Historical Advancements and Evolution in Understanding Human Anatomy and Pathology: The Contribution of the Middle Ages
Dissections and autopsies are critical for understanding human anatomy, pathology, and uncovering mechanisms of disease. This review presents an historical journey from ancient times until the late Middle Ages. The major steps and developments are summarized with key figures and events presented. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Carcinomas of the Uterine Cervix: Comprehensive Review With An Update on Pathogenesis, Nomenclature of Precursor and Invasive Lesions, and Differential Diagnostic Considerations
Most cervical carcinomas and their related lesions are attributed to an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). The infection usually starts in the basal cells at the squamocolumnar junction. It causes cell proliferation and maturation abnormalities along with nuclear abnormalities resulting in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. An overwhelming majority of these lesions spontaneously disappear, and the infection is cleared. In a small subset of high-risk HPV infection cases, the lesions may persist and progress to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. These are associated with the incorporation of the vira...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Emerging Entities and New Diagnostic Markers for Head and Neck Soft Tissue and Bone Tumors
Bone and soft tissue tumors of the head and neck are relatively uncommon tumors that often represent a diagnostic challenge because of the wide range of entities that must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Over the past few years, classification of bone and soft tissue tumors has evolved primarily because of substantial contributions from molecular genetics, with the identification of new markers that are increasingly used to complement histopathologic findings in the routine diagnostic workup. This review focuses on the recently described mesenchymal tumors that preferentially involve the head and neck region, ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The 2020 WHO Classification of Tumors of Bone: An Updated Review
Bone tumors are a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that occur in the bone. The diversity and considerable morphologic overlap of bone tumors with other mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal bone lesions can complicate diagnosis. Accurate histologic diagnosis is crucial for appropriate management and prognostication. Since the publication of the fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone in 2013, significant advances have been made in our understanding of bone tumor molecular biology, classification, prognostication, and treatment. Detection of tumor-specific mol...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

High-grade Transformation/Dedifferentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Occurrence Across Subtypes and Clinical Significance
High-grade transformation (HGT) or dedifferentiation has been described in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, including acinic cell carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. High-grade (HG) transformed tumors are composed of a conventional low-grade component characterized by specific microscopic and immunohistochemical features for the given entity, intermingled with or juxtaposed to areas of HG morphology. This is usually either poorly differentiated adenocarcinom...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Differential Diagnoses in Surgical Pathology: Soft Tissue and Bone
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

A Simple and Practical Guide for Triaging Lymphocyte-rich Effusions for Ancillary Studies
Lymphocyte-rich effusions of the body cavities may represent a reactive/benign condition, primary effusion lymphoma, or systemic lymphoma with secondary malignant effusion, either as initial presentation or as a late complication. Cytomorphologic examination is essential and fundamental for diagnosis and may provide important clues to the nature of diseases. However, based on morphology alone, cytologic diagnosis of lymphocyte-rich effusions could be very challenging, particularly when the lymphocytes are small. Cytologists/cytopathologists might be uncertain when a lymphocyte-rich effusion specimen warrants a comprehensiv...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Perspective
Salivary gland neoplasms are an uncommon and widely heterogeneous group of tumors. In recent years, there has been considerable progress in efforts to reveal the molecular landscape of these tumors, although it is still limited and appears to be only the tip of the iceberg. Genomic aberrations, especially specific chromosomal rearrangements including CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB fusions in adenoid cystic carcinoma, PLAG1 and HMGA2 alterations in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, ETV6-NTRK3 and ETV6-RET in secretory carcinoma, EWSR1-ATF1 and EWSR1-C...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Differential Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Ductular Reaction in Medical Liver Biopsy
Intrahepatic ductular reaction is a pathologic proliferation of phenotypical biliary channels. Ductular reactions aim to restore compromised physiological function after liver injury and are one of the archetypal responses of the liver to a wide variety of etiologies, among them are parenchymal loss, biliary tract disease, neoplasms, after liver transplantation, and several pediatric liver diseases. The types and extent of ductular reactions can vary, according to the etiological insult. In this review, the authors will first consider the different mechanisms for ductular reactions and their relevance for liver regeneratio...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Major Pathologic Response in Patients Treated for Non–small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Is There a Magic Number in the Histologic Sections to Be Evaluated?
Over the last years, great advancements have taken place in the medical approach to lung non–small cell carcinomas. Currently, with the use of biomarkers and diagnostic molecular pathology, tumors that in the past were treated with conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both, now similar patients afflicted by non–small cell carcinoma may have other alternative treatments. More importantly, because of those advancements in treatment options, it has become imperative that pathologists not only become familiar with the pathologic response to those treatments but also attempt to provide a pathologic asses...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: What Have We Learned?
Since the first clinicopathologic description by Ernest Goodpasture of a patient whom he considered to have died of influenza in 1919, substantial progress has been made in our knowledge of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. This has led to a significant decrease in the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. In this paper, we aim to review the literature that has enhanced our understanding of classic anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and its clinic-pathologic variants in the key areas of immunopathogenesis and histopathology. We also summarize varied clinical presentations and therapeutic str...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The 2020 WHO Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue: Selected Changes and New Entities
Soft tissue tumors are a relatively rare and diagnostically challenging group of neoplasms that can have varying lines of differentiation. Accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment and prognostication. In the 8 years since the publication of the 4th Edition of World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumors, significant advances have been made in our understanding of soft tissue tumor molecular biology and diagnostic criteria. The 5th Edition of the 2020 WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone incorporated these changes. Classification of tumors, in general, but particularl...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Review
Endometriosis is a relatively common condition in which endometrial tissue is established in locations outside the uterus where, like the eutopic endometrium, it responds to hormonal stimuli and develops internal bleeding, inflammation, and fibrosis. These changes are associated with chronic and often debilitating cyclic pain and infertility. The pathogenesis of endometriosis is multifactorial, and several theories have been proposed to explain it. These include retrograde menstruation, celomic metaplasia, embryologic rests, and lymphovascular spread. Hormones, immunologic status, and genetic factors may also play a role. ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Extranodal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma—A Review: “What the Mind Does Not Know the Eye Does Not See”
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an intermediate-grade malignancy of follicular dendritic cells, which are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Nodal FDCS is well-recognized. However, when it occurs at an extranodal site, it may not be recognized and is often misdiagnosed. These tumors exhibit a variable spindle to epithelioid cell morphology with a lymphocytic infiltrate and a distinct immunophenotype. The World Health Organization has classified this entity under tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue, that is, histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms. However, its occurrence at extranodal sites and its b...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Comprehensive Review of Numerical Chromosomal Aberrations in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Including Its Variant Morphologies
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) accounts for 5% to 7% of all renal cell carcinomas. It was thought for many years that ChRCC exhibits a hypodiploid genome. Recent studies using advanced molecular genetics techniques have shown more complex and heterogenous pattern with frequent chromosomal gains. Historically, multiple losses of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 have been considered a genetic hallmark of ChRCC, both for classic and eosinophilic ChRCC variants. In the last 2 decades, multiple chromosomal gains in ChRCCs have also been documented, depicting a considerably broader genetic spectrum than previous...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Similarities and Differences in the 2019 ISUP and GUPS Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Grading: A Guide for Practicing Pathologists
Contemporary subspecialization of practice in prostate pathology has seen a transition to complex, nuanced reporting, where a growing number of histopathologic parameters may signal differences in patient management. In this context, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) and the Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) both published proceedings papers on the grading of prostate cancer in 2019. Overall, the 2 prostate cancer grading manuscripts reached many of the same conclusions and recommendations. Yet, each consensus was conducted somewhat differently, and in a couple of key areas, each reached differe...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Book Review
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Giant Rhinophyma
A 42-year-old woman presented with a clinically obvious giant rhinophyma. The protocol of the unit handling the case mandated that all lesions amenable to biopsy should have a core biopsy before any definitive surgery, but the unnecessary biopsy was not representative and suggested an incorrect diagnosis of perifollicular fibroma. The lesion was excised. The sections showed dilated hair follicle pores on the skin surface, squamous lined hair follicles plugged with keratin, prominent sebaceous glands, perifollicular inflammation without granulomas, intradermal budding of hair follicle basal cells, and extensive hypocellular...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of the Kidney: Report of a Case, Literature Review, and Comprehensive Discussion of the Distinctive Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features in the Differential Diagnosis of Small Round Cell Tumors Affecting the Kidney
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm typically presenting with widespread involvement of the abdominopelvic peritoneum of adolescent males, usually without organ-based primary. Although it is believed to originate from the serous (mainly peritoneal) membranes, intracranial, sinonasal, intraosseous, and other soft tissue sites are also documented. A chromosomal translocation t(11:22)(p13;q12) signature that fuses EWSR1 and WT1 genes results in the production of a chimeric protein with transcriptional regulatory activity that drives oncogenesis. Integration of clinical, morphologi...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Adenomatoid Tumor: A Review of Pathology With Focus on Unusual Presentations and Sites, Histogenesis, Differential Diagnosis, and Molecular and Clinical Aspects With a Historic Overview of Its Description
Adenomatoid tumors have been described almost a century ago, and their nature has been the subject of debate for decades. They are tumors of mesothelial origin usually involving the uterus, the Fallopian tubes, and the paratesticular region. Adenomatoid tumors of the adrenal gland, the liver, the extragenital peritoneum, the pleura, and the mediastinum have been rarely reported. They are usually small incidental findings, but large, multicystic and papillary tumors, as well as multiple tumors have been described. Their pathogenesis is related to immunosuppression and to TRAF7 mutations. Despite being benign tumors, there a...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Pathology: A Simple and Practical Guide
Artificial intelligence (AI) is having an increasing impact on the field of pathology, as computation techniques allow computers to perform tasks previously performed by people. Here, we offer a simple and practical guide to AI methods used in pathology, such as digital image analysis, next-generation sequencing, and natural language processing. We not only provide a comprehensive review, but also discuss relevant history and future directions of AI in pathology. We additionally provide a short tabular dictionary of AI terminology which will help practicing pathologists and researchers to understand this field. (Source: Ad...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Cardiac Myxoma: Review and Update of Contemporary Immunohistochemical Markers and Molecular Pathology
Cardiac myxoma is an uncommon benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the heart. It usually arises in the left atrium, near the valve of the fossa ovalis, and most frequently affects adults in the third through the sixth decades of life. It is hypothesized to arise from subendothelial vasoformative reserve cells or primitive cells that differentiate along the lines of the endothelium, but this remains speculative. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells are arranged individually, and nests, and are oriented in single or multiple layers around vascular channels. The neoplastic cells are immunoreactive for vimentin, calretinin, S100, n...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mucous Gland Adenoma: The Spectrum of Growth Patterns and the Diagnostic Challenges
Mucous gland adenomas represent a small percentage of primary lung neoplasms. The accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors can be challenging not only on resected specimens but also more challenging in small bronchoscopic biopsies. If to that problem we add the issue that these tumors may also exist in the periphery of the lung, then it is easy to conclude that there is much difficulty in properly diagnosing these tumors with a core needle biopsy. Furthermore, there is little knowledge on the immunohistochemical properties and radiologic features of these tumors. Therefore, pathologists need to be aware of the spectrum of...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Histopathologic and Autopsy Findings in Patients Diagnosed With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): What We Know So Far Based on Correlation With Clinical, Morphologic and Pathobiological Aspects
In response to the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a fast body of literature emerged providing insights into the clinical and radiologic aspects of the novel disease, while the pathologic manifestations on tissue are yet to be sufficiently characterized mainly due to paucity of autopsy and biopsy of these cases. It is essential for both the clinicians and pathologists to maintain up-to-date knowledge of this continuously evolving topic in the midst of the current pandemic. Besides, understanding the impact of any disease in tissue pathology is crucial for better analysis of the pathogenesis and spe...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Autopsy Services and Emergency Preparedness of a Tertiary Academic Hospital Mortuary for the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: The Yale Plan
Pathology Autopsy and Mortuary Services have been front and center in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-V-2) pandemic. The sheer number of fatalities from the pandemic have been unlike any other in recent memory and needed the rapid creation of new protocols and paradigms to manage the situation. This required rapidly escalating mortuary capacity to manage the increased fatalities from the pandemic with the establishment of lines of communication and networking with governmental entities, institution of new policies for patient flow, and implementation of worker infection control and well-being p...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: A Comprehensive Literature Review, Including Advances in Molecular Therapeutics
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of malignant human tumor. In Europe, the incidence of BCC ranges from 44.6 to 128 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually, whereas in the United States, the yearly incidence rate ranges between 500 and 1500. The global incidence has been calculated to be as high as 10 million cases of BCC per year. There are 2 main clinical patterns of BCC—the familial BCC in basal cell nevus syndrome and sporadic BCC. The etiology of cutaneous BCC is usually the result of the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and genetic factors. Somatic or germline mutation...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Renal Hypoplasia, From Grossly Insufficient to Not Quite Enough: Consideration for Expanded Concepts Based Upon the Author’s Perspective With Historical Review
Hypoplasia is defined in the Merriman-Webster dictionary as “a condition of arrested development in which an organ, or part, remains below the normal size, or in an immature state.” The degree of reduced size is not definitional. Renal hypoplasia, however, has historically been defined as a more marked reduction in renal mass such that presentation in childhood is the norm. There are 3 commonly recognized types of renal hypoplasia, simple hypoplasia, oligomeganephronic hypoplasia (oligomeganephronia) and segmental hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney). They have in common a reduction in the number of renal lobes. A fo...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study
The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36 cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 i...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Non-Neoplastic Mediastinal Cysts
Primary mediastinal cysts are infrequent lesions that can arise from a variety of mediastinal organs or structures. Most of these are congenital in origin and incidental findings during investigations for unrelated conditions. Histologically, the cysts may be composed of various tissues, including bronchogenic, pericardial, thymic, enteric, Müllerian, lymphatic, and parathyroid types. Mediastinal cysts typically demonstrate a benign clinical course and patients are cured after complete surgical resection. In this review, the embryogenesis, clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of non-neoplastic mediasti...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Evolving Spectrum of Precursor Lesions of Cervical Adenocarcinomas
Modern classification schemes divide cervical adenocarcinomas into human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated and HPV-independent types. The precursor lesions of the former are well known and comprise HPV-associated (usual/endocervical) adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and the much less common stratified mucin–producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). The precursor lesions of HPV-independent cervical adenocarcinomas are much less well known, although postulated precursors of gastric-type adenocarcinoma include atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and gastric-type AIS. In this review, we cover HPV-associated and...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

A 2020 Vision Into Hodgkin Lymphoma Biology
Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs) are lymphoid neoplasms uniquely characterized by a paucity of neoplastic cells embedded in a supportive heterogenous cellular microenvironment. Although first described in the 19th century, systematic biological understanding of HLs has been hindered due to the challenges presented in studying the complex tumor microenvironment and scarce tumorigenic cells. Recent advances in single-cell isolation and characterization, sensitive mutational analytic tools, and multiplex immunohistochemical strategies have allowed further advances in understanding the development and progression of HL. Here we provide...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Implementing Deep Learning Algorithms in Anatomic Pathology Using Open-source Deep Learning Libraries
This article aims to act as an introductory tutorial to illustrate how to create, train, and evaluate simple artificial learning models (neural networks) on histopathology data sets in the programming language Python using the popular freely available, open-source libraries Keras, TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Detecto. Furthermore, it aims to introduce pathologists to commonly used terms and concepts used in artificial intelligence. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Whole Slide Imaging: Technology and Applications
This article will review the digital pathology ecosystem and discuss clinical and nonclinical applications of its use. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Explainable AI (xAI) for Anatomic Pathology
This article outlines xAI enabled applications in anatomic pathology workflow that improves efficiency and accuracy of the practice. In addition, we describe HistoMapr-Breast, an initial xAI enabled software application for breast core biopsies. HistoMapr-Breast automatically previews breast core WSIs and recognizes the regions of interest to rapidly present the key diagnostic areas in an interactive and explainable manner. We anticipate xAI will ultimately serve pathologists as an interactive computational guide for computer-assisted primary diagnosis. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Whole-slide Imaging: Clinical Workflows and Primary Diagnosis
This article will discuss the preparatory steps needed to implement digital pathology as well as some implementation styles that may be sufficient for a pathology department. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Application of Image Analysis in Pathology
Quantitative biomarkers are key prognostic and predictive factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In the clinical laboratory, the majority of biomarker quantitation is still performed manually, but digital image analysis (DIA) methods have been steadily growing and account for around 25% of all quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing performed today. Quantitative DIA is primarily employed in the analysis of breast cancer IHC biomarkers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu; more recently clinical applications have expanded to include human ep...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Convergence of Digital Pathology and Artificial Intelligence Tools in Anatomic Pathology Practice: Current Landscape and Future Directions
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Advances in Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry for Primary Tumors of the Central Nervous System
This article reviews novel immunohistochemical markers that may be used to determine mutation status, activation of signaling pathways, druggable targets, and cell lineage in many diverse tumor types. In particular, recently added entities to the 2016 WHO classification of central nervous system tumors will be addressed, including IDH-mutant gliomas, diffuse midline glioma, epithelioid glioblastoma, angiocentric glioma, RELA-rearranged ependymoma, embryonal tumors (medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, pineoblastoma, embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, and other genetically defined high-grade neuroepit...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

An Update on the Role of Immunohistochemistry in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders
As in other organ systems, immunohistochemistry (IHC) serves as an ancillary diagnostic tool for a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disorders, including infections, work-up of inflammatory conditions, and subtyping neoplasms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In addition, IHC is also used to detect a variety of prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers for carcinomas of the GI tract. The purpose of this review is to highlight the use of IHC in common diagnostic scenarios throughout the tubular GI tract. The clinical indication and guidelines for performing IHC for detecting Helicobacter pylori is discuss...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Review of Biomarker Use in the Gynecologic Tract Including Differential Diagnoses and Diagnostic Pitfalls
Morphologic (ie, hematoxylin and eosin) evaluation of the Mullerian tract remains the gold standard for diagnostic evaluation; nevertheless, ancillary/biomarker studies are increasingly utilized in daily practice to assist in the subclassification of gynecologic lesions and tumors. The most frequently utilized “biomarker” technique is immunohistochemistry; however, in situ hybridization (chromogenic and fluorescence), chromosomal evaluation, and molecular analysis can also be utilized to aid in diagnosis. This review focuses on the use of immunohistochemistry in the Mullerian tract, and discusses common antibod...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

An Algorithmic Immunohistochemical Approach to Define Tumor Type and Assign Site of Origin
Immunohistochemistry represents an indispensable complement to an epidemiology and morphology-driven approach to tumor diagnosis and site of origin assignment. This review reflects the state of my current practice, based on 15-years’ experience in Pathology and a deep-dive into the literature, always striving to be better equipped to answer the age old questions, “What is it, and where is it from?” The tables and figures in this manuscript are the ones I “pull up on the computer” when I am teaching at the microscope and turn to myself when I am (frequently) stuck. This field is so exciting bec...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Immunohistochemistry in Surgical Pathology: Part 2
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Metastatic Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases Preceding the Hedgehog Pathway Antagonists Era
We present retrospectively 2 personal cases of metastatic BCC of the skin, from the premolecular therapy era, from primary tumors that arose years before in the head and neck area. The former case occurred in a 45-year-old woman with a history of recurrent BCC of the retroauricular skin who eventually died due to diffuse metastatic spread. The latter case concerned a 70-year-old man also with a history of recurrent BCC of the nasal-perinasal skin who developed multiple subcutaneous and lymph node metastases in the neck. In both cases, the diagnoses were based on biopsies of the metastatic sites. The first patient died 5 mo...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Diabetic Kidney Disease: Past and Present
Diabetes mellitus (DM) afflicting humans has been recognized as a disease for>3000 years. However, very little was known about its etiology and pathogenesis until about a century ago when increasing knowledge about anatomy and physiology of the human body gradually led to our understanding that the hormone insulin produced by the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and maintaining the blood sugar level within a normal range. DM is caused by inadequate insulin production (type 1) or insulin resistance (type 2). For thousands of years, DM has been considered as a disease ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Practical Approach to the Histologic Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Lymphomas Through the First-line Marker Battery of CD20, CD3, CD30, and Epstein-Barr Virus–encoded RNAs
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a prevalent site for extranodal lymphomas. Some subtypes of GI tract lymphomas are aggressive and have dismal clinical outcomes. Therefore, prompt histopathologic detection of such types can be very important. We thus introduce a practical approach in the histopathologic diagnosis of GI lymphomas according to the revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification. When lymphocyte proliferation is found in the GI tract, a stepwise approach can help narrow down the differential diagnoses. When considering subtype incidence, macroscopic findings, and microscopic patterns, applying a firs...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Lymphoid Neoplasms With Plasmablastic Differentiation: A Comprehensive Review and Diagnostic Approaches
Plasmablastic neoplasms encompass several entities including plasmablastic lymphoma, plasmablastic plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma, primary effusion lymphoma and its extracavitary variant, anaplastic lymphoma kinase–positive large B-cell lymphoma, and Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. Morphologically, the tumor cells are large with eccentrically located nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and basophilic/amphophilic cytoplasm. Immunophenotypically, the tumor cells express plasma cell–related antigens including CD38, CD138...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma (SNUC): From an Entity to Morphologic Pattern and Back Again—A Historical Perspective
Since the first description of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) as a distinctive highly aggressive sinonasal neoplasm with probable origin from the sinonasal mucosa (Schneiderian epithelium), SNUC has been the subject of ongoing study and controversy. In particular, the SNUC category gradually became a “wastebasket” for any undifferentiated or unclassifiable sinonasal malignancy of definite or probable epithelial origin. However, with the availability of more specific and sensitive immunohistochemical antibodies and increasing implementation of novel genetic tools, the historical SNUC category became...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 11, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Genomic Molecular Classification of CNS Malignancies
Molecular studies have identified distinct genomic drivers providing insights in biology of brain tumors. Advances in genetic and epigenetic analysis, as well as development of mutation-specific antibodies enable more accurate classification of histologically indistinguishable tumors. Compared with histopathologic grading, molecular biomarkers are also superior in predicting natural behavior of tumors and therapeutic response. Diffuse gliomas can be separated in astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma based on IDH1/2, ATRX, and TP53 mutational status. Pediatric gliomas are molecularly distinct from adult tumors and molecular dri...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Updates on the Genomics of Bladder Cancer and Novel Molecular Taxonomy
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the bladder that encompasses a wide spectrum of histopathologic features and various molecular alterations and subtypes, responsible for its significant morphologic and genomic heterogeneity. Morphologically, in addition to classic UC (not otherwise specified), many well documented variant histologies are a common finding in invasive UC, and include squamous, glandular, micropapillary, sarcomatoid, small cell/neuroendocrine, clear cell, lymphoepithelioma-like, and plasmacytoid types, among others. This review provides an update on the recent advances in the...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Molecular Classification of Breast Cancer
Cancer classification aims to provide an accurate diagnosis of the disease and prediction of tumor behavior to facilitate oncologic decision making. Traditional breast cancer classification, mainly based on clinicopathologic features and assessment of routine biomarkers, may not capture the varied clinical courses of individual breast cancers. The underlying biology in cancer development and progression is complicated. Recent findings from high-throughput technologies added important information with regard to the underlying genetic alterations and the biological events in breast cancer. The information provides insights i...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 7, 2019 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research