Correlation of Histologic Subtypes and Molecular Alterations in Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma: Therapeutic and Prognostic Implications
Major driver mutations of pulmonary adenocarcinomas have been identified and highlighted as actionable targets for precision cancer medicine. As phenotype is largely determined by genotype, genetic changes associated with morphologic features have recently received more attention from both pathologists and clinicians. The morphologic features of adenocarcinomas with mutations in EGFR or KRAS, or translocated ALK, have rarely been described. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations, the most common driver mutation encountered in Asian patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma, show lepidic or papillary organotypic growth ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Antineoplastic Treatment and Renal Injury: An Update on Renal Pathology Due to Cytotoxic and Targeted Therapies
Cancer patients experience kidney injury from multiple sources, including the tumor itself, diagnostic procedures, hypovolemia, infection, and drug exposure, superimposed upon baseline chronic damage. This review will focus on cytotoxic or targeted chemotherapy-associated renal injury. In this setting, tubulointerstitial injury and thrombotic microangiopathy (vascular injury) are more common than other forms of kidney injury including glomerular. Cisplatin, pemetrexed, and ifosfamide are well-known causes of acute tubular injury/necrosis. Acute interstitial nephritis seems underrecognized in this clinical setting. Intersti...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Primary Mediastinal Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma
Primary mediastinal Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is rare. Nodular sclerosis CHL (NS-CHL) is the most common subtype involving the anterior mediastinum and/or mediastinal lymph nodes. Primary thymic CHL is exceedingly rare. The disease typically affects young women and is asymptomatic in 30% to 50% of patients. Common symptoms include fatigue, chest pain, dyspnea and cough, but vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. B-symptoms develop in 30% of cases. By imaging, primary mediastinal CHL presents as mediastinal widening/mediastinal mass that does not invade adjacent organs but may compress vital structures...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Adrenal Pathology in the Adult: A Urological Pathologist’s Perspective
Adrenal gland diagnostics can pose significant challenges. In most academic and community practice settings, adrenal gland resections are encountered less frequently than other endocrine or genitourinary specimens, leading to less familiarity with evolving classifications and criteria. The unique dichotomy between cortical and medullary lesions reflects the developmental evolution of these functionally independent components. Adrenal cortical lesions at resection include hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma, with some cases straddling the boundary between these distinct clinical classifications. The lack of immunohistochemi...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 11, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

BRAF and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Lessons From Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Primary Cutaneous Melanoma
The increased prevalence of BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinoma and primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM) hint that dysregulation of BRAF might contribute to the noted association between PCM and thyroid carcinoma. A recent study evaluating the rate of BRAFV600E mutations among patients who had been diagnosed with primary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and PCM showed that patients with either PCM or PTC were at an increased risk of developing the other as a second primary malignant neoplasm. Furthermore, the authors noted that samples from patients suffering from both malignancies exhibited a higher rate of incidence of the ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Aggressive Large B-cell Lymphomas: A Comprehensive Review
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease with considerable heterogeneity reflected in the 2008 World Health Organization classification. In recent years, genome-wide assessment of genetic and epigenetic alterations has shed light upon distinct molecular subsets linked to dysregulation of specific genes or pathways. Besides fostering our knowledge regarding the molecular complexity of DLBCL types, these studies have unraveled previously unappreciated genetic lesions, which may be exploited for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. Following the last World Health Organization classification, we have witn...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology: The Quest to Develop a Standardized Terminology
The main purpose of urine cytology is to detect high-grade urothelial carcinoma. With this principle in mind, The Paris System (TPS) Working Group, composed of cytopathologists, surgical pathologists, and urologists, has proposed and published a standardized reporting system that includes specific diagnostic categories and cytomorphologic criteria for the reliable diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This paper outlines the essential elements of TPS and the process that led to the formation and rationale of the reporting system. TPS Working Group, organized at the 2013 International Congress of Cytology, conceived...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Cancer Vaccines: Past, Present, and Future
Cancer is a common and potentially deadly disease. Some of the cancers may be difficult to treat by conventional means such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, but may be controlled by the stimulation of the immune response of the body with the help of cancer vaccines. The use of vaccines for preventing infections by oncogenic viruses such as hepatitis B virus and human papilloma virus has been extremely successful in reducing the incidence of cancers resulting from these infections. The use of vaccines for treating cancers that are not due to viral infections and that are already established is currently the object o...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Rediscovering Secondary Tumors of the Prostate in the Molecular Era
Metastatic involvement of the prostate from noncontiguous solid tumors is a rare event occurring by means of vascular dissemination. The reported cases of biopsy and surgical samples with metastatic involvement have increased; however, a comprehensive understanding of secondary tumors of the prostate is currently missing. Metastases to the prostate carry a dismal prognosis and may pose serious diagnostic challenges to both clinicians and pathologists, with crucial therapeutic implications. Secondary tumors of the prostate spread more frequently from the digestive tract, the lung, and the kidney. The integration of clinicor...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ex Vivo (Fluorescence) Confocal Microscopy in Surgical Pathology: State of the Art
First developed in 1957, confocal microscopy is a powerful imaging tool that can be used to obtain near real-time reflected light images of untreated human tissue with nearly histologic resolution. Besides its research applications, in the last decades, confocal microscopy technology has been proposed as a useful device to improve clinical diagnosis, especially in ophthalmology, dermatology, and endomicroscopy settings, thanks to advances in instrument development. Compared with the wider use of the in vivo tissue assessment, ex vivo applications of confocal microscopy are not fully explored. A comprehensive review of the ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Pathology of Acute Liver Failure
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare and severe liver disease that usually develops in 8 weeks or less in individuals without preexisting liver disease. Its chief causes worldwide are hepatitis virus infections (hepatitis A, B, and E) and drug hepatotoxicity (particularly intentional or unintentional acetaminophen toxicity). Massive hepatic necrosis is often seen in liver specimens in ALF and features marked loss of hepatocytes, variable degrees of inflammation, and a stereotypic proliferation of bile ductular structures (neocholangioles) derived from activated periportal hepatic progenitor cells. This paper reviews the liv...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Evaluating Intestinal Infections: A Systematic Approach
Endoscopic biopsies of the mucosa of the large and small intestines can present the pathologist with daunting challenges, in particular because of the breadth of the differential diagnosis, which may include neoplastic, ischemic, iatrogenic (notably medication related), autoimmune, idiopathic, and infectious entities. The purpose of the present study was to develop a logical and systematic approach to the diagnosis of mucosal infections by identifying several morphologic compartments in the intestinal mucosa, and establishing a differential diagnosis for the organisms that are associated with each compartment. The organism...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - April 13, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Book Review of “Biopsy Interpretation of the Liver”
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Laboratory Information Systems in Molecular Diagnostics: Why Molecular Diagnostics Data are Different
Molecular diagnostic testing presents new challenges to information management that are yet to be sufficiently addressed by currently available information systems for the molecular laboratory. These challenges relate to unique aspects of molecular genetic testing: molecular test ordering, informed consent issues, diverse specimen types that encompass the full breadth of specimens handled by traditional anatomic and clinical pathology information systems, data structures and data elements specific to molecular testing, varied testing workflows and protocols, diverse instrument outputs, unique needs and requirements of mole...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mobile Technology for the Practice of Pathology
Recently, several technological advances have been introduced to mobile phones leading some people to refer to them as “smartphones.” These changes have led to widespread consumer adoption. A similar adoption has occurred within the medical field and this revolution is changing the practice of medicine, including pathology. Several mobile applications have been published for dermatology, orthopedics, ophthalmology, neurosurgery, and clinical pathology. The applications are wide ranging, including mobile technology to increase patient engagement, self-monitoring by patients, clinical algorithm calculation, facil...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Patient Safety Curriculum for Anatomic Pathology Trainees: Recommendations Based on Institutional Experience
Because of the unique systems and skills involved in patient care by the pathologist, it is challenging to design and implement relevant training in patient safety for pathology trainees. We propose a patient safety curriculum for anatomic pathology (AP) residents based on our institutional experience. The Hospital of the University of the Pennsylvania employs a self-reporting safety database. The occurrences from July 2013 to June 2015 recorded in this system that involved the division of AP were reviewed and cataloged as preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic. The distribution of these occurrences was then used to creat...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Solitary Fibrous Tumor/Hemangiopericytoma Dichotomy Revisited: A Restless Family of Neoplasms in the CNS
This article focuses on the historical evolution of these 2 labels as primary CNS neoplasms, and reviews their differences and similarities in terms of clinical, pathologic, and molecular features. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The State of the Art in Colorectal Cancer Molecular Biomarker Testing
The number of molecular biomarkers to inform treatment decisions in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) continues to expand and with it the methodologies that can be employed to evaluate these biomarkers. Beyond standard diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, such as those used for Lynch syndrome, mutations in KRAS exon 2 are well established as predictive for lack of response to the antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapies panitumumab and cetuximab. Recent studies have extended these findings by demonstrating that mutations in KRAS exons 3 and 4 and in NRAS exons 2, 3, and 4 (with all KRAS and NRAS muta...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Laryngeal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: An Updated Review on Etiology, Classification, Molecular Changes, and Treatment
Laryngeal carcinogenesis is a multistep process, characterized by an accumulation of genetic changes associated with architectural and cytologic alterations, ranging from squamous hyperplasia to carcinoma in situ and encompassed by the terminology of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). The etiology, classification, genetic changes, and malignant progression of these lesions are reviewed. Tobacco remains the principal etiological factor with gastroesophageal reflux disease recently considered as a possible factor. In contrast, there is little evidence that microbiological agents, especially human papillomavirus infecti...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Updates in the Pathologic Diagnosis and Classification of Epithelial Neoplasms of Urachal Origin
Since the publication of the World Health Organization “blue book” in 2004, several recent studies have provided new insights on the pathologic aspects of urachal neoplasms. The proposed updates include modified criteria for the diagnosis of urachal carcinoma. A uniform nomenclature for cystic tumors was lacking, and it is recommended that urachal mucinous cystic tumors should be separated and classified in a manner similar to ovarian mucinous neoplasms. The spectrum includes mucinous cystadenoma, mucinous cystic tumor of low malignant potential, mucinous cystic tumor of low malignant potential with intraepithe...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - February 8, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Recent Developments in Non–HPV-related Adenocarcinomas of the Lower Female Genital Tract and Their Precursors
Most adenocarcinomas in the lower female genital tract (cervix, vagina, vulva) arise in the cervix and are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, there is an emerging spectrum of non–HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas, the most common of which is so-called gastric type. In this review, the concept of gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas and their possible precursor lesions is covered, the precursor lesions still being poorly understood. Other non–HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas are also discussed, including new information regarding molecular events in mesonephric adeno...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Origin of Epithelial Neoplasms of the Ovary: An Alternative View
Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin of epithelial neoplasms of the ovary. However, most of them did not receive serious consideration until recently when it has been proposed that most ovarian neoplasms arise from the fallopian tube. In this review, we mention the different theories, we discuss in detail the fallopian tube theory, and the reasons why this theory is probably inaccurate. We are also proposing a new theory, the fere ex nihilo, based on the observation of numerous cases, old and new concept, and experimental works with animals. We believe that, most probably, ovarian epithelial neoplasms ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Epithelioid Sarcoma: Diagnostic Features and Genetics
Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a rare, aggressive soft-tissue neoplasm of uncertain differentiation, characterized by nodular aggregates of epithelioid cells, which are immunoreactive to cytokeratins (CKs) and epithelial membrane antigen, and often for CD34. It has a propensity for multifocal disease at presentation, local recurrence, and regional metastasis. These are aggressive neoplasms with particularly poor prognosis after regional or distant metastatic disease, for which surgical resection is still the mainstay of treatment, and options for patients with metastatic disease remain undefined. There are 2 distinct variants...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma: Updates on Morphology, Genetics, and Therapeutic Strategies
Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDL) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDL) form the largest subgroup of liposarcomas, and represent a morphologic and behavioral spectrum of 1 disease entity, which arises typically in middle to late adult life, most frequently within the retroperitoneum or extremities. DDL is defined as nonlipogenic sarcoma that is juxtaposed to WDL, occurs as a recurrence of WDL or which can arise de novo, and typically has the appearance of undifferentiated pleomorphic or spindle cell sarcoma. DDL have a propensity for local recurrence, whereas distant metastasis is rarer, and behavior is related to ana...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Update on Thin Melanoma: Outcome of an International Workshop
The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a 1-day Workshop of the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group, which was devoted to thin melanoma. The definitions and histologic criteria for thin melanoma were reviewed. The principal differential diagnostic problems mentioned included the distinction of thin melanoma from nevi, especially from nevi of special site, irritated nevi, inflamed and regressing nevi, and dysplastic nevi. Histologic criteria for this analysis were discussed and the importance of clinico-pathologic correlation, especially in acral sites, was emphasized. Criteria for the minimal def...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update
Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from meta...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

CTNNB1 (β-Catenin)-altered Neoplasia: A Review Focusing on Soft Tissue Neoplasms and Parenchymal Lesions of Uncertain Histogenesis
β-catenin (CTNNB1) is a key regulatory molecule of the Wnt signaling pathway, which is important for tissue homeostasis and regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Abnormal stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin as a consequence of missense mutations or alternative molecular mechanisms occurs at a high frequency in a variety of epithelial cancers. In mesenchymal neoplasia, the role of β-catenin has been traditionally considered limited to desmoid-type fibromatosis. However, the spectrum of β-catenin-driven (β-catenin-altered) neoplasia of mesenchymal origin has...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - December 9, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Selected Case From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide: Massive Localized Lymphedema in Morbid Obesity Complicated by a Nonspecific Subcutaneous Abscess
A 59-year-old morbidly obese female developed an ulcerated, slowly growing, 25 cm, subcutaneous, pendulous mass in the right groin which became infected and was excised in January 2014. The excised skin and subcutaneous fat weighed 1901 g. The skin exhibited a cobblestone appearance, the dermis was thickened and edematous, and the subcutaneous fat was traversed by fibrous septae. Histologically, there were dilated, thin-walled vessels, perivascular chronic inflammatory cells, slightly atypical macrophages, and expanded subcutaneous fibrous septae surrounding degenerating adipocytes resembling lipoblasts. Nearly all the Clu...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Principles of Analytic Validation of Clinical Immunohistochemistry Assays
All assays performed in anatomic and clinical pathology laboratories must be validated before they are placed into clinical service. This review summarizes strategies for validation of clinical immunohistochemistry assays, and is chiefly based on the recently released guideline released by The College of American Pathologists. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Mycosis Fungoides, Then and Now… Have We Travelled?
Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common type of cutaneous lymphoma, accounting for almost 50% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. When initially described, it was believed to be a distinct clinical entity with a pathognomonic histopathologic picture. Through the years we have come to know that, like syphilis, MF is a great masquerader and can present clinically and histopathologically in many ways. This review is an attempt to cover the many faces of MF that have evolved through the years. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Primary Pulmonary Lymphomas
Primary lung lymphoma (PLL) is a rare disease that comprises (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Patterns of Invasion of Cervical Adenocarcinoma as Predicators of Outcome
In this review, a recently published pattern-based risk stratification system of endocervical adenocarcinoma (EAC) is presented. This novel system evaluates the morphologic features of the tumor and establishes patterns that are associated with a particular tumor behavior. Patients with pattern A EAC do not develop lymph node metastasis, and therefore avoiding lymph node resection in these patients should be considered. These patients also have stage I tumors and conservative surgery would be beneficial to decrease morbidity. Patients with pattern B tumors rarely show metastases to lymph nodes, only if there is lymphovascu...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Applications of Molecular Markers in Bone Tumors
Pathologic diagnosis of primary bone neoplasms can be challenging primarily due to rarity of the disease entities, overlapping imaging and histologic findings, and lack of tumor-specific immunohistochemical stains. Although slow to evolve, in recent years there has been a rapid advance in the discovery of new and novel molecular markers in primary bone neoplasms, which has enhanced diagnostic accuracy and has shed light into their pathogenesis. Modern technological approaches such as next-generation sequencing including RNA sequencing are serving as “rapid discovery platforms” for new and novel mutations and tr...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - October 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Do No Harm: Stories of Life, Death, and Brain Surgery
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Selected Case From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Club: Polypoid Endometriosis in the Pouch of Douglas in a Perimenopausal Woman
A 50-year-old female had a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, ovarian and cervical endometriosis. Nine months later, organ imaging revealed a 43×74×52 mm, apparently malignant extraperitoneal mass lying between the vagina and rectum. The patient had been receiving a progestogen. Preoperative needle biopsies were interpreted as recurrent endometriosis. The mass was easily excised and sections were interpreted as polypoid endometriosis with a decidual reaction and foci of necrosis. Slides circulated to the club were from the excised specimen. The majority agreed ...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Customizing Laboratory Information Systems: Closing the Functionality Gap
Highly customizable laboratory information systems help to address great variations in laboratory workflows, typical in Pathology. Often, however, built-in customization tools are not sufficient to add all of the desired functionality and improve systems interoperability. Emerging technologies and advances in medicine often create a void in functionality that we call a functionality gap. These gaps have distinct characteristics—a persuasive need to change the way a pathology group operates, the general availability of technology to address the missing functionality, the absence of this technology from your laboratory...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Update on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System: What the Pathologist Needs to Know
This article reviews the basic concepts of LI-RADS, emphasizing aspects that are most relevant to pathologists, including the categories, diagnostic algorithm, major features, and ancillary features for the diagnosis of HCC. The similarities and differences between LI-RADS and other major radiology-based diagnostic systems in terms of target population, intended users, categorization of observations, and imaging methods are addressed. Importantly, LI-RADS and other systems are designed to diagnose progressed HCC with high specificity and modest sensitivity. LI-RADS and other systems are not designed to detect early HCC and...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Triple-negative Breast Carcinoma: Morphologic and Molecular Subtypes
This report summarizes the pathologic subtypes of breast cancer that are commonly of a triple-negative immunophenotype and recent molecular advances in this field. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

New Guideline for the Reporting of Studies Developing, Validating, or Updating a Multivariable Clinical Prediction Model: The TRIPOD Statement
Prediction models are developed to aid health care providers in estimating the probability that a specific outcome or disease is present (diagnostic prediction models) or will occur in the future (prognostic prediction models), to inform their decision making. Prognostic models here also include models to predict treatment outcomes or responses; in the cancer literature often referred to as predictive models. Clinical prediction models have become abundant. Pathology measurement or results are frequently included as predictors in such prediction models, certainly in the cancer domain. Only when full information on all aspe...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer
We described heterogeneity that exists at all levels—clinical, histologic, and molecular—and briefly outline the strategies that have been used by clinicians and pathologists to tackle this complicated issue. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas: An Update on Recent Molecular Genetic Advances and Criteria for Malignancy
Pheochromocytomas are uncommon neuroendocrine tumors arising in the adrenal medulla, whereas paragangliomas arise from chromaffin cells in sympathetic and parasympathetic locations outside of the adrenal gland. Molecular genetic studies in the past few years have identified>10 genes involved in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, including RET oncogene, involved in the pathogenesis of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A and 2B, von Hippel-Lindau tumor-suppressor gene, neurofibromatosis type 1 gene, succinate dehydrogenase, THEM127, and several others. The presence of genetic alterations in some o...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - August 13, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Differential Diagnosis of Renal Tumors with Papillary Architecture: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Pitfalls in the Biopsy Diagnosis of Intraoral Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Diagnostic Considerations and Recommended Approach
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

The Quest for Diagnosis of Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms From Biopsy
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Cutaneous Soft Tissue Tumors
No abstract available (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Selected Cases From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Series: Granular Cell Nevus of Congenital Type: A Melanocytic Proliferation Exhibiting Distinct Morphologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Features
A case of combined melanocytic nevus characterized by extensive granular cytoplasmic changes is described. Clinically, the lesion presented as an irregular, slightly asymmetric, and raised pigmented lesion of back with indistinct borders. Microscopically, a congenital pattern of distribution of melanocytes could be recognized growing along follicular and adnexal units. Melanocytes were arranged in sheets of epithelioid cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. A minor component featuring conventional dermal melanocytes was also present. Mitotic figures were not recognized. Immunohistochemistry was positive for Melan A and S1...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: AMR Series Source Type: research

Pathology to Enhance Precision Medicine in Oncology: Lessons From Landscape Ecology
A major goal of modern medicine is increasing patient specificity so that the right treatment is administered to the right patient at the right time with the right dose. While current cancer studies have largely focused on identification of genetic or epigenetic properties of tumor cells, emerging evidence has clearly demonstrated substantial genetic heterogeneity between tumors in the same patient and within subclones of a single tumor. Thus, molecular analysis from populations of cells (either a whole tumor or small biopsy of that tumor) is, at best, an incomplete representation of the underlying biology. These observati...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Differential Diagnostic Considerations of Desmoid-type Fibromatosis
Fibrous and myofibroblastic tumors of soft tissue often present the surgical pathologist with a difficult differential diagnosis because of the number of diagnostic possibilities and morphologic similarities among cytologically bland spindle-cell tumors. Prototypical in this regard is desmoid-type fibromatosis. In a review of 320 surgical specimens diagnosed as desmoid tumor, 94 (29%) were discovered to be misclassified as such. The most common lesions in this series were Gardner fibroma, scar tissue, superficial fibromatosis, nodular fasciitis, myofibroma, and collagenous fibroma. Four sarcomas were also misinterpreted as...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Composite Hemangioendothelioma: Clinical and Histologic Features of an Enigmatic Entity
Composite hemangioendotheliomas are rare vascular neoplasms of intermediate biological potential, characterized by a complex admixture of benign, low-grade malignant, and malignant vascular components. They can affect both adults and children, and occur predominantly as long-standing lesions in the dermis and subcutis of the extremities, but have also been increasingly reported at other sites, including the oral cavity and in viscera such as kidney and spleen. These usually behave in a low-grade manner, with a relatively high rate of local recurrence and rarely lymph node and distant metastases, but no tumor-related deaths...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors: An Update
This article is aimed at increasing awareness and providing an overview of malignant sweat gland tumors with emphasis on recently reported and novel findings and diagnostically challenging and potentially underrecognized entities. It further aims to illustrate the wide morphologic range of these tumors and provides a discussion of the relevant immunohistochemistry, disease-specific behavior, and differential diagnosis. (Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology)
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - June 10, 2015 Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research