Mesenchymal Tumors of the Mediastinum: An Update on Diagnostic Approach
Mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum are a heterogenous group of rare tumors with divergent lineages. Mediastinal mesenchymal tumors are diagnostically challenging due to their diversity and morphologic overlap with nonmesenchymal lesions arising in the mediastinum. Accurate histologic diagnosis is critical for appropriate patient management and prognostication. Many mediastinal mesenchymal tumors affect distinct age groups or occur at specific mediastinal compartments. Neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, solitary fibrous tumor, and synovial sarcoma are common mesenchymal tumors in the mediastinum. Herein, we provide an updat...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors: A Review and Update on Pathologic, Clinical, and Molecular Features
Mediastinal germ cell tumors (MGCTs) are the most common extragonadal germ cell tumors (GCTs) and most often arise in the anterior mediastinum with a male predilection. MGCTs also have a predilection for patients with Klinefelter syndrome and possibly other genetic conditions. MGCTs, as GCTs at other extragonadal sites, are thought to arise from germ cells improperly retained during migration along the midline during embryogenesis. Similar to their counterparts in the testes, MGCTs are classified into seminomatous and nonseminomatous GCTs. Seminomatous MGCT represents pure seminoma, whereas nonseminomatous MGCTs encompass ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mediastinal Lymphoproliferative Disorders
Lymphoproliferative disorders comprise 50% to 60% of all mediastinal malignancies in both children and adults. Primary mediastinal involvement is rare (∼5%), whereas secondary mediastinal involvement by systemic disease is more common (10% to 25%). Primary mediastinal disease is defined as involvement by a lymphoproliferative disorder of mediastinal lymph nodes, the thymus, and/or extranodal mediastinal organs without evidence of systemic disease at presentation. In this review, the clinical, radiologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features of some of the most characteristic mediastinal lymphoprol...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Thymoma Staging: An Analysis of the Different Schemas
Over the last years, a number of changes has taken place in the evaluation of thymomas. More recently, the introduction of a TNM staging system in the assessment of thymic epithelial tumors, in general, has been put forward. Important to highlight is that this TNM system is not based on tumor size, and because of that shortcoming, it was in need to borrow most if not all of the information from the experience derived from other schemas that over the years have been tested with larger series of cases. Also important to recognize is that this TNM system is nothing new as previous authors in the past had already attempted to ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Thymoma: Challenges and Pitfalls in Biopsy Interpretation
The interpretation of biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of thymoma is a subject that is generally not addressed in the literature. Even though the diagnosis of thymoma may seem to be an easy step in the assessment of these tumors, in reality, it is the biopsy specimen interpretation that will be use to determine course of action in any particular patient. It may determine whether a patient is a surgical candidate or on the contrary whether a patient may be benefited the most by medical therapy. In addition, there may be conditions in which all that is required is surgical resection without any further treatment, and that t...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mediastinal Pathology
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 20, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate: A Guide for the Practicing Pathologist
Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate gland (IDCP) is characterized by an expansile, architecturally, and cytologically atypical proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells within preexisting prostatic ducts and acini. There has been a wider recognition of IDCP by practicing pathologists since its recognition as a separate category in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 classification of tumours of the prostate gland. However, there is also a lack of clarity regarding the diagnosis and reporting of IDCP, which has been compounded by divergent expert recommendations regarding the grading of invasive prostate cancers as...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Testicular Tumors: A Contemporary Update on Morphologic, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Features
Testicular tumors are incredibly diverse and one of the most challenging areas in surgical pathology. Because of the rarity and overlapping features with numerous entities occurring in the testis and paratestis, these tumors pose a diagnostic challenge even to the most experienced general pathologists. In 2016, the latest “World Health Organization (WHO) classification of testicular tumors” was released, which incorporated several updates to the previous 2004 classification system. These updates involved several entities, including germ cell tumors, sex cord-stromal tumors, tumors containing both germ cells and...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Eosinophilic Vacuolated Tumor of the Kidney: A Review of Evolving Concepts in This Novel Subtype With Additional Insights From a Case With MTOR Mutation and Concomitant Chromosome 1 Loss
We present an integrated view of EVT as well as cues that can assist in the differential diagnosis. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Key Renal Neoplasms With a Female Predominance
Renal neoplasms largely favor male patients; however, there is a growing list of tumors that are more frequently diagnosed in females. These tumors include metanephric adenoma, mixed epithelial and stromal tumor, juxtaglomerular cell tumor, mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma, Xp11.2 (TFE3) translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma, and tuberous sclerosis complex (somatic or germline) associated renal neoplasms. The latter category is a heterogenous group with entities still being delineated. Eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma is the best-described entity, whereas, eosinophilic vacuolated tumor ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

What Is New in the Pathologic Staging of Penile Carcinoma in the 8th Edition of AJCC TNM Model: Rationale for Changes With Practical Stage-by-stage Category Diagnostic Considerations
We present here a series of stage-by-stage category diagnostic considerations based on the clinical experience acummulated over the years of applying the different TNM staging classifications in our large clinical practice. Some discrepancies will need well-designed prospective studies for im4proving the actual classification. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Genitourinary Pathology Society Update on Classification of Variant Histologies, T1 Substaging, Molecular Taxonomy, and Immunotherapy and PD-L1 Testing Implications of Urothelial Cancers
The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder cancer focusing on important topics of high interest for the practicing surgical pathologist and urologist. This review represents the second of 2 manuscripts ensuing from this effort. Herein, we address the effective reporting of bladder cancer, focusing particularly on newly published data since the last 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In addition, this review focuses on the importance of reporting bladder cancer with divergent differentiation and variant (subtypes of urothelial carcinoma) histolo...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Genitourinary Pathology Society Update on Classification and Grading of Flat and Papillary Urothelial Neoplasia With New Reporting Recommendations and Approach to Lesions With Mixed and Early Patterns of Neoplasia
The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder neoplasia with a focus on issues relevant to the practicing surgical pathologist for the understanding and effective reporting of bladder cancer, emphasizing particularly on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The work is presented in 2 manuscripts. Here, in the first, we revisit the nomenclature and classification system used for grading flat and papillary urothelial lesions centering on clinical relevance, and on dilemmas related to application in routine reporting....
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 24, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Historical Advancements and Evolution in Understanding Human Anatomy and Pathology: The Contribution of the Middle Ages
Dissections and autopsies are critical for understanding human anatomy, pathology, and uncovering mechanisms of disease. This review presents an historical journey from ancient times until the late Middle Ages. The major steps and developments are summarized with key figures and events presented. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Carcinomas of the Uterine Cervix: Comprehensive Review With An Update on Pathogenesis, Nomenclature of Precursor and Invasive Lesions, and Differential Diagnostic Considerations
Most cervical carcinomas and their related lesions are attributed to an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). The infection usually starts in the basal cells at the squamocolumnar junction. It causes cell proliferation and maturation abnormalities along with nuclear abnormalities resulting in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. An overwhelming majority of these lesions spontaneously disappear, and the infection is cleared. In a small subset of high-risk HPV infection cases, the lesions may persist and progress to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. These are associated with the incorporation of the vira...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Emerging Entities and New Diagnostic Markers for Head and Neck Soft Tissue and Bone Tumors
Bone and soft tissue tumors of the head and neck are relatively uncommon tumors that often represent a diagnostic challenge because of the wide range of entities that must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Over the past few years, classification of bone and soft tissue tumors has evolved primarily because of substantial contributions from molecular genetics, with the identification of new markers that are increasingly used to complement histopathologic findings in the routine diagnostic workup. This review focuses on the recently described mesenchymal tumors that preferentially involve the head and neck region, ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The 2020 WHO Classification of Tumors of Bone: An Updated Review
Bone tumors are a rare and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that occur in the bone. The diversity and considerable morphologic overlap of bone tumors with other mesenchymal and nonmesenchymal bone lesions can complicate diagnosis. Accurate histologic diagnosis is crucial for appropriate management and prognostication. Since the publication of the fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone in 2013, significant advances have been made in our understanding of bone tumor molecular biology, classification, prognostication, and treatment. Detection of tumor-specific mol...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

High-grade Transformation/Dedifferentiation in Salivary Gland Carcinomas: Occurrence Across Subtypes and Clinical Significance
High-grade transformation (HGT) or dedifferentiation has been described in a variety of salivary gland carcinomas, including acinic cell carcinoma, secretory carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, polymorphous adenocarcinoma, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. High-grade (HG) transformed tumors are composed of a conventional low-grade component characterized by specific microscopic and immunohistochemical features for the given entity, intermingled with or juxtaposed to areas of HG morphology. This is usually either poorly differentiated adenocarcinom...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 19, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Differential Diagnoses in Surgical Pathology: Soft Tissue and Bone
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

A Simple and Practical Guide for Triaging Lymphocyte-rich Effusions for Ancillary Studies
Lymphocyte-rich effusions of the body cavities may represent a reactive/benign condition, primary effusion lymphoma, or systemic lymphoma with secondary malignant effusion, either as initial presentation or as a late complication. Cytomorphologic examination is essential and fundamental for diagnosis and may provide important clues to the nature of diseases. However, based on morphology alone, cytologic diagnosis of lymphocyte-rich effusions could be very challenging, particularly when the lymphocytes are small. Cytologists/cytopathologists might be uncertain when a lymphocyte-rich effusion specimen warrants a comprehensiv...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Molecular Pathology of Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Predictive Perspective
Salivary gland neoplasms are an uncommon and widely heterogeneous group of tumors. In recent years, there has been considerable progress in efforts to reveal the molecular landscape of these tumors, although it is still limited and appears to be only the tip of the iceberg. Genomic aberrations, especially specific chromosomal rearrangements including CRTC1-MAML2 and CRTC3-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, MYB-NFIB and MYBL1-NFIB fusions in adenoid cystic carcinoma, PLAG1 and HMGA2 alterations in pleomorphic adenoma and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, ETV6-NTRK3 and ETV6-RET in secretory carcinoma, EWSR1-ATF1 and EWSR1-C...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Differential Diagnosis of Intrahepatic Ductular Reaction in Medical Liver Biopsy
Intrahepatic ductular reaction is a pathologic proliferation of phenotypical biliary channels. Ductular reactions aim to restore compromised physiological function after liver injury and are one of the archetypal responses of the liver to a wide variety of etiologies, among them are parenchymal loss, biliary tract disease, neoplasms, after liver transplantation, and several pediatric liver diseases. The types and extent of ductular reactions can vary, according to the etiological insult. In this review, the authors will first consider the different mechanisms for ductular reactions and their relevance for liver regeneratio...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Major Pathologic Response in Patients Treated for Non–small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Is There a Magic Number in the Histologic Sections to Be Evaluated?
Over the last years, great advancements have taken place in the medical approach to lung non–small cell carcinomas. Currently, with the use of biomarkers and diagnostic molecular pathology, tumors that in the past were treated with conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both, now similar patients afflicted by non–small cell carcinoma may have other alternative treatments. More importantly, because of those advancements in treatment options, it has become imperative that pathologists not only become familiar with the pathologic response to those treatments but also attempt to provide a pathologic asses...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 10, 2021 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Disease: What Have We Learned?
Since the first clinicopathologic description by Ernest Goodpasture of a patient whom he considered to have died of influenza in 1919, substantial progress has been made in our knowledge of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. This has led to a significant decrease in the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. In this paper, we aim to review the literature that has enhanced our understanding of classic anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and its clinic-pathologic variants in the key areas of immunopathogenesis and histopathology. We also summarize varied clinical presentations and therapeutic str...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The 2020 WHO Classification of Tumors of Soft Tissue: Selected Changes and New Entities
Soft tissue tumors are a relatively rare and diagnostically challenging group of neoplasms that can have varying lines of differentiation. Accurate diagnosis is important for appropriate treatment and prognostication. In the 8 years since the publication of the 4th Edition of World Health Organization (WHO) classification of soft tissue tumors, significant advances have been made in our understanding of soft tissue tumor molecular biology and diagnostic criteria. The 5th Edition of the 2020 WHO classification of tumors of soft tissue and bone incorporated these changes. Classification of tumors, in general, but particularl...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Endometriosis: A Comprehensive Review
Endometriosis is a relatively common condition in which endometrial tissue is established in locations outside the uterus where, like the eutopic endometrium, it responds to hormonal stimuli and develops internal bleeding, inflammation, and fibrosis. These changes are associated with chronic and often debilitating cyclic pain and infertility. The pathogenesis of endometriosis is multifactorial, and several theories have been proposed to explain it. These include retrograde menstruation, celomic metaplasia, embryologic rests, and lymphovascular spread. Hormones, immunologic status, and genetic factors may also play a role. ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Extranodal Follicular Dendritic Cell Sarcoma—A Review: “What the Mind Does Not Know the Eye Does Not See”
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an intermediate-grade malignancy of follicular dendritic cells, which are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Nodal FDCS is well-recognized. However, when it occurs at an extranodal site, it may not be recognized and is often misdiagnosed. These tumors exhibit a variable spindle to epithelioid cell morphology with a lymphocytic infiltrate and a distinct immunophenotype. The World Health Organization has classified this entity under tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue, that is, histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms. However, its occurrence at extranodal sites and its b...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Comprehensive Review of Numerical Chromosomal Aberrations in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma Including Its Variant Morphologies
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) accounts for 5% to 7% of all renal cell carcinomas. It was thought for many years that ChRCC exhibits a hypodiploid genome. Recent studies using advanced molecular genetics techniques have shown more complex and heterogenous pattern with frequent chromosomal gains. Historically, multiple losses of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21 have been considered a genetic hallmark of ChRCC, both for classic and eosinophilic ChRCC variants. In the last 2 decades, multiple chromosomal gains in ChRCCs have also been documented, depicting a considerably broader genetic spectrum than previous...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Similarities and Differences in the 2019 ISUP and GUPS Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Grading: A Guide for Practicing Pathologists
Contemporary subspecialization of practice in prostate pathology has seen a transition to complex, nuanced reporting, where a growing number of histopathologic parameters may signal differences in patient management. In this context, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) and the Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) both published proceedings papers on the grading of prostate cancer in 2019. Overall, the 2 prostate cancer grading manuscripts reached many of the same conclusions and recommendations. Yet, each consensus was conducted somewhat differently, and in a couple of key areas, each reached differe...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 10, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Book Review
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Giant Rhinophyma
A 42-year-old woman presented with a clinically obvious giant rhinophyma. The protocol of the unit handling the case mandated that all lesions amenable to biopsy should have a core biopsy before any definitive surgery, but the unnecessary biopsy was not representative and suggested an incorrect diagnosis of perifollicular fibroma. The lesion was excised. The sections showed dilated hair follicle pores on the skin surface, squamous lined hair follicles plugged with keratin, prominent sebaceous glands, perifollicular inflammation without granulomas, intradermal budding of hair follicle basal cells, and extensive hypocellular...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of the Kidney: Report of a Case, Literature Review, and Comprehensive Discussion of the Distinctive Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Features in the Differential Diagnosis of Small Round Cell Tumors Affecting the Kidney
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive neoplasm typically presenting with widespread involvement of the abdominopelvic peritoneum of adolescent males, usually without organ-based primary. Although it is believed to originate from the serous (mainly peritoneal) membranes, intracranial, sinonasal, intraosseous, and other soft tissue sites are also documented. A chromosomal translocation t(11:22)(p13;q12) signature that fuses EWSR1 and WT1 genes results in the production of a chimeric protein with transcriptional regulatory activity that drives oncogenesis. Integration of clinical, morphologi...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Adenomatoid Tumor: A Review of Pathology With Focus on Unusual Presentations and Sites, Histogenesis, Differential Diagnosis, and Molecular and Clinical Aspects With a Historic Overview of Its Description
Adenomatoid tumors have been described almost a century ago, and their nature has been the subject of debate for decades. They are tumors of mesothelial origin usually involving the uterus, the Fallopian tubes, and the paratesticular region. Adenomatoid tumors of the adrenal gland, the liver, the extragenital peritoneum, the pleura, and the mediastinum have been rarely reported. They are usually small incidental findings, but large, multicystic and papillary tumors, as well as multiple tumors have been described. Their pathogenesis is related to immunosuppression and to TRAF7 mutations. Despite being benign tumors, there a...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Pathology: A Simple and Practical Guide
Artificial intelligence (AI) is having an increasing impact on the field of pathology, as computation techniques allow computers to perform tasks previously performed by people. Here, we offer a simple and practical guide to AI methods used in pathology, such as digital image analysis, next-generation sequencing, and natural language processing. We not only provide a comprehensive review, but also discuss relevant history and future directions of AI in pathology. We additionally provide a short tabular dictionary of AI terminology which will help practicing pathologists and researchers to understand this field. (Source: Ad...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Cardiac Myxoma: Review and Update of Contemporary Immunohistochemical Markers and Molecular Pathology
Cardiac myxoma is an uncommon benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the heart. It usually arises in the left atrium, near the valve of the fossa ovalis, and most frequently affects adults in the third through the sixth decades of life. It is hypothesized to arise from subendothelial vasoformative reserve cells or primitive cells that differentiate along the lines of the endothelium, but this remains speculative. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells are arranged individually, and nests, and are oriented in single or multiple layers around vascular channels. The neoplastic cells are immunoreactive for vimentin, calretinin, S100, n...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mucous Gland Adenoma: The Spectrum of Growth Patterns and the Diagnostic Challenges
Mucous gland adenomas represent a small percentage of primary lung neoplasms. The accurate diagnosis of these benign tumors can be challenging not only on resected specimens but also more challenging in small bronchoscopic biopsies. If to that problem we add the issue that these tumors may also exist in the periphery of the lung, then it is easy to conclude that there is much difficulty in properly diagnosing these tumors with a core needle biopsy. Furthermore, there is little knowledge on the immunohistochemical properties and radiologic features of these tumors. Therefore, pathologists need to be aware of the spectrum of...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Histopathologic and Autopsy Findings in Patients Diagnosed With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): What We Know So Far Based on Correlation With Clinical, Morphologic and Pathobiological Aspects
In response to the current outbreak of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), a fast body of literature emerged providing insights into the clinical and radiologic aspects of the novel disease, while the pathologic manifestations on tissue are yet to be sufficiently characterized mainly due to paucity of autopsy and biopsy of these cases. It is essential for both the clinicians and pathologists to maintain up-to-date knowledge of this continuously evolving topic in the midst of the current pandemic. Besides, understanding the impact of any disease in tissue pathology is crucial for better analysis of the pathogenesis and spe...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Autopsy Services and Emergency Preparedness of a Tertiary Academic Hospital Mortuary for the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency: The Yale Plan
Pathology Autopsy and Mortuary Services have been front and center in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-V-2) pandemic. The sheer number of fatalities from the pandemic have been unlike any other in recent memory and needed the rapid creation of new protocols and paradigms to manage the situation. This required rapidly escalating mortuary capacity to manage the increased fatalities from the pandemic with the establishment of lines of communication and networking with governmental entities, institution of new policies for patient flow, and implementation of worker infection control and well-being p...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 9, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin: A Comprehensive Literature Review, Including Advances in Molecular Therapeutics
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of malignant human tumor. In Europe, the incidence of BCC ranges from 44.6 to 128 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually, whereas in the United States, the yearly incidence rate ranges between 500 and 1500. The global incidence has been calculated to be as high as 10 million cases of BCC per year. There are 2 main clinical patterns of BCC—the familial BCC in basal cell nevus syndrome and sporadic BCC. The etiology of cutaneous BCC is usually the result of the interaction between solar ultraviolet radiation and genetic factors. Somatic or germline mutation...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Renal Hypoplasia, From Grossly Insufficient to Not Quite Enough: Consideration for Expanded Concepts Based Upon the Author’s Perspective With Historical Review
Hypoplasia is defined in the Merriman-Webster dictionary as “a condition of arrested development in which an organ, or part, remains below the normal size, or in an immature state.” The degree of reduced size is not definitional. Renal hypoplasia, however, has historically been defined as a more marked reduction in renal mass such that presentation in childhood is the norm. There are 3 commonly recognized types of renal hypoplasia, simple hypoplasia, oligomeganephronic hypoplasia (oligomeganephronia) and segmental hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney). They have in common a reduction in the number of renal lobes. A fo...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Molecular Genetic Features of Primary Nonurachal Enteric-type Adenocarcinoma, Urachal Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Intestinal Metaplasia/Adenoma: Review of the Literature and Next-generation Sequencing Study
The diagnosis of primary adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder may be challenging in routine practice. These tumors may morphologically and immunohistochemically overlap with urachal adenocarcinoma and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Further, their genetic background is poorly understood. We systematically searched the PubMed database for results of complex genetic evaluation of primary bladder adenocarcinoma subtypes. Subsequently, we designed our own series of bladder lesions. We evaluated 36 cases: 16 primary enteric-type adenocarcinomas, 7 urachal enteric adenocarcinomas, 3 primary mucinous/colloid adenocarcinomas, and 10 i...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Non-Neoplastic Mediastinal Cysts
Primary mediastinal cysts are infrequent lesions that can arise from a variety of mediastinal organs or structures. Most of these are congenital in origin and incidental findings during investigations for unrelated conditions. Histologically, the cysts may be composed of various tissues, including bronchogenic, pericardial, thymic, enteric, Müllerian, lymphatic, and parathyroid types. Mediastinal cysts typically demonstrate a benign clinical course and patients are cured after complete surgical resection. In this review, the embryogenesis, clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of non-neoplastic mediasti...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Evolving Spectrum of Precursor Lesions of Cervical Adenocarcinomas
Modern classification schemes divide cervical adenocarcinomas into human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated and HPV-independent types. The precursor lesions of the former are well known and comprise HPV-associated (usual/endocervical) adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and the much less common stratified mucin–producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). The precursor lesions of HPV-independent cervical adenocarcinomas are much less well known, although postulated precursors of gastric-type adenocarcinoma include atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and gastric-type AIS. In this review, we cover HPV-associated and...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

A 2020 Vision Into Hodgkin Lymphoma Biology
Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs) are lymphoid neoplasms uniquely characterized by a paucity of neoplastic cells embedded in a supportive heterogenous cellular microenvironment. Although first described in the 19th century, systematic biological understanding of HLs has been hindered due to the challenges presented in studying the complex tumor microenvironment and scarce tumorigenic cells. Recent advances in single-cell isolation and characterization, sensitive mutational analytic tools, and multiplex immunohistochemical strategies have allowed further advances in understanding the development and progression of HL. Here we provide...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Implementing Deep Learning Algorithms in Anatomic Pathology Using Open-source Deep Learning Libraries
This article aims to act as an introductory tutorial to illustrate how to create, train, and evaluate simple artificial learning models (neural networks) on histopathology data sets in the programming language Python using the popular freely available, open-source libraries Keras, TensorFlow, PyTorch, and Detecto. Furthermore, it aims to introduce pathologists to commonly used terms and concepts used in artificial intelligence. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Whole Slide Imaging: Technology and Applications
This article will review the digital pathology ecosystem and discuss clinical and nonclinical applications of its use. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Explainable AI (xAI) for Anatomic Pathology
This article outlines xAI enabled applications in anatomic pathology workflow that improves efficiency and accuracy of the practice. In addition, we describe HistoMapr-Breast, an initial xAI enabled software application for breast core biopsies. HistoMapr-Breast automatically previews breast core WSIs and recognizes the regions of interest to rapidly present the key diagnostic areas in an interactive and explainable manner. We anticipate xAI will ultimately serve pathologists as an interactive computational guide for computer-assisted primary diagnosis. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Whole-slide Imaging: Clinical Workflows and Primary Diagnosis
This article will discuss the preparatory steps needed to implement digital pathology as well as some implementation styles that may be sufficient for a pathology department. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Application of Image Analysis in Pathology
Quantitative biomarkers are key prognostic and predictive factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In the clinical laboratory, the majority of biomarker quantitation is still performed manually, but digital image analysis (DIA) methods have been steadily growing and account for around 25% of all quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing performed today. Quantitative DIA is primarily employed in the analysis of breast cancer IHC biomarkers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu; more recently clinical applications have expanded to include human ep...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Convergence of Digital Pathology and Artificial Intelligence Tools in Anatomic Pathology Practice: Current Landscape and Future Directions
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 16, 2020 Category: Pathology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research