Commentary on "When and How to Treat Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia With Citalopram and Escitalopram".
Commentary on "When and How to Treat Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia With Citalopram and Escitalopram". Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2019 May 27;: Authors: Pollock BG PMID: 31208921 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - June 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research

[ASAP] 8-OH-DPAT Induces Compulsive-like Deficit in Spontaneous Alternation Behavior: Reversal by MDMA but Not Citalopram
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00593 (Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience)
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - June 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Anna U. Odland †, Lea Jessen†, Ciara´n M. Fitzpatrick†‡, and Jesper T. Andreasen*† Source Type: research

A medium throughput rodent model of relapse from addiction with behavioral and pharmacological specificity
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and BehaviorAuthor(s): William J.A. Eiler, Scott D. Gleason, Jodi L. Smith, Jeffrey M. WitkinAbstractOne of most formidable problems in the treatment of addiction is the high rate of relapse. The discovery of medicines to help mitigate relapse are aided by animal models that currently involve weeks of training and require surgical preparations and drug delivery devices. The present set of experiments was initiated to investigate a rapid 8-day screening method that utilizes food instead of intravenous drug administration. Male Sprague-Dawley ra...
Source: Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior - June 15, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Optimal dose of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine in major depression: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: The Lancet PsychiatryAuthor(s): Toshi A Furukawa, Andrea Cipriani, Philip J Cowen, Stefan Leucht, Matthias Egger, Georgia SalantiSummaryBackgroundDepression is the single largest contributor to non-fatal health loss worldwide. Second-generation antidepressants are the first-line option for pharmacological management of depression. Optimising their use is crucial in reducing the burden of depression; however, debate about their dose dependency and their optimal target dose is ongoing. We have aimed to summarise the currently available best evidence to inform this clinica...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - June 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A randomised controlled trial assessing the use of citalopram, sertraline, fluoxetine and mirtazapine in preventing relapse in primary care patients who are taking long-term maintenance antidepressants (ANTLER: ANTidepressants to prevent reLapse in dEpRession): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
This article describes the protocol for a randomised c... (Source: Globalization and Health)
Source: Globalization and Health - June 3, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Larisa Duffy, Faye Bacon, Caroline S. Clarke, Yvonne Donkor, Nick Freemantle, Simon Gilbody, Rachael Hunter, Tony Kendrick, David Kessler, Michael King, Paul Lanham, Gemma Lewis, Dee Mangin, Louise Marston, Michael Moore, Irwin Nazareth & hellip; Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research

Psychoactive pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in coastal waters of North-Western Spain: Environmental exposure and risk assessment.
This study represents the first attempt at monitoring psychoactive pharmaceuticals (PaPs) (benzodiazepines and anxiolytics) and illicit drugs (IDs) in the Rías Baixas coastal area of Northwestern Spain, an area of economic and ecological relevance, leader in shellfish production. Fourteen PaPs and 9 IDs were detected in the water samples with venlafaxine (59%), benzoylecgonine (40%), EDDP (40%), and citalopram (36%) showing the highest detection frequencies. The highest concentrations were measured for venlafaxine (291 ng L-1), benzoylecgonine (142 ng L-1), lorazepam (95.9 ng L-1), and citalopram (92.5...
Source: Chemosphere - June 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Fernández-Rubio J, Rodríguez-Gil JL, Postigo C, Mastroianni N, López de Alda M, Barceló D, Valcárcel Y Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Citalopram Adjunctive to Stimulant Medication in Youth With Chronic Severe Irritability
Despite the clinical importance of chronic and severe irritability, there is a paucity of controlled trials for its pharmacological treatment. Here, we examine the effects of adding citalopram (CTP) to methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of chronic severe irritability in youth using a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled design. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - May 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kenneth Towbin, Pablo Vidal-Ribas, Melissa A. Brotman, Andrew Pickles, Katherine V. Miller, Ariela Kaiser, Aria D. Vitale, Chana Engel, Gerald P. Overman, Mollie Davis, Beth Lee, Cheri McNeil, Wanda Wheeler, Catherine H. Yokum, Catherine T. Haring, Alexan Tags: New Research Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms of expectancy-based placebo effects in antidepressant clinical trials
ConclusionsResults from this study, the first designed to identify the neural mechanisms of expectancy augmentation in an antidepressant randomized control trial, suggest that therapeutic modulation of amygdala activity may be an important pathway by which patient outcome expectancy influences depressive symptoms.Clinicaltrials.gov identifierNCT01919216; Trial name: Placebo Effects in the Treatment of Depression: Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01919216 (Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research)
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - May 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Commentary on “When and How to treat agitation in Alzheimer's disease dementia with citalopram and escitalopram”
Agitation is one of the most distressing manifestations of dementia and is associated with additional disability, increased burden to caregivers and premature admission to long-term care facilities.1 Optimal management includes the search for and treatment of physical and environmental precipitants as well as psychosocial interventions involving caregivers. Nevertheless, symptomatic treatment with a psychotropic medication is frequently required. The article by Dr. Aga in this issue of the journal 2 provides a thorough review on the current use of citalopram and escitalopram to treat agitation that frequently accompanies d...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - May 27, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Bruce G. Pollock Tags: Invited Perspective Source Type: research

Cholinergic and serotonergic modulation of resting state functional brain connectivity in Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Bernadet L. Klaassens, Joop M.A. van Gerven, Erica S. Klaassen, Jeroen van der Grond, Serge A.R.B. RomboutsAbstractDisruption of cholinergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems is associated with cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate the responsiveness of these systems in AD we measured the effects of a single-dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine in 12 patients with AD and 12 age-matched controls on functional brain conne...
Source: NeuroImage - May 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

T126. Short- Vs Medium + Long-Chain Plasma Acylcarnitine in Phenotypes of Major Depression at Baseline and After Citalopram/Escitalopram Treatment
Metabolic signatures that align with depression phenotypes could better characterize the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and its heterogeneity. We aimed to identify metabolomic markers of MDD phenotypes and their change after SSRI-treatment. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - May 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ahmed T. Ahmed, Siamak Mahmoudian Dehkordi, Sudeepa Bhattacharyya, Matthias Arnold, Gregory Louie, Boadie Dunlop, Liewei Wang, Richard Weinshilboum, Ranga Krishnan, William V. Bobo, Patricio Riva Posse, W. Edward Craighead, William McDonald, Michelle K. S Source Type: research

When and How to Treat Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease Dementia with Citalopram and Escitalopram
Agitation is a common neuropsychiatric symptom (NPS) in the early and middle stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, which is difficult to treat and causes much distress. The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) put out black box warnings against the use of antipsychotics in dementia in 2005 and 2008 due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality, resulting in a reduction in antipsychotic use for treating dementia-related NPS and spurring the quest for safer and more effective pharmacological options. (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - May 10, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Vimal M Aga Tags: Treatment in Geriatric Mental Health: Research in Action Source Type: research

Effect of Citalopram for the Treatment of Neurocardiogenic Syncope
Background: Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is a common form of syncope. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other medications have been used to treat NCS with variable success, there is no consensus regarding a first-line therapy. Study Question: To assess the effects of citalopram in NCS and to examine the effect of diagnostic use of the head-up tilt table (HUTT) versus empirical diagnosis on patient outcome. Study Design: A retrospective case series of 1000 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with NCS and treated with citalopram. Measures and Outcomes: The primary outcome measure was well-...
Source: American Journal of Therapeutics - May 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Investigation Source Type: research

Comparative cardiovascular safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) among Chinese senile depression patients: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Conclusion: Escitalopram exhibited distinct advantages compared with other SSRIs, while Fluoxetine had the biggest cardiovascular reaction probability. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - May 1, 2019 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research

The detection of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in drinking water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Abstract Pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse including novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging as newer contaminants in the aquatic environment. The presence of such pollutants has implications on the environment as well as public health and therefore their identification is important when monitoring water quality. This research presents a new method for the simultaneous detection of 20 drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in drinking water, including 15 NPS, three traditional illicit drugs and two antidepressants. The developed method is based on the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid ch...
Source: Chemosphere - May 1, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Peng Y, Gautam L, Hall SW Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

Abnormal Alterations of Regional Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Inferior Frontal Orbital Gyrus and Corresponding Brain Circuit Alterations: A Resting-State fMRI Study in Somatic Depression
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Regulation of Tau Protein on the Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine in the Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model
In this study, C57BL/6 and Tau KO mice were used. For Tau KO mice, Western blot results of anti-Tau protein specific antibodies showed that Tau KO mice had no positive bands at 50–55 kDa (Tau protein position), while C57BL/6 mice normally expressed Tau protein (Figure 1).FIGURE 1Figure 1 Tau knockout (KO) mice did not express Tau protein.The C57BL/6 mice exhibited depressive behaviors, including anxiety, anhedonia, and depression-like after CUMS, and ketamine treatment alleviated their depressive behavior. Tau KO mice did not exhibit depressive behavior after CUMS. After treatment with ketamine at the same dose, ther...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Citalopram attenuates social behavior deficits in the BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core symptoms: impaired social communication and the presence of repetitive, stereotyped behaviors and/or restricted interests. Alterations in serotonergic signaling are involved in the genesis of ASD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported to reduce repetitive behaviors and rescue social deficits in ASD mouse models and patients. In the present study, we examined the potential of citalopram (a representative selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on sociability and repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mouse mod...
Source: Brain Research Bulletin - April 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Fan X Tags: Brain Res Bull Source Type: research

Ongoing initiatives within the Scottish National Health Service to affect the prescribing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and their influence.
Conclusion: Multiple initiatives have increased the quality and efficiency of SSRI prescribing in Scotland providing direction to others. PMID: 31023070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research)
Source: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research - April 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: J Comp Eff Res Source Type: research

Motor Timing in Tourette Syndrome: The Effect of Movement Lateralization and Bimanual Coordination
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that TS patients manifest “trait” abnormalities in the timing of sequential motor tasks, which are in keeping with the continuation phase of time processing, likely controlled by the sensorimotor loop of the cortico-basal ganglia network. We also show that the abnormal lateralization of fine motor control, previously reported in the context of the structural sequencing of fine motor tasks, extends also to motor timing accuracy. Finally, we highlight SMA connectivity as a potentially pivotal neural substrate of adaptive compensation of motor timing deficits in fine manual ta...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus With Isolated Psychiatric Symptoms and Antinuclear Antibody Detection in the Cerebrospinal Fluid
Conclusion: Some patients with psychiatric syndromes and increased ANA titers may suffer from psychiatric variants of SLE, even if the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE are not met. Whether the psychiatric symptoms in our patient represent a prodromal stage with the later manifestation of full-blown SLE or a subtype of SLE with isolated CNS involvement remains unclear. Regardless, early diagnosis and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment are essential steps in preventing further disease progression and organ damage. Intrathecal ANAs with extractable nuclear antigen differentiation may be a more sensitiv...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Distribution of clomipramine, citalopram, midazolam, and metabolites in skeletal tissue after chronic dosing in rats
A fully validated method is presented and the distribution of clomipramine, citalopram, midazolam, and their major metabolites is examined within skeletal tissue of chronically dosed rats using LC −ESI−MS/MS. Clomipramine, citalopram, and metabolites, are shown to be detectable in all bone types sampled. Midazolam and its metabolite OH‐midazolam could not be detected. Within a rat, the drugs−metabolite ratio in the sampled bones is in close concordance to the ratios seen in blood. AbstractIn recent years, the use of skeletal tissue as an alternative matrix in forensic toxicology has received new interes...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - April 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Michiel Vandenbosch, Tomas Somers, Eva Cuypers Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Clinical implications of directly switching antidepressants in well-treated depressed patients with treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction: a comparison between vortioxetine and escitalopram.
CONCLUSION: Results suggest that vortioxetine is a safe and effective switch therapy for treating SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in adults with well-treated MDD. Also, improvement in sexual dysfunction with vortioxetine or escitalopram may be influenced by prior SSRI usage, sex, age, and history of MDEs. PMID: 31010445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: CNS Spectrums)
Source: CNS Spectrums - April 23, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacobsen PL, Nomikos GG, Zhong W, Cutler AJ, Affinito J, Clayton A Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research

Differential effects of psychoactive substances on human wildtype and polymorphic T356M dopamine transporters (DAT).
Abstract Many psychoactive substances affect the human dopamine (DA) reuptake transporter (hDAT). Polymorphisms in the encoding gene could affect the functionality of the transporter and consequently alter effects of psychotropic and recreational drugs. Recently, a T356 M single nucleotide polymorphism in the human SLC6A3 gene was described, which resulted in functional impairments of DA uptake. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 10 psychoactive substances (0.01-1000 µM)) on DA uptake in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transiently overexpressing wildtype (WT) or T356 M hDAT. Our d...
Source: Toxicology - April 19, 2019 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zwartsen A, Litjens CH, Hondebrink L, van den Heuvel JJ, Greupink R, Russel FG, de Lange DW, Legler J, Koenderink JB, Westerink RH Tags: Toxicology Source Type: research

Lithium Augmentation Versus Citalopram Combination in Imipramine-Resistant Major Depression: A 10-Week Randomized Open-Label Study
Conclusions Although we should be cautious about generalizing these results to patients with a less severe unipolar major episode, results from the present study suggest that add-on citalopram is a very effective treatment option in unipolar major depressive episodes after an unsuccessful imipramine regimen. (Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Exposure to prenatal antidepressant alters medial prefrontal-striatal synchronization in mice.
Abstract Citalopram (CTM), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has been widely used to treat panic disorders, such as depression which is one of the most disabling, yet common, psychiatric disorders. Although prenatal antidepressant exposure has a major impact on the neurobehavioral development of the offspring, such as anxiety, depression- and autism-like behaviors, the brain alterations of SSRI influence remained largely unknown. We show here, using electrophysiological recordings, that CTM exposure during the last 7 d of gestation can alter theta- and gamma-band oscillation and synchronization in t...
Source: Brain Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jiang J, Zheng Y, Chen Y, Zahra A, Long C, Yang L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of TREK-1 in Health and Disease, Focus on the Central Nervous System
Conclusion and Perspectives Since their cloning 20 years ago, the physiological importance of TREK-1 channels has continued to grow (Figure 3). Today, TREK-1 channels have been shown to be important and their presence is essential in a number of physiopathological processes. Their involvement in these different processes demonstrate the necessity to design pharmacological modulators, activators or inhibitors, of these channels to correct any TREK-1-related dysfunctions. Despites a number of studies and many molecule screenings, only few putative new drugs were identified. The activators belonging to the ML and BL series ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 11, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Molecules, Vol. 24, Pages 1344: Regulation of Noise-Induced Loss of Serotonin Transporters with Resveratrol in a Rat Model Using 4-[18F]-ADAM/Small-Animal Positron Emission Tomography
In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on noise-induced damage in the serotonergic system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and exposed to an 8-kHz tone at 116 dB for 3.5 h. Resveratrol (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [IP]) and citalopram (20 mg/kg, IP), a specific SERT inhibitor used as a positive control, were administered once a day for four consecutive days, with the first treatment occurring 2 days before noise exposure. Auditory brainstem response testing and positron emission tomography (PET) with N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[18F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[18F]-ADAM, a specific...
Source: Molecules - April 5, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: I-Hsun Li Jui-Hu Shih Yun-Tin Jhao Hsin-Chien Chen Chuang-Hsin Chiu Chien-Fu F. Chen Yuahn-Sieh Huang Chyng-Yann Shiue Kuo-Hsing Ma Tags: Article Source Type: research

Commercial Pharmacogenetic Tests in Psychiatry: Do they Facilitate the Implementation of Pharmacogenetic Dosing Guidelines?
Discussion Most commercial pharmacogenetic tests we examined are well-equipped to facilitate implementation of the majority of dosing guidelines relevant to psychiatry but are limited in their ability to facilitate implementation of the full spectrum of dosing guidelines currently available. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Pharmacopsychiatry)
Source: Pharmacopsychiatry - March 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fan, Mikayla Bousman, Chad A. Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Citalopram Improves Obsessive-Compulsive Crossword Puzzling in Frontotemporal Dementia
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is characterized by severe changes in personality/behavior. Recent studies have provided evidence that a decrease in serotonin receptors and neuronal loss in the raphe nuclei play a role in the bvFTD pathology. Serotonergic antidepressants have been reported to diminish behavioral disturbances in bvFTD, particularly repetitive behaviors, disinhibition, apathy, sexually inappropriate behaviors, and hyperorality. Here, we present the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian male patient with clinically and biomarker supported bvFTD ( “probable” bvFTD; disease-specific al...
Source: Case Reports in Neurology - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Serotonin 5-HT1A Receptor-Mediated Reduction of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Layers Ii/Iii of The PARASUBICULUM
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Francis Carter, C. Andrew ChapmanAbstractSerotonin (5-HT) has important effects on cognitive function within the hippocampal region where it modulates membrane potential and excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Here, we investigated how 5-HT modulates excitatory synaptic strength in layers II/III of the parasubiculum in rat brain slices. Bath-application of 1 or 10 μM 5-HT resulted in a strong, dose-dependent, and reversible reduction in the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded in the parasubic...
Source: Neuroscience - March 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The potential of actigraphy to assess agitation in dementia
It is now well understood that much of the public health burden of dementia is due to neuropsychiatric symptoms, including agitation, apathy, and circadian rhythm disturbances. Improving interventions for these targets are crucial to decreasing patient and caregiver distress. There have been recent successes in repurposing existing medications for these targets including agitation, for example citalopram 1. But treatment development requires reliable measures and to date most agitation measures are largely subjective, consisting of informant reports with anchored ordinal scales. (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - March 20, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Paul B. Rosenberg, Sarah K. Wanigatunga, Adam P. Spira Tags: Invited Perspective Source Type: research

Validation of chronic mild stress in the Wistar-Kyoto rat as an animal model of treatment-resistant depression
A recent review proposed four criteria for an animal model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD): a phenotypic resemblance to a risk factor for depression; enhanced response to stress; nonresponse to antidepressant drugs and response to treatments effective in TRD, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the prefrontal cortex or ketamine. Chronic mild stress (CMS) provides a valid model of depression; the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is considered to be nonresponsive to antidepressant drugs. Here, we applied CMS to WKY rats. WKY and Wistar rats were exposed to CMS, then treated with saline, imipramine, citalopram or venlafaxin...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - March 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: RESEARCH REPORTS Source Type: research

Regional default mode network connectivity in major depressive disorder: modulation by acute intravenous citalopram
Regional default mode network connectivity in major depressive disorder: modulation by acute intravenous citalopram, Published online: 15 March 2019; doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0447-0Regional default mode network connectivity in major depressive disorder: modulation by acute intravenous citalopram (Source: Translational Psychiatry)
Source: Translational Psychiatry - March 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Arpan Dutta Shane McKie Darragh Downey Emma Thomas Gabriella Juhasz Danilo Arnone Rebecca Elliott Steve Williams J. F. William Deakin Ian M. Anderson Source Type: research

Serotonergic Regulation and Cognition after Stroke: The Role of Antidepressant Treatment and Genetic Variation
Conclusion: There was no difference in cognition between citalopram and placebo-treated patients according to the genotype group. Our results indicate, however, that low expression SERT genotype may contribute to reduced cognitive function post stroke as placebo-treated patients with low SERT expression tended to score lower on the SDMT. The significant difference in SDMT scores between low and high expression patients was present only in the placebo-treated group, thereby warranting further exploration of the potential effect of early citalopram treatment on cognitive functioning. Our results are preliminary and need repl...
Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Risk of Acute Liver Injury in Agomelatine and Other Antidepressant Users in Four European Countries: A Cohort and Nested Case –Control Study Using Automated Health Data Sources
AbstractBackgroundAgomelatine is a melatonin receptor agonist and serotonin 5-HT2C receptor antagonist indicated for depression in adults. Hepatotoxic reactions like acute liver injury (ALI) are an identified risk in the European risk management plan for agomelatine. Hepatotoxic reactions have been reported for other antidepressants, but population studies quantifying these risks are scarce. Antidepressants are widely prescribed, and users often have risk factors for ALI (e.g. metabolic syndrome).ObjectiveThe goal was to estimate the risk of ALI associated with agomelatine and other antidepressants (fluoxetine, paroxetine,...
Source: CNS Drugs - March 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transitioning patients with major neurocognitive disorders from antipsychotic medications to citalopram - a pharmacogenetically-informed case series
The successful and safe psychopharmacologic management of older adults suffering with major neurocognitive disorders with behavioral disturbances and has remained a challenging therapeutic dilemma – despite recently published guidelines on the topic. Available guidelines would suggest that individuals with severe agitation, violence, or distress related to their agitation or psychosis should receive pharmacotherapy in addition to behavioral and social management. Citalopram and other SSRIs have shown promise in treating agitation and psychosis in the context of major neurocognitive disorders, however treatment with a...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - March 1, 2019 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Aninditha Vengassery, Sarah Sheikh, Syed Maududi, Viktoriya Donovan, Sayan Kaishibayev, Patrick Arthur, Joseph Voigt, Carl Cohen, Michael Reinhardt Tags: Poster Number: EI - 19 Source Type: research

Distribution of clomipramine, citalopram, midazolam and metabolites in skeletal tissue after chronic dosing in rats
AbstractIn recent years, the usage of skeletal tissue as alternative matrix in forensic toxicology has grown new interest. In cases where extreme decomposition has taken place, analysis of skeletal tissue is often the only option left. In this paper, a fully validated method is presented and the distribution of clomipramine, citalopram, midazolam and metabolites after chronically administration is examined within skeletal tissue. Rats were chronically dosed with respectively clomipramine, citalopram or midazolam. Extracts were quantitatively analyzed using LC ‐ESI‐MS/MS. Clomipramine, citalopram and metabolites, respec...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - February 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Michiel Vandenbosch, Tomas Somers, Eva Cuypers Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Effect of memantine combined with citalopram on cognition of BPSD and moderate Alzheimer's disease: A clinical trial.
In conclusion, memantine combined with citalopram can more effectively improve the cognitive function, and reduce behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with moderate AD. Cardiac adverse effects of citalopram are not common when the dose is
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - February 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research

Influence of CYP2C19 Metabolizer Status on Escitalopram/Citalopram Tolerability and Response in Youth With Anxiety and Depressive Disorders
Stacey L. Aldrich, Ethan A. Poweleit, Cynthia A. Prows, Lisa J. Martin, Jeffrey R. Strawn, Laura B. Ramsey (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - February 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Citalopram-Associated Alopecia: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first-line treatments for various psychiatric disorders. SSRIs offer improved side effect profile compared to older treatments, which improve patient adherence and quality of life. CASE REPORT: Here we discuss a case of an uncommon, but distressing side effect of citalopram. A 76-year old woman was referred to the psychiatry clinic for bizarre behavior. Patient was diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, and was started on citalopram 20 mg and aripiprazole 5 mg daily. At 3.5 months the patient complained of diffuse...
Source: Current Drug Safety - February 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hekmatjah J, Tareen K, Tareen RS Tags: Curr Drug Saf Source Type: research

Predicting antidepressant treatment outcome based on socioeconomic status and citalopram dose
Predicting antidepressant treatment outcome based on socioeconomic status and citalopram dose, Published online: 06 February 2019; doi:10.1038/s41397-019-0080-6Predicting antidepressant treatment outcome based on socioeconomic status and citalopram dose (Source: The Pharmacogenomics Journal)
Source: The Pharmacogenomics Journal - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Aurelia Viglione Flavia Chiarotti Silvia Poggini Alessandro Giuliani Igor Branchi Source Type: research

Hyperactive Brain Cells May Explain Why Some Patients Don ’t Respond to SSRIs
Not everyone with depression responds to treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and now areport inMolecular Psychiatry provides a possible explanation: brain cells in people who do not respond to SSRIs may become hyperactive in the presence of serotonin in a way that the brain cells of people who respond to SSRIs do not.“This is a promising step toward understanding why some patients don’t respond to SSRIs and letting us better personalize treatments for depression,” said senior author Rusty Gage, M.S., Ph.D., of the Salk Institute in astatement.SSRIs acutely increase serotonin le...
Source: Psychiatr News - February 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: hyperactivity Molecular Psychiatry neurons non-responders to antidepressant treatment personalized treatment Ph.D. Rusty Gage Salk Institute SSRIs Source Type: research

Efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants in patients with ischemic heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis
To assess the efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants in adults with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We gathered all available randomized-controlled trials comparing antidepressants versus placebo or other antidepressants in adults with IHD. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms at the study endpoint, as measured by validated rating scales. We pooled data in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. The confidence in the estimates (or certainty of the evidence) was assessed using the GRADE approach. Antidepressants appeared to be more effective than placebo in reducing depressive symptoms (11 comparisons; 168...
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - February 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

Natural and semisynthetic polymers blended orodispersible films of citalopram.
In conclusion, okra biopolymer could be used in combination with HPMC for the development of orodispersible films. PMID: 30663358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Natural Product Research)
Source: Natural Product Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Shahzad Y, Maqbool M, Hussain T, Yousaf AM, Khan IU, Mahmood T, Jamshaid M Tags: Nat Prod Res Source Type: research

A modified QuEChERS approach for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in sediments by LC-Orbitrap HRMS.
Abstract This work reports on a rapid and sensitive analytical method intended to be used for investigation of 25 multiclass pharmaceuticals in sediments. The method comprises a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction, followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry, operated in positive ionization mode. The crucial parameters of both extraction and cleanup as well as those related to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were optimized and the method was validated in terms of accuracy, method detection ...
Source: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry - January 9, 2019 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nannou CI, Boti VI, Albanis TA Tags: Anal Bioanal Chem Source Type: research

Fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine induce microglial apoptosis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - January 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kamaldeep S. Dhami, Matthew A. Churchward, Glen. B. Baker, Kathryn G. Todd Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Impact of hospital pharmacist interventions on the combination of citalopram or escitalopram with other QT-prolonging drugs
Conclusion A high number of hospital prescriptions including citalopram or escitalopram with another QT-prolonging drug occurred, highlighting the importance of involvement of clinical pharmacists in prevention of potential ADRs related to such contraindications. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy - January 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Orally Dosed Citalopram Stimulates Small Intestinal Mucosal Growth
Parenterally administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as citalopram, increase intestinal mucosal absorptive surface by day 7 of treatment. We hypothesized that enteral citalopram would also induce intestinal mucosal growth, thus allowing for therapy with an oral agent. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - January 3, 2019 Category: Surgery Authors: Lucy Zhang, Chasen J. Greig, Robert A. Cowles Tags: Gastrointestinal Source Type: research

Seniors With Depression May Be at Heightened Risk of Hip Fracture Before Starting Antidepressants
Despite several observational studies demonstrating that older patients taking antidepressants are at a higher risk of falls and fractures, it has remained unclear whether the use of the medication causes the increased risk. Astudy published today inJAMA Psychiatry suggests that older adults may be at higher risk of hip fracture even before they start taking antidepressants.While the findings raise questions about the association between antidepressant drug use and hip fracture, study authors Jon Br ännström, M.D., of Umeå University in Sweden and colleagues cautioned that doctors should continue to limit t...
Source: Psychiatr News - January 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Tags: amitriptyline Andrea Iaboni antidepressants citalopram Donovan T. Maust hip fracture JAMA Psychiatry Jon Br ännström mirtazapine older adults Source Type: research