZA (systemic), b) NC+ZA (local), c) NC+EXO+ZA and d)...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qayoom I, Teotia AK, Kumar A Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Engineering Organic/Inorganic Nanohybrids through RAFT Polymerization for Biomedical Applications.
Abstract Despite many early accomplishments in nanomaterial design and synthesis, there remains a significant requirement for novel inorganic and organic nanohybrids with the potential to act as efficacious molecular imaging agents and theranostic vectors. The functionalization of surfactant-coated inorganic nanoparticles with polymer shells represents one of the most suitable and popular methods to synthesize polymer/inorganic nanohybrids for theranostic applications. Key requirements for effective imaging agent design include water dispersibility, biocompatibility and functionality to enable enhanced contrast ma...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Huang X, Hu J, Li Y, Xin F, Qiao R, Davis TP Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Oxime cross-linked alginate hydrogels with tunable stress relaxation.
Abstract Stress relaxation is an important design parameter of biomaterials that can provide an artificial microenvironment mimicking natural extracellular matrices (ECMs). Here, we report a novel hydrogel platform based on sodium alginate (NaAlg) with tunable stress relaxation. We first developed a new synthetic route to introduce alkoxyamine functional groups into the alginate polymer backbone. By mixing the resulting polymer (NaAlg-AA) with aldehyde-containing oxidized alginate (NaAlg-Ald), oxime cross-linked alginate hydrogels were prepared. We demonstrate that highly tunable stress relaxation as well as mecha...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 22, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sanchez-Moran H, Ahmadi A, Vogler B, Roh KH Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

High fluorescent hyperbranched polysiloxane containing β-cyclodextrin for cell imaging and drug delivery.
High fluorescent hyperbranched polysiloxane containing β-cyclodextrin for cell imaging and drug delivery. Biomacromolecules. 2019 Oct 21;: Authors: Bai L, Yan H, Bai T, Feng Y, Zhao Y, Ji Y, Feng W, Lu T, Nie Y Abstract Hyperbranched polysiloxane (HBPSi) is attracting increasing attention due to its intrinsic fluorescence and good biocompatibility. However, it is very challenging to explore its biological applications because of the low fluorescence intensity and quantum yield. Herein, we introduced rigid β-cyclodextrin to the end of flexible polysiloxane chain to synthesize a novel fluoresc...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 21, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bai L, Yan H, Bai T, Feng Y, Zhao Y, Ji Y, Feng W, Lu T, Nie Y Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Bivalent Peptide- and Chelator-Containing Bioconjugates as Toolbox Components for Personalized Nanomedicine.
Abstract While personalized therapy bears an enormous potential in cancer therapy, the development of flexible, tailorable delivery systems remains challenging. Here, we present a "tool-kit" of various avidin-based bioconjugates (BCs) for the preparation of personalized delivery systems. Corresponding BCs were synthesized using the self-assembly of avidin with various biotinylated ligands, such as one cationic glycodendrimer for dendriplex adsorption and two functional ligands for imaging (glycodendrimers with DOTA or NOTA units) or targeting (biotinylated PEG decorated with ligands). Substituting antibo...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 17, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Daeg J, Xu X, Zhao L, Boye S, Janke A, Temme A, Zhao J, Lederer A, Voit B, Shi X, Appelhans D Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Water soluble 2,5-anhydro-D-mannofuranose end chain chitosan oligomers of very low molecular weight : synthesis and characterization.
Abstract Five chitosans with different acetylation degree (DA), molar masses and origin were depolymerized by nitrous acid treatment in acidic media leading to water soluble 2,5 anhydro-D-mannose end chain oligomers with DPn
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 16, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chapelle C, David G, Caillol S, Negrell C, Durand G, Desroches le Foll M, Trombotto S Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Electrospinning Nanofibers from Chitosan/Hyaluronic Acid Complex Coacervates.
In this study, we successfully electrospun nanofibers from an aqueous complex coacervate solution comprised of chitosan and hyaluronic acid. Experimentally, we investigated the effect of added salt and electrospinning apparatus parameters, such as how applied voltage, affected fiber formation. We also studied how the addition of alcohol cosolvents affected the properties of the coacervate solution and the resulting nanofibers. Overall, we observed a trade-off in how the addition of salt and alcohol affected the phase behavior and rheology of the coacervates, and consequently, the size of the resulting fibers. While salt se...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sun J, Perry SL, Schiffman JD Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Synthetic 3D PEG-Anisogels tailored with fibronectin fragments induce aligned nerve extension.
Abstract An enzymatically crosslinked polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel was engineered to promote and align nerve cells in a three-dimensional manner. To render the injectable, otherwise bioinert, PEG-based material supportive for cell growth, its mechanical and biochemical properties were optimized. A recombinant fibronectin fragment (FNIII9* 10/12 14) was coupled to the PEG backbone during gelation to provide cell adhesive and growth factor binding domains in a close vicinity. Compared to full-length fibronectin, FNIII9* 10/12 14 supports nerve growth at similar concentrations. In a 3D environment, only t...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Licht C, Rose J, Omidinia Anarkoli A, Blondel D, Roccio M, Haraszti T, Gehlen DB, Hubbell JA, Lutolf MP, De Laporte L Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Cellular Uptake Evaluation of Amphiphilic Polymer Assemblies: Importance of Interplay between Pharmacological and Genetic Approaches.
Abstract Understanding the cellular uptake mechanism of materials is of fundamental importance that would be beneficial for materials design with enhanced biological functions. Herein, we report the interplay of pharmacological and genetic approaches to minimize the possible misinterpretation on cellular uptake mechanism. A library of amphiphilic polymers was used as a model system to evaluate the reliability of such methodological interplay. To probe the cellular uptake of amphiphilic polymers, we utilized an orthogonal end-group labelling strategy to conjugate one fluorescent molecule on each polymer chain. The ...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jiang Z, He H, Liu H, Thayumanavan S Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Injectable Self-Healing Hydrogels Based on Boronate Ester Formation between Hyaluronic Acid Partners Modified with Benzoxaborin Derivatives and Saccharides.
lty R Abstract We demonstrate here, for the first time, formation of injectable dynamic covalent hydrogels at physiological pH using benzoxaborin-saccharide complexation as a reversible cross-linking method. The gels were prepared by simply mixing hyaluronic acid modified with an original boronic acid derivative, 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2]oxaborinin-2-ol (1,2-ABORIN), and HA functionalized with 1-amino-1-deoxy-d-fructose. Dynamic rheological experiments confirmed the gel-like behavior (storage modulus (G')> loss modulus (G″) in the frequency window explored) for the designed HA-1,2-ABORIN/HA-fructose ne...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Figueiredo T, Jing J, Jeacomine I, Olsson J, Gerfaud T, Boiteau JG, Rome C, Harris C, Auzély-Velty R Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Modular Polymer Antigens to Optimize Immunity.
Abstract Subunit vaccines can have excellent safety profiles, but their ability to give rise to robust immune responses is often compromised. For glycan-based vaccines, insufficient understanding of B and T cell epitope combinations that yield optimal immune activation hinders optimization. To determine which antigen features promote desired IgG responses, we synthesized epitope-functionalized polymers using ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and assessed the effect of B and T cell epitope loading. The most robust responses were induced by polymers with a high valency of B and T cell epitopes. Additiona...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bennett NR, Jarvis CM, Alam MM, Zwick DB, Olson JM, Nguyen HV, Johnson JA, Cook ME, Kiessling LL Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Bioinspired Hyaluronic Acid/Phosphorylcholine Polymer with Enhanced Lubrication and Anti-inflammation.
In conclusion, the high molecular weight HAMPC developed herein, with enhanced lubrication and anti-inflammation, may be a promising polymer for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID: 31609601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomacromolecules)
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zheng Y, Yang J, Liang J, Xu X, Cui W, Deng L, Zhang H Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Viscoelastic relaxation of cellulose nanocrystals in fluids: Contributions of microscopic internal motions to flexibility.
We report the viscoelastic relaxation mechanisms of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) dispersed individually in fluids. Linear viscoelasticity and flow birefringence of softwood and tunicate CNC/glycerol dispersions in the dilute regime were measured. The obtained results were then compared with molecular theories for linear viscoelasticity of rigid rods and semiflexible rods at infinite dilution by taking length distributions of CNCs into account. Although CNCs are traditionally regarded as rigid Brownian rods, the viscoelastic relaxation was not explained solely by the rotational motions of rods. Alternatively, molecular the...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 14, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tanaka R, Kashiwagi Y, Okada Y, Inoue T Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

Interaction pathways and structure-chemical transformations of alginate gels in physiological environments.
rus J Abstract The remarkably diverse affinity of alginate (ALG) macromolecules for polyvalent metal ions makes crosslinked alginate gels an outstanding biomaterial. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about their interactions and structural transformations in physiological environments. To bridge this gap we prepared a set of ALG gels crosslinked by various ions and monitored their structural changes at different media simulating gastric and intestinal fluids and cellular environments. For these studies, we used multinuclear solid-state NMR (ss-NMR) spectroscopy, which revealed a range of competitive ion-...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Urbanová M, Pavelkova M, Czernek J, Kubova K, Vyslouzil J, Pechova A, Molinkova D, Vysloužil J, Vetchy D, Brus J Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research

FRET in a Polymeric Nanocarrier: IR-780 and IR-780-PDMS.
Abstract We introduce a method to monitor the integrity of micellar nanocarriers using a novel fluorescent dye, IR-780-PDMS and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a readout. In addition, these dye-loaded nanocarriers can be used as a phototoxic agent in vitro. Mainly, a nanocarrier was designed, based on a previously described amphiphilic ABA-copolymer (Pip-PMOXA-PDMS-PMOXA-Pip) scaffold that incorporates the fluorescent FRET dye partners IR-780-PDMS (donor) and IR-780 (acceptor). The confirmation of FRET (that only occurs when donor and acceptor are in the required close proximity of less than ~10 n...
Source: Biomacromolecules - October 11, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wolf MP, Liu K, Horn TFW, Hunziker P Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research