Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Inhibits GnRH synthesis and Spermatogenesis in the Male Zebrafish.
Abstract Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used antidepressants for the treatment of depression. However, SSRIs cause sexual side effects such as anorgasmia, erectile dysfunction and diminished libido which are thought to be mediated through the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. In vertebrates, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play an important role in the control of reproduction. To elucidate the neuroendocrine mechanisms of SSRI induced reproductive failure, we examined the neuronal association between 5-HT and GnRH (GnRH2 and GnRH3) systems in the male zebrafish...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - July 8, 2015 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Prasad P, Ogawa S, Parhar IS Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research

Evaluation of Changes in Citalopram Prescribing Patterns Following a US Food and Drug Administration Alert: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Conclusions: The issuance of an FDA warning did not produce observable changes in prescribing patterns of citalopram. Modifiable risk factors and optimal dosing may be targets of interventions aimed at promoting safer use of citalopram. PMID: 26137354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders)
Source: The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders - July 3, 2015 Category: Primary Care Tags: Prim Care Companion CNS Disord Source Type: research

Initial Severity Effects on Residual Symptoms in Response and Remission: A STAR*D Study During and After Failed Citalopram Treatment
Abstract: The effects of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms based on response or remission periods, and during and after failed response to citalopram in major depressive disorder are unknown. STAR*D data during and after failed citalopram treatment were reanalyzed to examine the effect of initial severity on the time to and course of residual symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Report (QIDS-SR). During and after failed citalopram treatment, Cox regression and Generalized Estimating Equation models were computed to examine mild and moderate residual sympto...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology - July 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

A Systematic Evaluation of the QTc Interval and Antidepressants in Youth: An Electronic Health Record Study
This study aimed to assess how antidepressants affect QTc intervals in children. The authors hypothesized that some antidepressants would show an association with QTc prolongation. Methods: An electronic medical record review was conducted of children aged 5 to 18 years in the Partners Healthcare system with at least 1 prescription of an antidepressant or methadone between February 1990 and August 2011. The authors extracted lifetime diagnoses and QTc interval of patients who had received an electrocardiogram 14 to 90 days after antidepressant or methadone prescription (N = 297). The mean QTc per medication was calculated ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - July 1, 2015 Category: Child Development Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Dissociable Effects of Serotonin and Dopamine on the Valuation of Harm in Moral Decision Making.
Abstract An aversion to harming others is a core component of human morality and is disturbed in antisocial behavior [1-4]. Deficient harm aversion may underlie instrumental and reactive aggression, which both feature in psychopathy [5]. Past work has highlighted monoaminergic influences on aggression [6-11], but a mechanistic account of how monoamines regulate antisocial motives remains elusive. We previously observed that most people show a greater aversion to inflicting pain on others than themselves [12]. Here, we investigated whether this hyperaltruistic disposition is susceptible to monoaminergic control. We...
Source: Current Biology - July 1, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: Crockett MJ, Siegel JZ, Kurth-Nelson Z, Ousdal OT, Story G, Frieband C, Grosse-Rueskamp JM, Dayan P, Dolan RJ Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Rates of Anomalous Bupropion Prescriptions in Ontario, Canada.
Abstract PURPOSE: Reports of bupropion misuse have increased since it was first reported in 2002. The purpose of this study was to explore trends in bupropion prescribing suggestive of misuse or diversion in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional study was conducted of Ontarians aged younger than 65 years who received prescriptions under Ontario's public drug program from April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2013. We determined the number of potentially inappropriate prescriptions in each quarter, defined as early refills dispensed within 50% of the duration of the preceding prescription, as well as potent...
Source: Annals of Family Medicine - July 1, 2015 Category: Primary Care Authors: Steele LS, Macdonald EM, Gomes T, Hollands S, Paterson JM, Mamdani MM, Juurlink DN, Canadian Drug Safety and Effectiveness Research Network Tags: Ann Fam Med Source Type: research

Comparing Gabapentin with Clonazepam for Residual Sleeping Problems following Antidepressant Therapy in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusion This study revealed that gabapentin is comparable to clonazepam for treating sleeping problems associated with major depression. (Source: Clinical Drug Investigation)
Source: Clinical Drug Investigation - June 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Quantitative ROESY analysis of computational models: structural studies of citalopram and β-cyclodextrin complexes by (1) H-NMR and computational methods.
Quantitative ROESY analysis of computational models: structural studies of citalopram and β-cyclodextrin complexes by (1) H-NMR and computational methods. Magn Reson Chem. 2015 Jul;53(7):526-35 Authors: Ali SM, Shamim S Abstract Complexation of racemic citalopram with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) in aqueous medium was investigated to determine atom-accurate structure of the inclusion complexes. (1) H-NMR chemical shift change data of β-CD cavity protons in the presence of citalopram confirmed the formation of 1 : 1 inclusion complexes. ROESY spectrum confirmed the presence o...
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry : MRC - June 27, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ali SM, Shamim S Tags: Magn Reson Chem Source Type: research

Serum DHEAS levels are associated with the development of depression
The aim of study was to evaluate the association between serum DHEAS levels and depression with a case-control study together with a meta-analysis. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was performed to measure the serum DHEAS levels of all participants before and after treatment. Depression Patients were divided into mild depression and severe depression based on Hamilton depression scale (HAMD24) and received 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and citalopram (20mg/d) for 8 weeks. Case-control studies related to our study theme were enrolled for meta-analysis and Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0) was used for statistical analysis. (Sour...
Source: Psychiatry Research - June 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Guang Zhu, You Yin, Chun-Lan Xiao, Rong-Jie Mao, Bo-Hai Shi, Yong Jie, Zuo-Wei Wang Source Type: research

Improving response inhibition systems in frontotemporal dementia with citalopram
Disinhibition is a cardinal feature of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia, presenting as impulsive and impetuous behaviours that are often difficult to manage. The options for symptomatic treatments are limited, but a potential target for therapy is the restoration of serotonergic function, which is both deficient in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and closely associated with inhibitory control. Based on preclinical studies and psychopharmacological interventions in other disorders, we predicted that inhibition would be associated with the right inferior frontal gyrus and dependent on serotonin....
Source: Brain - June 23, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hughes, L. E., Rittman, T., Regenthal, R., Robbins, T. W., Rowe, J. B. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pharmacological Management of Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: High-level evidence related to pharmacological strategies for managing Lewy body dementia is rare. Strategies for important areas of need in Lewy body dementia, such as autonomic symptoms and caregiver burden, have not been investigated, nor have the views of patients and caregivers about pharmacological strategies. PMID: 26085043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - June 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stinton C, McKeith I, Taylor JP, Lafortune L, Mioshi E, Mak E, Cambridge V, Mason J, Thomas A, O'Brien JT Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Determination of chiral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and sludge using microwave assisted extraction, solid-phase extraction and chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
Abstract This is the first study presenting a multi-residue method allowing for comprehensive analysis of several chiral pharmacologically active compounds (cPACs) including beta-blockers, antidepressants and amphetamines in wastewater and digested sludge at the enantiomeric level. Analysis of both the liquid and solid matrices within wastewater treatment is crucial to being able to carry out mass balance within these systems. The method developed comprises filtration, microwave assisted extraction and solid phase extraction followed by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to analyse ...
Source: Analytica Chimica Acta - June 7, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Evans SE, Davies P, Lubben A, Kasprzyk-Hordern B Tags: Anal Chim Acta Source Type: research

Sexual dysfunction during treatment of major depressive disorder with vilazodone, citalopram, or placebo: results from a phase IV clinical trial
Sexual dysfunction commonly occurs with major depressive disorder (MDD). Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist antidepressant approved for the treatment of MDD in adults, was evaluated to determine its effects on sexual function. The primary study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day with placebo; citalopram 40 mg/day was an active control (NCT01473381; ). Post-hoc analyses evaluated change from baseline to week 10 on the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ); no infe...
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - June 5, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for fibromyalgia syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no unbiased evidence that SSRIs are superior to placebo in treating the key symptoms of fibromyalgia, namely pain, fatigue and sleep problems. SSRIs might be considered for treating depression in people with fibromyalgia. The black box warning for increased suicidal tendency in young adults aged 18 to 24, with major depressive disorder, who have taken SSRIs, should be considered when appropriate. PMID: 26046493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - June 5, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Walitt B, Urrútia G, Nishishinya MB, Cantrell SE, Häuser W Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Treatment of chronic insomnia disorder in menopause: evaluation of literature
Conclusions: Although a variety of interventions are shown to be helpful in improving sleep in menopause, there is a need for well-designed head-to-head trials with uniform outcome measures. (Source: Menopause)
Source: Menopause - May 29, 2015 Category: OBGYN Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Interactive effects of citalopram and serotonin transporter genotype on neural correlates of response inhibition and attentional orienting
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:NeuroImage, Volume 116 Author(s): Adrian G. Fischer , Tanja Endrass , Ingrid Goebel , Martin Reuter , Christian Montag , Christian Kubisch , Markus Ullsperger The brain's serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in controlling impulsive behavior and attentional orienting and linked to impulse control and anxiety related disorders. However, interactions between genotypical variation and responses to serotonergic drugs impede both treatment efficacy and neuroscientific research. We examine behavioral and electrophysiological responses to acute intravenous administration of a sel...
Source: NeuroImage - May 25, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Role of the serotonin transporter gene locus in the response to SSRI treatment of major depressive disorder in late life
It has been suggested that the serotonin or 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) and its gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) response modulators in late-life depression (LLD), and particularly in late-life major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous studies differed in design and results. Our study aimed to investigate the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter and serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) gene locus, encoding 5-HTT and SSRI treatment response in late-life MDD. For a prospective cohort study, we enrolled 234 patients with late-life MDD to be...
Source: Journal of Psychopharmacology - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Seripa, D., Pilotto, A., Paroni, G., Fontana, A., D'Onofrio, G., Gravina, C., Urbano, M., Cascavilla, L., Paris, F., Panza, F., Padovani, A., Pilotto, A. Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

Adding methylphenidate to antidepressant improves response in elderly patients
Use of methylphenidate in combination with citalopram improved response to the antidepressant in a placebo‐controlled study of 143 elderly outpatients, a new study has concluded. Augmentation of the antidepressant with the stimulant medication did not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive function, counter to researchers' expectations. Study results were published online Feb. 13, 2015, in the American Journal of Psychiatry. (Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update)
Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update - May 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Geriatric Psychiatry Source Type: research

No difference between citalopram plus naltrexone, naltrexone alone for depression with alcohol use
Adding the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram to naltrexone and clinical case management for patients with co‐occurring major depression and alcohol dependence did not result in significant improvement over placebo in a study of 138 adults. Both the citalopram and placebo groups experienced substantial improvements in mood and drinking outcomes in the 12‐week study. (Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update)
Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update - May 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: What's New in Research Source Type: research

The effects of gestational stress and SSRI antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain - a translational model for postpartum depression.
Abstract Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Although the neural basis of PPD remains unknown previous research in rats has shown that gestational stress, a risk factor for PPD, induces depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period. Moreover, the effect of gestational stress on postpartum mood is accompanied by structural modifications within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - limbic regions that have been linked to PPD. Mothers diagnosed with PPD are often prescribed selective serotonin r...
Source: Hormones and Behavior - May 18, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Haim A, Albin-Brooks C, Sherer M, Mills E, Leuner B Tags: Horm Behav Source Type: research

Effect of serotonin transporter blockade on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: 9 July 2015 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 298 Author(s): C. Fidalgo , W.K.D. Ko , E. Tronci , Q. Li , R. Stancampiano , Q. Chuan , E. Bezard , M. Carta Serotonin transporter blockade with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was recently shown to counteract L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. However, this effect has never been described in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, despite that they often receive SSRIs for the treatment of depression. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of the SSRI citalopram against dyskinesia in two experimenta...
Source: Neuroscience - May 16, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guideline for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes and Dosing of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25974703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - May 13, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hicks JK, Bishop JR, Sangkuhl K, Müller DJ, Ji Y, Leckband SG, Leeder JS, Graham RL, Chiulli DL, LLerena A, Skaar TC, Scott SA, Stingl JC, Klein TE, Caudle KE, Gaedigk A Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research

Effects of lisdexamfetamine alone and in combination with s‐citalopram on acetylcholine and histamine efflux in the rat prefrontal cortex and ventral hippocampus
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - May 6, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peter H. Hutson, Mariette S. Heins, Joost H.A. Folgering Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Serotonin‐Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in Older Adults: A Network Meta‐Analysis
ConclusionThere was clear evidence of the effectiveness of sertraline, paroxetine, and duloxetine. There also appears to be a hierarchy of safety associated with the different antidepressants, although there appears to be a dearth of reporting of safety outcomes. (Source: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society)
Source: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society - May 6, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Kristian Thorlund, Eric Druyts, Ping Wu, Chakrapani Balijepalli, Denis Keohane, Edward Mills Tags: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the role of NMDA receptor function in antidepressant-like activity. A new study with citalopram and fluoxetine in the forced swim test in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: The present literature data indicate that the antidepressant-like activity of conventional antidepressants is generally affected by the NMDA receptor, although by modulation from different sites of the complex. Thus, it supports the issue of the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to enhance the antidepressant action in human depression. PMID: 25933959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - May 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wolak M, Siwek A, Szewczyk B, Poleszak E, Bystrowska B, Moniczewski A, Rutkowska A, Młyniec K, Nowak G Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Allelic variation in 5-HTTLPR and the effects of citalopram on the emotional neural network [PAPERS]
Conclusions Our combined pharmacogenetic and functional imaging results provide a neurogenetic mechanism for discrepant acute effects of SSRIs. (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry - May 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ma, Y., Li, B., Wang, C., Zhang, W., Rao, Y., Han, S. Tags: PAPERS Source Type: research

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for the prevention of tension-type headache in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Since the last version of this review, the new included studies have not added high quality evidence to support the use of SSRIs or venlafaxine (a SNRI) as preventive drugs for tension-type headache. Over two months of treatment, SSRIs or venlafaxine are no more effective than placebo or amitriptyline in reducing headache frequency in patients with chronic tension-type headache. SSRIs seem to be less effective than tricyclic antidepressants in terms of intake of analgesic medications. Tricyclic antidepressants are associated with more adverse events; however, this did not cause a greater number of withdrawals....
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - May 1, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Banzi R, Cusi C, Randazzo C, Sterzi R, Tedesco D, Moja L Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Psychotropic Pharmacotherapy Associated With Qt Prolongation Among Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
In 2012, the FDA issued Drug Safety Communications on several drugs associated with QT prolongation and fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Among these was citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As minimal research has assessed drug-related QT prolongation in patients with severe mental illnesses, this study explores psychotropic drugs associated with QT prolongation among Veterans diagnosed with PTSD. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - May 1, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: E.M. Stock, J.E. Zeber, C.J. McNeal, J.E. Banchs, L.A. Copeland Source Type: research

Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the heart‐rate corrected QT interval in a real‐life setting: the population‐based Rotterdam Study
ConclusionsAlthough no SSRI class effect was observed, use of citalopram was associated with a longer QTcF, even after considering the recommended restrictions. Other SSRIs may not give a clinically relevant QTcF prolongation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - May 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nevena M. Maljuric, Raymond Noordam, Nikkie Aarts, Maartje N. Niemeijer, Marten E. Berg, Albert Hofman, Jan A. Kors, Bruno H. Stricker, Loes E. Visser Tags: Drug safety Source Type: research

Nonhormonal strategies for hot flushes
A wide choice is available for women who do not wish to use estrogen. Paroxetine, fluoxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine have been found to be effective in several studies. In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved paroxetine to treat moderate to severe hot flashes (vasomotor symptoms) associated with menopause. Clonidine is a centrally acting alpha-adrenoceptor agonist that was developed originally for the treatment of hypertension. It is licensed for the treatment of hot flushes in some countries. (Source: Maturitas)
Source: Maturitas - April 21, 2015 Category: Primary Care Authors: Margaret Rees Tags: INV2 Source Type: research

Sex-specific effects of chronic antidepressant treatment in middle-aged rats: impact of citalopram on cognition and depressive-like behaviors
Aging and the menopausal transition are each associated with affective disorders such as depression and anxiety, which is often co-morbid with cognitive impairment amongst elderly patients. Of note, women are more vulnerable to both cognitive and affective disorders than men. Antidepressants, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly prescribed to alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. Although the antidepressant effects of SSRIs in adults have been characterized, antidepressant and cognitive effects in the aged population are not well understood, especially regarding potential sex d...
Source: Maturitas - April 21, 2015 Category: Primary Care Authors: Ryoko Hiroi, Alicia M. Quihuis, Courtney N. Lavery, Steven J. Granger, Giulia Weyrich, Heather A. Bimonte-Nelson Tags: P42 Source Type: research

Vilazodone for the treatment of major depressive disorder: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy
David J Hellerstein,1,2 Joseph Flaxer11Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 2New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USAIntroduction: It has clearly been demonstrated that depressive disorders constitute a major worldwide public health problem, with massive economic and quality-of-life consequences. Existing pharmacological treatments have limited efficacy, with only about a third of patients achieving remission on any one medication. Delayed onset of action and variable tolerability contribute to this limited efficacy. Vilazodone, introduced in the US in 2011, has been described as the first member o...
Source: Core Evidence - April 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Core Evidence Source Type: research

Fingolimod first-dose effects in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis concomitantly receiving selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2015 Source:Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Author(s): R. Bermel , R. Hashmonay , X. Meng , S. Randhawa , P. von Rosenstiel , N. Sfikas , D. Kantor Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), commonly administered for depression and anxiety in patients with multiple sclerosis, are associated with QT interval prolongation. Fingolimod (FTY720; Gilenya®, Novartis Pharma AG) is a first-in-class sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator approved for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod first-dose administration is associated with a transient, generall...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - April 17, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sex dependent reduction by prenatal stress of the expression of 5HT1A receptors in the prefrontal cortex and CRF type 2 receptors in the raphe nucleus in rats: reversal by citalopram
Conclusions Male and female rats show differences in the expression of 5HT1AR and CRFR2 protein that are selectively reduced by prenatal stress. Reversal by citalopram of the changes in the expression of these receptors induced by prenatal stress support their role in the aetiology of anxiety. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - April 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Trazodone induced galactorrhea: A case report
This report describes a unique case of the development of galactorrhea following the addition of trazodone (100 mg/day, 2 weeks) to the treatment of a patient who was receiving citalopram (40 mg/day, 6 weeks) therapy for a diagnosis of depressive disorder, which improved upon the discontinuation of trazodone. (Source: General Hospital Psychiatry)
Source: General Hospital Psychiatry - April 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Filiz Civil Arslan, Emel Korkmaz Uysal, Evrim Ozkorumak, Ahmet Tiryaki Source Type: research

TALOS: a multicenter, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial to test the effects of citalopram in patients with acute stroke
DiscussionSSRI treatment is well tolerated and overall beneficial in the wake of stroke; it may also be neuroprotective and prevent new vascular events. (Source: International Journal of Stroke)
Source: International Journal of Stroke - April 8, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Kristian Lundsgaard Kraglund, Janne Kaergaard Mortensen, Erik Lerkevang Grove, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Grethe Andersen Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

Olanzapine augments the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by suppressing GABAergic inhibition via antagonism of 5-HT6 receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus.
Abstract The combination of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and atypical antipsychotic drugs shows better therapeutic efficacy than SSRI monotherapy in the treatment of depression. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the augmenting effects of olanzapine are not fully understood. Here, we report that olanzapine enhances the SSRI-induced increase in extracellular serotonin (5-HT) levels and antidepressant-like effects by inhibiting GABAergic neurons through 5-HT6 receptor antagonism in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). In organotypic raphe slice cultures, treatment with olanzapine (1...
Source: Neuropharmacology - April 8, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Asaoka N, Nagayasu K, Nishitani N, Yamashiro M, Shirakawa H, Nakagawa T, Kaneko S Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Fluoxetine and S-citalopram inhibit M1 activation and promote M2 activation of microglia in vitro
Publication date: 21 May 2015 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 294 Author(s): F. Su , H. Yi , L. Xu , Z. Zhang Increasing evidence has suggested that microglia dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Both classical activation (M1 activation) and alternative activation (M2 activation) may be involved in the process. M1-activated microglia secrete various pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic mediators, which may contribute to the development of depression, while M2-activated microglia promote tissue reconstruction by releasing anti-inflammatory cytokines involved in the process of depression....
Source: Neuroscience - April 6, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A role for profiles of patient-specific depression characteristics and socioeconomic factors in the prediction of antidepressant treatment outcome.
Authors: Jain FA, Hunter AM, Leuchter AF, Brooks JO Abstract To the Editor: In their recent article "Prognostic Subgroups for Citalopram Response in the STAR*D Trial," Jakubovski and Bloch conclude that baseline socioeconomic variables "are likely to be more informative than routine clinical variables such as past medication response, duration and severity of illness, and comorbid psychiatric illnesses" in the prediction of citalopram treatment outcome. In particular, their assertion carries the curious implication that demographic factors are more strongly related to treatment response than pat...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - April 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research

OPRM1 genotype and naltrexone response in depressed alcohol-dependent patients
This study therefore failed to replicate the previous positive findings for this single nucleotide polymorphism in relation to naltrexone response, possibly indicating that the effect is not present in depressed patients. (Source: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics)
Source: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics - April 3, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Short Communications Source Type: research

Treating mood disorders in patients with a history of intestinal surgery: a systematic review
Bariatric surgery is increasingly being performed, with the intended benefits of significant and durable weight loss. Radical surgical resection can result in short bowel syndrome (SBS), a rare and devastating condition. Psychological distress is common in these patients. Relevant articles were identified by searching Pubmed and EMBASE databases with the following keywords: ‘Bariatrics’[Mesh] OR ‘Short Bowel Syndrome’ AND ‘Antidepressive Agents’ OR ‘Psychotropic Drugs’[Mesh]. One in-vitro study, four clinical studies and six relevant case reports were identified. Most clinica...
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - April 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Melatonin Interaction Resulting in Severe Sedation.
CONCLUSION: The adverse event was likely due to a primary pharmacokinetic interaction between melatonin and citalopram; although mechanistically, interactions affecting cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism may have occurred with all of these health products. A pharmacodynamic interaction may also be possible, but beyond the capacity of this study to establish.Key words: Melatonin, citalopram, nortriptyline, oxycodone, drug interaction. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID: 26158279 [P...
Source: J Pharm Pharm Sci - April 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Foster BC, Cvijovic K, Boon HS, Tam TW, Liu R, Murty M, Vu D, Jaeger W, Tsuyuki RT, Barnes J, Vohra S Tags: J Pharm Pharm Sci Source Type: research

Repeated ketamine administration redeems the time lag for citalopram's antidepressant-like effects.
Authors: Zhang GF, Liu WX, Qiu LL, Guo J, Wang XM, Sun HL, Yang JJ, Zhou ZQ Abstract Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats, and to determine whether ketamine can redeem the time lag ...
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - March 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research

Responses of cytochrome P450, GST, and MXR in the mollusk Corbicula fluminea to the exposure to hospital wastewater effluents.
P, Geret F Abstract Pharmaceutical products are a major group of chemical compounds that are continuously released into the environment. The primary pathway of pharmaceuticals to the aquatic environment is the discharge of wastewater effluents. The Psychiatric hospital of Montpon (Dordogne, France) operates with its wastewater treatment plant. We first evaluated the presence and concentrations of 27 pharmaceuticals compounds in these effluents. All of the 27 compounds were detected in these wastewater effluents at concentrations ranging between 37,500 ng L(-1) (paracetamol) and 150 ng L(-1) (c...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - March 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Bonnafé E, Sroda S, Budzinski H, Valière A, Pedelluc J, Marty P, Geret F Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Psychopharmacological characterisation of the successive negative contrast effect in rats
Conclusions These data suggest that the SNC effect is mediated, at least in part, by dopamine signalling. The SNC effect may also be attenuated by benzodiazepine anxiolytics. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - March 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

[Therapy of dementia with antipsychotics and antidepressives].
r L Abstract In dementia depressive symptoms, anxiety, hallucinations and delusions often occur and are accompanied by unspecific behavioral changes. A targeted pharmacotherapy is complicated by the underlying cognitive impairment and physical comorbidities. The current review focusses on recent evidence on the use of antidepressives and antipsychotics for psychotic disturbances, agitation and depression in dementia and analyzes currently published randomized controlled clinical trials and meta-analyses. The evidence on the use of antipsychotics for different indications favors risperidone, with lower evidence lev...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - March 20, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Frölich L, Hausner L Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Repeated ketamine administration redeems the time lag for citalopram's antidepressant-like effects
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015 Source:European Psychiatry Author(s): G.-F. Zhang , W.-X. Liu , L.-L. Qiu , J. Guo , X.-M. Wang , H.-L. Sun , J.-J. Yang , Z.-Q. Zhou Current available antidepressants exhibit low remission rate with a long response lag time. Growing evidence has demonstrated acute sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine exerts rapid, robust, and lasting antidepressant effects. However, a long term use of ketamine tends to elicit its adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant-like effects of intermittent and consecutive administrations of ketamine on chronic unpre...
Source: European Psychiatry - March 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cloning and Serotonergic Regulation of RING Finger Protein38 (rnf38) in the Brain of Medaka (Oryzias latipes)
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2015 Source:Neuroscience Author(s): Shogo Moriya , Nazmina Bahadur Khel , Ishwar S. Parhar Serotonin (5-HT) is a key regulator of mood and sexual behaviours. 5-HT reuptake inhibitors have been used as antidepressants. RING finger proteins have been associated with 5-HT regulation but their role remains largely unknown. Some RING finger proteins are involved in the serotonergic system, therefore, we speculate that the gene expression of rnf38 might be regulated by the serotonergic system. In the present study, we aimed to identify the full length sequence of medaka (Oryzias lati...
Source: Neuroscience - March 14, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Vitamin C as an adjuvant for treating major depressive disorder and suicidal behavior, a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial
Conclusion: Adding vitamin C to citalopram did not increase the efficacy of citalopram in MDD patients. Vitamin C plus citalopram is as effective as placebo plus citalopram for treating adult patients with suicidal behavior. No serious adverse effect for this combination was identified during this trial.Trial registrationThis trial was registered at The registration number of this trial was: IRCT201312263930N31. Date registered: 5 July 2014. (Source: Trials)
Source: Trials - March 14, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ali SahraianAhmad GhanizadehFereshteh Kazemeini Source Type: research

Allelic variation in 5-HTTLPR and the effects of citalopram on the emotional neural network.
Conclusions Our combined pharmacogenetic and functional imaging results provide a neurogenetic mechanism for discrepant acute effects of SSRIs. PMID: 25745133 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)
Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science - March 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Br J Psychiatry Source Type: research