Sleep, brain vascular health and ageing
AbstractSleep maintains the function of the entire body through homeostasis. Chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) is a prime health concern in the modern world. Previous reports have shown that CSD has profound negative effects on brain vasculature at both the cellular and molecular levels, and that this is a major cause of cognitive dysfunction and early vascular ageing. However, correlations among sleep deprivation (SD), brain vascular changes and ageing have barely been looked into. This review attempts to correlate the alterations in the levels of major neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, adrenaline, GABA and glutamate) and s...
Source: AGE - August 3, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Acute cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury predict Alzheimer ’s disease-like degradation of the human default mode network
AbstractTraumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) are prominent neurological conditions whose neural and cognitive commonalities are poorly understood. The extent of TBI-related neurophysiological abnormalities has been hypothesized to reflect AD-like neurodegeneration because TBI can increase vulnerability to AD. However, it rema ins challenging to prognosticate AD risk partly because the functional relationship between acute posttraumatic sequelae and chronic AD-like degradation remains elusive. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), network theory, and machine learning (ML) are levera...
Source: AGE - August 2, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

High-intensity exercise training induces mitonuclear imbalance and activates the mitochondrial unfolded protein response in the skeletal muscle of aged mice
AbstractThe impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is a hallmark of aging. Mitonuclear imbalance and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) are two conserved mitochondrial mechanisms that play critical roles in ensuring mitochondrial proteostasis and function. Here, we combined bioinformatics, physiological, and molecular analyses to examine the role of mitonuclear imbalance and UPRmt in the skeletal muscle of aged rodents and humans. The analysis of transcripts from the skeletal muscle of aged humans (60 –70 years old) revealed that individuals with higher levels of UPRmt-related genes displayed a ...
Source: AGE - July 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

An evaluation of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic 16 days after the end of social confinement in Hungary
(Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - July 31, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Hemiterpene compound, 3,3-dimethylallyl alcohol promotes longevity and neuroprotection in Caenorhabditis elegans
AbstractTerpenes and their derivatives have been used conventionally as potential dietary supplements to boost the nutritional value of endless food products. Several plant-based complex terpenoid and their derivatives have been reported for a wide range of medicinal and nutritional properties. However, their simple counterparts, whose production is relatively easy, sustainable, and economic from food-grade microbial sources, have not been studied yet for any such biological activities. The present study aimed to investigate the longevity-promoting property and neuromodulatory effects of 3,3-dimethylallyl alcohol (Prenol),...
Source: AGE - July 28, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Learning from success: how has Hungary responded to the COVID pandemic?
(Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - July 27, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

New view on older adults with COVID-19: comments on “SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in older adults: what we may expect regarding pathogenesis, immune responses, and outcomes”
(Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - July 24, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

A chemical biology approach to identifying molecular pathways associated with aging
AbstractThe understanding of how aging contributes to dementia remains obscure. To address this problem, a chemical biology approach was used employing CAD031, an Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) drug candidate identified using a discovery platform based upon phenotypic screens that mimic toxicities associated with the aging brain. Since CAD031 has therapeutic efficacy when fed to old symptomatic transgenic AD mice, the chemical biology hypothesis is that it can be used to determine the molecular pathways associated with age-related disease by identifying those that are modified by the compound. Here we show that when CAD03...
Source: AGE - July 23, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Biomarkers of senescence in non-human primate adipose depots relate to aging
AbstractForty-three female African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) were selected to represent young adult to advanced geriatric ages (7 –24 years) to exhibit a wide range of obesity status (8–53% body fat) and diverse metabolic syndrome criteria such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were collected and evaluated for the presence of senescence cells in both whole tissue and si ngle-cell isolates from subcutaneous sources, utilizing senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SAβ-gal) staining. Plasma samples were analyzed for selected me...
Source: AGE - July 23, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Brain angiotensin II and angiotensin IV receptors as potential Alzheimer ’s disease therapeutic targets
AbstractAlzheimer ’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is multifactorial in nature. Yet, despite being the most common form of dementia in the elderly, AD’s primary cause remains unknown. As such, there is currently little to offer AD patients as the vast majority of recently tested therapies have either failed in well-controlled clinical trials or inadequately treat AD. Recently, emerging preclinical and clinical evidence has associated the brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) to AD pathology. Accordingly, various components of the brain RAS were shown to be altered in AD patients and mouse mod...
Source: AGE - July 22, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Aging exacerbates impairments of cerebral blood flow autoregulation and cognition in diabetic rats
AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) is a leading risk factor for aging-related dementia; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study, utilizing a non-obese T2DN diabetic model, demonstrates that the myogenic response of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and parenchymal arteriole (PA) and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the surface and deep cortex were impaired at both young and old ages. The impaired CBF autoregulation was more severe in old than young DM rats, and in the deep than the surface cortex. The myogenic tone of the MCA was enhanced at perfusion pressure in the range of ...
Source: AGE - July 21, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Plasma exosomes characterization reveals a perioperative protein signature in older patients undergoing different types of on-pump cardiac surgery
AbstractAlthough exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles mainly involved in cardioprotection, it is not known whether plasma exosomes of older patients undergoing different types of on-pump cardiac surgery protect cardiomyocytes from apoptosis. Since different exosomal proteins confer pro-survival effects, we have analyzed the protein cargo of exosomes circulating early after aortic unclamping. Plasma exosomes and serum cardiac troponin I levels were measured in older cardiac surgery patients (NYHA II-III) who underwent first-time on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG;n = 15) or minimally invasive heart ...
Source: AGE - July 20, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

5 ′-Hydroxy-6, 7, 8, 3′, 4′-pentamethoxyflavone extends longevity mediated by DR-induced autophagy and oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans
This study identifies the longevity-promoting activity of 5-HPF inC. elegans regulated by oxidative stress-resistance genes and DR-induced autophagy pathway. (Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - July 17, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Novel coronavirus epidemic in the Hungarian population, a cross-sectional nationwide survey to support the exit policy in Hungary
AbstractAfter months of restrictive containment efforts to fight the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic, European countries are planning to reopen. To support the process, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among the Hungarian population to estimate the prevalence of infectious cases and prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure. A representative sample (n = 17,787) for the Hungarian population of 14 years or older living in private households (n = 8,283,810) was selected. The study was performed within 16 days after 50 days of restrictions, when the number o...
Source: AGE - July 17, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The relationship of parental longevity with the aging brain —results from UK Biobank
This study aims to examine relationships of parental longevity with regional brain structure and to explore sex differences. We identified 12,970 UK Biobank participants (mean age = 64.4, 51.5%women) with data on parental longevity, regional gray matter volumes, and white matter microstructure. Participants were categorized based on whether at least one parent lived to age 85 or older or neither parent survived to age 85. Associations of parental longevity, mate rnal, and paternal longevity with each neuroimaging marker of interest were examined using linear regression, adjusted for demographics, APOE e4 stat...
Source: AGE - July 15, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Seropositivity for pathogens associated with chronic infections is a risk factor for all-cause mortality in the elderly: findings from the Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg Elderly (MEMO) Study
We examined the effect of a positive serostatus at baseline for selected pathogens associated with chronic infections (Helicobacter pylori,Borrelia burgdorferi sensulato,Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus 1/2, and human herpesvirus 6) on all-cause mortality with multivariable parametric survival models. We found a reduced survival time in individuals with a positive serostatus forHelicobacter pylori (accelerated failure time (AFT) − 15.92, 95% CI − 29.96; − 1.88), cytomegalovirus (AFT − 22.81, 95% CI − 36.41; −&...
Source: AGE - July 9, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Regular endurance exercise of overloaded muscle of young and old male mice does not attenuate hypertrophy and improves fatigue resistance
AbstractIt has been observed that there is an inverse relationship between fiber size and oxidative capacity due to oxygen, ADP, and ATP diffusion limitations. We aimed to see if regular endurance exercise alongside a hypertrophic stimulus would lead to compromised adaptations to both, particularly in older animals. Here we investigated the effects of combining overload with regular endurance exercise in young (12  months) and old (26 months) male mice. The plantaris muscles of these mice were overloaded through denervation of synergists to induce hypertrophy and the mice ran on a treadmill for 30 min per da...
Source: AGE - July 8, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Integrated metabolomics reveals altered lipid metabolism in adipose tissue in a model of extreme longevity
AbstractAdipose tissue plays an essential role in metabolic health. Ames dwarf mice are exceptionally long-lived and display metabolically beneficial phenotypes in their adipose tissue, providing an ideal model for studying the intersection between adipose tissue and longevity. To this end, we assessed the metabolome and lipidome of adipose tissue in Ames dwarf mice. We observed distinct lipid profiles in brown versus white adipose tissue of Ames dwarf mice that are consistent with increased thermogenesis and insulin sensitivity, such as increased cardiolipin and decreased ceramide concentrations. Moreover, we identified 5...
Source: AGE - July 6, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

eIF4E phosphorylation modulates pain and neuroinflammation in the aged
AbstractThe aged population has a higher probability of developing chronic pain from acute insults because of age-associated low-grade inflammation. Several emerging studies have shown a crucial role of cap-dependent translation in the development of chronic pain in young adult animals; however, its role in the aged has never been reported. Acute and chronic inflammatory responses, including pain, are altered over age, and understanding how cap-dependent translation can represent an important and druggable pathway is imperative for understanding its therapeutic potential. Here we have tested how an inflammatory stimulus, c...
Source: AGE - July 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Development of a cyclophosphamide stress test to predict resilience to aging in mice
AbstractThe concept of resilience, defined as the ability to recover from stress, is a potential platform to predict healthy aging. However, specific stress tests for resilience have not yet been fully established in humans so investigations in animal models are of interest. The chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide (Cyp) was selected as a chemical stressor to investigate resilience response in C57Bl/6 male mice at 4, 15, and 28  months of age. Following a single intraperitoneal injection of Cyp (100 mg/kg), tail blood was collected for counting white blood cells (WBC) every other day for 25 days, and physi...
Source: AGE - July 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Increase in blood –brain barrier leakage in healthy, older adults
AbstractBlood –brain barrier (BBB) breakdown can disrupt nutrient supply and waste removal, which affects neuronal functioning. Currently, dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is the preferred in-vivo method to quantify BBB leakage. Dedicated DCE MRI studies in normal aging individuals are lacking, which could h amper value estimation and interpretation of leakage rate in pathological conditions. Therefore, we applied DCE MRI to investigate the association between BBB disruption and age in a healthy sample. Fifty-seven cognitively and neurologically healthy, middle-aged to older participants (mean age: 66  years,...
Source: AGE - June 29, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Muscle from aged rats is resistant to mechanotherapy during atrophy and reloading
AbstractMassage is a viable mechanotherapy to improve protein turnover during disuse atrophy and improve muscle regrowth during recovery from disuse atrophy in adult muscle. Therefore, we investigated whether massage can cause beneficial adaptations in skeletal muscle from aged rats during normal weight-bearing (WB) conditions, hindlimb suspension (HS), or reloading (RE) following HS. Aged (30  months) male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats were divided into two experiments: (1) WB for 7 days (WB,n = 8), WB with massage (WBM,n = 8), HS for 7 days (HS7,n = 8), or HS with ma...
Source: AGE - June 25, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Advanced maternal age impacts physiologic adaptations to pregnancy in vervet monkeys
AbstractThe trend to delay pregnancy in the USA has resulted in the number of advanced maternal age (AMA) pregnancies to also increase. In humans, AMA is associated with a variety of pregnancy-related pathologies such as preeclampsia (PE). While AMA is known to be a factor which contributes to the development of pregnancy-induced diseases, the molecular and cellular mechanisms giving rise to this phenomenon are still very limited. This is due in part to lack of a preclinical model which has physiologic relevance to human pregnancy while also allowing control of environmental and genetic variability inherent in human studie...
Source: AGE - June 25, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-related decline of de novo T cell responsiveness as a cause of COVID-19 severity
(Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - June 24, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Composition of Caenorhabditis elegans extracellular vesicles suggests roles in metabolism, immunity, and aging
AbstractThe nematodeCaenorhabditis elegans has been instrumental in the identification of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of aging.C. elegans also has recently been found to have evolutionarily conserved extracellular vesicle (EV) signaling pathways. We have been developing tools that allow for the detailed study of EV biology inC. elegans. Here we apply our recently published method for high specificity purification of EVs fromC. elegans to carry out target-independent proteomic and RNA analysis of nematode EVs. We identify diverse coding and non-coding RNA and protein cargo types commonly found in human EVs. The EV c...
Source: AGE - June 24, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Gene expression and regulatory factors of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 predict mammalian longevity
AbstractSpecies longevity varies significantly across animal species, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies and omics approaches suggest that phenotypic traits of longevity could converge in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway. The present study focuses on the comparative approach in heart tissue from 8 mammalian species with a ML ranging from 3.5 to 46  years. Gene expression, protein content, and concentration of regulatory metabolites of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) were measured using droplet digital PCR, western blot, and mass spectrometry, respect...
Source: AGE - June 23, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Inducible aging in Hydra oligactis implicates sexual reproduction, loss of stem cells, and genome maintenance as major pathways
AbstractFreshwater polyps of the genusHydra do not age. However, temperature stress induces aging and a shift from reproduction by asexual budding to sexual gamete production in a cold-sensitive (CS) strain ofH. oligactis. We sequenced the transcriptome of a male CS strain before and after this life history shift and compared changes in gene expression relative to those seen in a cold-resistant (CR) strain that does not undergo a life history shift in response to altered temperature. We found that the switch from non-aging asexual reproduction to aging and sexual reproduction involves upregulation of genes not only involve...
Source: AGE - June 23, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Elderly at time of COronaVIrus disease 2019 (COVID-19): possible role of immunosenescence and malnutrition
AbstractThe unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly and unpredictably evolving and the majority of deaths are occurring in older people. A partial description of the magnitude of the scenario is provided by numbers and statistics, which probably underestimate the ongoing tragedy. In the present opinion paper, we have focused our attention on the evidence of the relationship among malnutrition, immunosenescence, and the higher morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. In particular, we propose the intriguing hypothesis that correction of nutritional deficits may attenuate the age-dependent alterations of the innate an...
Source: AGE - June 23, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Poor mitochondrial health and systemic inflammation? Test of a classic hypothesis in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional association between inflammatory biomarkers and mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle, assessed as post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery time constant by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in a population of 669 adults (mean age 67  years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We observed that participants with lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity exhibited hallmarks of inflammation, specifically markedly higher levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein, as well as increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate whe n compared with partic...
Source: AGE - June 22, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Common transcriptome, plasma molecules, and imaging signatures in the aging brain and a Mendelian neurovascular disease, cerebral cavernous malformation
AbstractBrain senescence is associated with impaired endothelial barrier function, angiogenic and inflammatory activity, and propensity to brain hemorrhage. The same pathological changes occur in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM), a genetic neurovascular anomaly. We hypothesized common transcriptomic and plasma cytokine signatures in the aging brain and CCM. We identified 320 genes [fold change ≥1.5;p 
Source: AGE - June 17, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Severe COVID-19 and aging: are monocytes the key?
AbstractThe ongoing pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a disproportionate number of severe cases and deaths in older adults. Severe SARS-CoV-2-associated disease (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020 and is characterized by cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in some cases by systemic inflammation –related pathology. Currently, our knowledge of the determinants of severe COVID-19 is primarily observational. Here, I review emerging evidence to argue that monocytes, a circulating innate ...
Source: AGE - June 15, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Current perspectives on the clinical implications of oxidative RNA damage in aging research: challenges and opportunities
AbstractRibonucleic acid (RNA) molecules can be easily attacked by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced during normal cellular metabolism and under various oxidative stress conditions. Numerous findings report that the amount of cellular 8-oxoG, the most abundant RNA damage biomarker, is a promising target for the sensitive measurement of oxidative stress and aging-associated diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Most importantly, available data suggest that RNA oxidation has important implications for various signaling pathways and gene expression regulation in aging-related diseases, highlighting t...
Source: AGE - June 11, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Late-life voluntary wheel running reverses age-related aortic stiffness in mice: a translational model for studying mechanisms of exercise-mediated arterial de-stiffening
In this study, we investigated whether VWR in mice may be a suitable model for mechanistic studies (i.e., “reverse translation”) of the beneficial effects of exercise on arterial stiffness in humans. We found that 10 weeks of VWR in old mice (~ 28 months) reversed age-related elevations in aortic PWV assessed in vivo (Old VWR: 369 ± 19 vs. old sedentary: 439 ± 20 cm/s,P 
Source: AGE - June 11, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The effect of social distance measures on COVID-19 epidemics in Europe: an interrupted time series analysis
AbstractFollowing the introduction of unprecedented “stay-at-home” national policies, the COVID-19 pandemic recently started declining in Europe. Our research aims were to characterize the changepoint in the flow of the COVID-19 epidemic in each European country and to evaluate the association of the level of social distancing with the observed d ecline in the national epidemics. Interrupted time series analyses were conducted in 28 European countries. Social distance index was calculated based on Google Community Mobility Reports. Changepoints were estimated by threshold regression, national findings were anal...
Source: AGE - June 11, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Patterns of multi-domain cognitive aging in participants of the Long Life Family Study
AbstractMaintaining good cognitive function at older age is important, but our knowledge of patterns and predictors of cognitive aging is still limited. We used Bayesian model-based clustering to group 5064 participants of the Long Life Family Study (ages 49 –110 years) into clusters characterized by distinct trajectories of cognitive change in the domains of episodic memory, attention, processing speed, and verbal fluency. For each domain, we identified 4 or 5 large clusters with representative patterns of change ranging from rapid decline to except ionally slow change. We annotated the clusters by their correl...
Source: AGE - June 8, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Identification of biomarkers for physical frailty and sarcopenia through a new multi-marker approach: results from the BIOSPHERE study
AbstractPhysical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S) is a prototypical geriatric condition characterized by reduced physical function and low muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to provide an initial selection of biomarkers for PF&S using a novel multivariate analytic strategy. Two-hundred community-dwellers, 100 with PF&S and 100 non-physically frail, non-sarcopenic (nonPF&S) controls aged 70 and older were enrolled as part of the BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and Physical frailty in EldeRly pErsons (BIOSPHERE) study. A panel of 74 serum analytes involved in inflammation, muscle growth and remo...
Source: AGE - June 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Polygenic risk scores: pleiotropy and the effect of environment
AbstractPolygenic risk scores (PRSs) discriminate trait risks better than single genetic markers because they aggregate the effects of risk alleles from multiple genetic loci. Constructing pleiotropic PRSs and understanding heterogeneity, and the replication of PRS-trait associations can strengthen its applications. By using variational Bayesian multivariate high-dimensional regression, we constructed pleiotropic PRSs jointly associated with body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a sample of 18,108 Caucasians from three independent cohorts. We found that di...
Source: AGE - June 1, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Vaccination mitigates influenza-induced muscular declines in aged mice
AbstractInfluenza (flu) infection increases the risk for disability, falls, and broken bones in older adults. We have employed a preclinical model to examine the impact of flu on muscle function, which has a direct impact on fall risk. In mice, flu causes mobility and strength impairments with induction of inflammatory and muscle degradation genes that are increased and prolonged with aging. To determine if vaccination could reduce flu-induced muscle decrements, mice were vaccinated with flu nucleoprotein, infected, and muscle parameters were measured. Vaccination of aged mice resulted in significant protection from functi...
Source: AGE - May 29, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

A novel multi-marker discovery approach identifies new serum biomarkers for Parkinson ’s disease in older people: an EXosomes in PArkiNson Disease (EXPAND) ancillary study
AbstractDopaminergic nigrostriatal denervation and widespread intracellular α-synuclein accumulation are neuropathologic hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A constellation of peripheral processes, including metabolic and inflammatory changes, are thought to contribute to neurodegeneration. In the present study, we sought to obtain insight into the multifaceted pathop hysiology of PD through the application of a multi-marker discovery approach. Fifty older adults aged 70+, 20 with PD and 30 age-matched controls were enrolled as part of the EXosomes in PArkiNson Disease (EXPAND) study. A panel of 68 circulati...
Source: AGE - May 26, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Angiotensin (1 –7) delivered orally via probiotic, but not subcutaneously, benefits the gut-brain axis in older rats
AbstractTo (1) investigate the efficacy of multiple doses of an orally delivered probiotic bacteriaLactobacillus paracasei (LP) modified to express angiotensin (1 –7) (LP-A) in altering physiologic parameters relevant to the gut-brain axis in older rats and to (2) compare this strategy with subcutaneous delivery of synthetic Ang(1–7) peptide on circulating Ang(1–7) concentrations and these gut-brain axis parameters. Male 24-month-old F344BN rats receive d oral gavage of LP-A, or subcutaneous injection of Ang(1–7) for 0×, 1×, 3×, or 7×/week over 4 weeks. Circulating RAS a...
Source: AGE - May 26, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Superoxide-mediated oxidative stress accelerates skeletal muscle atrophy by synchronous activation of proteolytic systems
AbstractThe maintenance of skeletal muscle mass depends on the overall balance between the rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Thus, age-related muscle atrophy and function, commonly known as sarcopenia, may result from decreased protein synthesis, increased proteolysis, or simultaneous changes in both processes governed by complex multifactorial mechanisms. Growing evidence implicates oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an essential regulator of proteolysis. Our previous studies have shown that genetic deletion of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD,Sod1) in mice leads to elevated oxidative stress...
Source: AGE - May 26, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Does SARS-CoV-2 infection cause chronic neurological complications?
AbstractThe current pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 has created an unparalleled health crisis. Besides the acute respiratory infection, CoVs are neuroinvasive causing additional inflammation and neurodegeneration. This is likely also true of SARS-CoV-2 given reports of neurological manifestations in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive patients. Older adults>  65 years of age constitute a high-risk group prone to severe infection and death. Despite the higher mortality rate, a majority of cases are expected to recover and survive from this viral outbreak....
Source: AGE - May 25, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

COVID-19-associated cardiovascular morbidity in older adults: a position paper from the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Researches
AbstractSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells following binding with the cell surface ACE2 receptors, thereby leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 causes viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and major complications, including acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, and shock mainly in elderly patients. Furthermore, patients with existing cardiovascular comorbidities, such as hypertension and coronary heart disease, have a worse clinical outcome following contraction of the viral illness. A striking feature of COVID-19 pandemics is the hig...
Source: AGE - May 20, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Nursing homes and the elderly regarding the COVID-19 pandemic: situation report from Hungary
AbstractThe global impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is significant in terms of public health effects and its long-term socio-economic implications. Among all social groups, the elderly is by far the most affected age group regarding morbidity and mortality. In multiple countries spanning several continents, there are an increasing number of reports referencing the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) spread among nursing homes. These areas are now recognized as potent hotspots regarding the pandemic, which one considers with special regard. Herein, we present currentl...
Source: AGE - May 18, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-related compositional changes and correlations of gut microbiome, serum metabolome, and immune factor in rats
This study offers new insights into the relationship between immune factors, seru m metabolome, and the gut microbiome. (Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - May 17, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Hypoxic response regulators RHY-1 and EGL-9/PHD promote longevity through a VHL-1-independent transcriptional response
AbstractHIF-1-mediated adaptation to changes in oxygen availability is a critical aspect of healthy physiology. HIF is regulated by a conserved mechanism whereby EGLN/PHD family members hydroxylate HIF in an oxygen-dependent manner, targeting it for ubiquitination by Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) family members, leading to its proteasomal degradation. The activity of the onlyC. elegans PHD family member, EGL-9, is also regulated by a hydrogen sulfide sensing cysteine-synthetase-like protein, CYSL-1, which is, in turn, regulated by RHY-1/acyltransferase. Over the last decade, multiple seminal studies have established a role for t...
Source: AGE - May 12, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Molecular changes in transcription and metabolic pathways underlying muscle atrophy in the CuZnSOD null mouse model of sarcopenia
AbstractMice lacking the superoxide anion scavenger CuZn superoxide dismutase (Sod1−/− mice) develop a number of age-related phenotypes, including an early progression of muscle atrophy and weakness (sarcopenia) associated with loss of innervation. The purpose of this study was to delineate the early development of sarcopenia in theSod1−/− mice and to measure changes in the muscle transcriptome, proteome, and eicosanoid profile at the stage when sarcopenia is markedly induced in this model (7 –9 months of age). We found a strong correlation between muscle atrophy and mitochondrial state 1...
Source: AGE - May 12, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Perinatal diet influences health and survival in a mouse model of leukemia
AbstractThe goal of the current study was to determine the role of maternal diet in the perinatal period on the health and survival of the offspring. AKR/J mice, a model described to be susceptible to leukemia development, was used where females were maintained on either standard diet (SD), high sucrose diet, Western diet, or calorie restriction (CR) as they were mated with SD-fed males. Body weights, pregnancy rates, litter size, and litter survival were used as markers of successful pregnancy and pup health. Data indicated that maternal diet had significant effects on litter size, early pup survival, and early pup body w...
Source: AGE - May 11, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The importance of diversity and outreach in geroscience research: Insights from the Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students
AbstractUS academic science lacks racial, ethnic, sex, gender, disability, and socioeconomic diversity. Addressing this problem is essential to drive scientific progress but is confounded by broad misunderstandings regarding diverse groups. Increasing representation in science is particularly relevant in geroscience, where our research to maximize healthy human lifespan must also address existing racial and socioeconomic health disparities. The American Aging Association (AGE) is committed to addressing these issues as part of its larger mission to advance and promote geroscience research. Over the last three years, AGE ha...
Source: AGE - May 3, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Correction to: SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in older adults: what we may expect regarding pathogenesis, immune responses, and outcomes
The affiliation of the second author (Kenneth S. Knox) should have been Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA instead of Department of Medicine, University of Arizona-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. (Source: AGE)
Source: AGE - May 3, 2020 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research