A Novel Mixture Model to Estimate the Time to Drug Effect Onset and Its Association with Covariates
In this study, we develop a statistical mixture model for analyzing such longitudinal data. Our method estimates the onset of drug effect and assesses the association between the probability distribution of the onset times and possible contributing factors. Our mixture model treats the timing of onset as missing for each individual but restricts it, for simplicity, to two possible onset points, early or late. To estimate the model, we use an expectation-maximization-based approach and provide the general formulas of the variance and covariance matrix for the estimated parameters. Results: We evaluate the model's overall ut...
Source: Human Heredity - January 16, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Heterogeneity of Treatment Response to Citalopram for Patients With Alzheimer's Disease With Aggression or Agitation: The CitAD Randomized Clinical Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Considering several covariates together allowed the identification of responders. Those with moderate agitation and with lower levels of cognitive impairment were more likely to benefit from citalopram, and those with more severe agitation and greater cognitive impairment were at greater risk for adverse responses. Considering the dosages used and the association of citalopram with cardiac QT prolongation, use of this agent to treat agitation may be limited to a subgroup of people with dementia. PMID: 26771737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - January 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Schneider LS, Frangakis C, Drye LT, Devanand DP, Marano CM, Mintzer J, Mulsant BH, Munro CA, Newell JA, Pawluczyk S, Pelton G, Pollock BG, Porsteinsson AP, Rabins PV, Rein L, Rosenberg PB, Shade D, Weintraub D, Yesavage J, Lyketsos CG, CitAD Research Grou Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Emotional Reactivity and Regulation Following Citalopram Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology - January 15, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tal CarthyNoa Benaroya-MilshteinAvi ValevskiAlan Apter Source Type: research

Estimation of oxidative stress parameters in rats after simultaneous administration of rosuvastatin with antidepressants.
CONCLUSIONS: The observed changes may indicate an increased activity of the enzyme system preventing oxidation, which appears to be the effect of the reaction on the severity of oxidative stress during the combined treatment with rosuvastatin and antidepressants. PMID: 26721369 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reports)
Source: Pharmacological Reports - January 13, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Herbet M, Izdebska M, Piątkowska-Chmiel I, Poleszak E, Jagiełło-Wójtowicz E Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research

Predicting beneficial effects of atomoxetine and citalopram on response inhibition in Parkinson's disease with clinical and neuroimaging measures
Abstract Recent studies indicate that selective noradrenergic (atomoxetine) and serotonergic (citalopram) reuptake inhibitors may improve response inhibition in selected patients with Parkinson's disease, restoring behavioral performance and brain activity. We reassessed the behavioral efficacy of these drugs in a larger cohort and developed predictive models to identify patient responders. We used a double‐blind randomized three‐way crossover design to investigate stopping efficiency in 34 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease after 40 mg atomoxetine, 30 mg citalopram, or placebo. Diffusion‐weighted...
Source: Human Brain Mapping - January 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng Ye, Charlotte L. Rae, Cristina Nombela, Timothy Ham, Timothy Rittman, Peter Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Ian Coyle‐Gilchrist, Ralf Regenthal, Ellemarije Altena, Charlotte R. Housden, Helen Maxwell, Barbara J. Sahakian, Roger A. Barke Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Medication Use in Early-HD Participants in Track-HD: an Investigation of its Effects on Clinical Performance
1. Introduction Huntington’s disease (HD) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by a dominantly inherited CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene. HD has diverse and progressive symptoms and is characterised by deteriorating motor and cognitive functions, as well as behavioural and neuropsychiatric disturbances. White-matter atrophy is detectable in the earliest premanifest stages of the disease and caudate, putamen, and grey-matter volumes have strong predictive value for future clinical diagnosis of HD in those carrying the gene mutation1,2. However, despite the prognostic value of these structural meas...
Source: PLOS Currents Huntington Disease - January 11, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ruth Keogh Source Type: research

Sedation mediates part of Citalopram's effect on agitation in Alzheimer's disease
Conclusions The benefit of citalopram was partly due to sedation but largely due to other mechanisms of action. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research)
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Riluzole Combination Therapy for Moderate-to-Severe Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
This study aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of riluzole in patients with MDD. Sixty-four inpatients with diagnosis of moderate to severe major depressive disorder participated in a parallel, randomized, controlled trial, and sixty patients underwent 6 weeks treatment with either riluzole (50mg/bid) plus citalopram (40 mg/day) or placebo plus citalopram (40 mg/day). All participants were inpatients for the whole duration of the study. Patients were assessed using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) at baseline and weeks 2, 4 and 6. The primary outcome measure was to assess the efficacy of riluzole compared ...
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - January 11, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute SSRIs regulate the dorsal raphe nucleus causing amplification of terminal serotonin release
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurochemistry)
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - January 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Elyse C. Dankoski, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

American Journal of Psychiatry Shines in NEJM Journal Watch Psychiatry's Top 10 List of Psychiatry Articles for 2015
Four of the articles chosen as the NEJM Journal Watch Psychiatry’s top 10 most clinically important psychiatry research articles of 2015 appeared in the American Journal of Psychiatry (AJP). No other journal in the list had more than one publication.“The predominance of AJP in this top 10 list reinforces our emphasis on choosing landmark studies that will advance the clinical practice of psychiatry, as well as those that will provide direction for future research,” AJP Editor-in-Chief Robert Freedman, M.D., told Psychiatric News.Two of the AJP studies selected for inclusion focused on promising new treatm...
Source: Psychiatr News - January 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: American Journal of Psychiatry NEJM Journal Watch Psychiatry NEJM Top Ten Psychiatry articles Source Type: research

Amitriptyline-induced cutaneous hyperpigmentation: case report and review of psychotropic drug-associated mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation. Eichenfield, Dawn Zhang; Cohen, Philip
Background:  Several drugs can be associated with hyperpigmentation of mucosa or skin. They include antibiotic, antimalarial, antineoplastic, and psychotropic medications. Purpose:  To describe a 42-year-old woman with amitriptyline-associated photo-distributed hyperpigmentation and to review psychotropic drug-induced hyperpigmentation of the skin. Materials and Methods:  The features of a woman with amitriptyline-induced hyperpigmentation are presented. Using PubMed, the following terms were searched and relevant citations were assessed and discussed for context: amitriptyline, chlorpromazine, cital...
Source: Dermatology Online Journal - January 1, 2016 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Enantioseparation of citalopram analogues with sulfated β‐cyclodextrin by capillary electrophoresis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Electrophoresis)
Source: Electrophoresis - January 1, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yadi Wang, Shusheng Zhang, Zachary S. Breitbach, Hans Petersen, Peter Ellegaard, Daniel W. Armstrong Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Amygdala responses to quetiapine XR and citalopram treatment in major depression: the role of 5‐HTTLPR‐S/Lg polymorphisms
ConclusionsThese preliminary data suggest that pharmacological mechanisms and genetics need to be considered in the development of neuroimaging markers for the evaluation of antidepressant treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental - January 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rajamannar Ramasubbu, Ashley Burgess, Ismael Gaxiola‐Valdez, Filomeno Cortese, Darren Clark, Anne Kemp, Bradley Goodyear, Glenda Macqueen, N. Torben Bech‐Hansen, Jane Foster, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Structure‐activity relationship studies of citalopram derivatives: examining substituents conferring selectivity for the allosteric site in the serotonin transporter
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSThe compound could be a useful lead for future synthesis of drugs with high affinity and high selectivity towards the allosteric binding site. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: M Andreas B Larsen, Per Plenge, Jacob Andersen, Jonas N N Eildal, Anders S Kristensen, Klaus P Bøgesø, Ulrik Gether, Kristian Strømgaard, Benny Bang‐Andersen, Claus J Loland Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Effects of lisdexamfetamine and s-citalopram, alone and in combination, on effort-related choice behavior in the rat
Conclusions LDX can increase work output in rats responding on effort-based choice tasks, which may have implications for understanding the neurochemistry of motivational symptoms in humans. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Responding for a conditioned reinforcer or unconditioned sensory reinforcer in mice: interactions with environmental enrichment, social isolation, and monoamine reuptake inhibitors
Conclusions Baseline incentive motivation is strongly influenced by the social component of housing conditions. Furthermore, environmental enrichment increased the sensitivity to elevated dopamine activity, while acute elevations in serotonin and norepinephrine inhibit incentive motivation irrespective of housing condition. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - December 22, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Nanopharmacological Force Sensing to Reveal Allosteric Coupling in Transporter Binding Sites.
Abstract Controversy regarding the number and function of ligand binding sites in neurotransmitter/sodium symporters arose from conflicting data in crystal structures and molecular pharmacology. Here, we have designed novel tools for atomic force microscopy that directly measure the interaction forces between the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the S- and R-enantiomers of citalopram on the single molecule level. This approach is based on force spectroscopy, which allows for the extraction of dynamic information under physiological conditions thus inaccessible via X-ray crystallography. Two distinct populations of...
Source: Angewandte Chemie - December 22, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhu R, Sinwel D, Hasenhuetl PS, Saha K, Kumar V, Zhang P, Rankl C, Holy M, Sucic S, Kudlacek O, Karner A, Sandtner W, Stockner T, Gruber HJ, Freissmuth M, Hauck Newman A, Sitte HH, Hinterdorfer P Tags: Angew Chem Int Ed Engl Source Type: research

Construction of novel sensitive electrochemical sensor for electro-oxidation and determination of citalopram based on zinc oxide nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.
Abstract A new chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CMCPE) was applied to the simple, rapid, highly selective and sensitive determination of citalopram in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations using adsorptive square wave voltammetry (ASWV). The ZnO nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified CPE (ZnO-MWCNT/CPE) electrode was prepared by incorporation of the ZnO nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in carbon paste electrode. The limit of detection and the linear range were found to be 0.005 and 0.012 to 1.54μmolL(-1) of citalopram, respectively. The effects of potent...
Source: Appl Human Sci - December 16, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Ghaedi H, Afkhami A, Madrakian T, Soltani-Felehgari F Tags: Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl Source Type: research

Perinatal citalopram does not prevent the effect of prenatal stress on anxiety, depressive‐like behaviour and serotonergic transmission in adult rat offspring
Conclusions: Prenatal citalopram does not prevent the behavioural changes or reduction in serotonergic transmission to target areas induced by prenatal stress. It has adverse behavioural effects in the offspring of control rats, which, together with the lack of any change in prenatally‐stressed rats, may be due to inhibition of the foetal 5HT transporter thereby preventing normal development of the 5HT system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: European Journal of Neuroscience)
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - December 15, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Inbar Zohar, Shai Shoham, Marta Weinstock Tags: Research Report Source Type: research

Spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports for transplacental and transmammary routes in those
Conclusions Despite many women requiring medications in pregnancy and while lactating, very few YCS reports were received over a 10 year period. Current MHRA advice is for all suspected ADRs in children following transplacental or transmammary exposure to be reported. Strategies to improve reporting in this neglected population are urgently needed. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - December 14, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Russell, N.-J., Turner, M., Hawcutt, D. Tags: POSTER PRESENTATIONS Source Type: research

Sedation Mediates Part of Citalopram’s Effect on Agitation in Alzheimer’s Disease
Conclusions The benefit of citalopram was partly due to sedation but largely due to other mechanisms of action. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research)
Source: Journal of Psychiatric Research - December 13, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

[Application of pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the research of affective disorders].
Authors: Édes AE, Gonda X, Bagdy G, Juhász G Abstract Many common psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are associated with dysfunction in the monoamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. However, the investigation of these pathophysiological processes in the human living brain is difficult. In case of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a non-invasive method for the examination of brain activity, the activity-inducing stimulus is generally a cognitive psychological test, while during pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) the activation is ...
Source: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica - December 12, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Neuropsychopharmacol Hung Source Type: research

Adaptive down-regulation of the serotonin transporter in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced rat model of preclinical stages of Parkinson’s disease and after chronic pramipexole treatment
Publication date: 9 February 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 314 Author(s): K. Berghauzen-Maciejewska, J. Wardas, B. Kosmowska, H. Domin, M. Śmiałowska, U. Głowacka, K. Ossowska Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion induced by bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections into the ventrolateral region of the caudate-putamen (CP) in rats, modeling preclinical stages of Parkinson’s disease, induces a “depressive-like” behavior which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole (PRA). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the above lesion and chronic...
Source: Neuroscience - December 11, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-mesembrine Sceletium extract (Trimesemine™) is a monoamine releasing agent, rather than only a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Conclusions We conclude that the serotonin reuptake inhibition activity ascribed to the Sceletium plant, is a secondary function to the monoamine-releasing activity of high-mesembrine Sceletium extract (TrimesemineTM). Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - December 2, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Citalopram and sertraline exposure compromises embryonic bone development
L J Williams & Y Gibert (Source: Molecular Psychiatry)
Source: Molecular Psychiatry - December 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: D FraherJ M HodgeF M CollierJ S McMillanR L KennedyM EllisG C NicholsonK WalderS DoddM BerkJ A PascoL J WilliamsY Gibert Source Type: research

Organic cation transporter 3 contributes to norepinephrine uptake into perivascular adipose tissue
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) reduces vasoconstriction to norepinephrine (NE). A mechanism by which PVAT could function to reduce vascular contraction is by decreasing the amount of NE to which the vessel is exposed. PVATs from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to test the hypothesis that PVAT has a NE uptake mechanism. NE was detected by HPLC in mesenteric PVAT and isolated adipocytes. Uptake of NE (10 μM) in mesenteric PVAT was reduced by the NE transporter (NET) inhibitor nisoxetine (1 μM, 73.68 ± 7.62%, all values reported as percentages of vehicle), the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (SERT) inhibit...
Source: AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology - December 1, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ayala-Lopez, N., Jackson, W. F., Burnett, R., Wilson, J. N., Thompson, J. M., Watts, S. W. Tags: VASCULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROCIRCULATION Source Type: research

Second‐stage treatments for relative nonresponders to cognitive behavioral therapy (cbt) for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia—continued cbt versus ssri: a randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsThese data suggest greater improvement in panic disorder symptoms when switching to SSRI after failure to fully respond to an initial course of CBT. Future studies should further investigate relapse following treatment discontinuation for nonresponders who became responders. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000368; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00000368 (Source: Depression and Anxiety)
Source: Depression and Anxiety - December 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Laura A. Payne, Kamila S. White, Matthew W. Gallagher, Scott W. Woods, M. Katherine Shear, Jack M. Gorman, Todd J. Farchione, David H. Barlow Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Radio electric treatment vs. Es-Citalopram in the treatment of panic disorders associated with major depression: an open-label, naturalistic study.
Authors: Mannu P, Rinaldi S, Fontani V, Castagna A, Margotti ML Abstract Simultaneous coexistence of anxiety with depressive disorders is probably one of the major current problems in Medicine. The pharmacological approach for Panic Disorder and Major Depression includes "high-powered" benzodiazepines for the rapid, but transitory relief of same symptoms and especially antidepressant compounds. Recently physical-instrumental approaches have been tested for the treatment of these complex diseases, like Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES), Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), and Radio Electric As...
Source: Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research - November 30, 2015 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Acupunct Electrother Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant nonadherence in routine clinical settings determined from discarded blood samples.
Authors: Roberson AM, Castro VM, Cagan A, Perlis RH Abstract OBJECTIVE: Antidepressant nonadherence is common and represents a potentially modifiable risk factor for treatment nonresponse. We used a novel approach based on discarded blood samples from routine clinical blood draws to assess treatment nonadherence in a general clinical population. METHOD: Individuals diagnosed with or without major depressive disorder (using ICD-9) and prescribed sertraline, citalopram, bupropion, or venlafaxine in January 2014 were identified by querying the electronic health record of 2 academic medical centers. Discarded blood...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - November 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research

A population pharmacokinetic model for R- and S-citalopram and desmethylcitalopram in Alzheimer’s disease patients with agitation
Abstract The citalopram for Alzheimer’s disease trial evaluated citalopram for the management for agitation in Alzheimer’s disease patients. Sparse data was available from this elderly patient population. A nonlinear mixed effects population pharmacokinetic modeling approach was used to describe the pharmacokinetics of R- and S-citalopram and their primary metabolite (desmethylcitalopram). A structural model with 4 compartments (one compartment/compound) with linear oral absorption and elimination described the data adequately. Overall, the model showed that clearance of the R-enantiomer was slower tha...
Source: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics - November 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Essential Contributions of Serotonin Transporter Inhibition to the Acute and Chronic Actions of Fluoxetine and Citalopram in the SERT Met172 Mouse
dy D Blakely Keywords: (Source: Neuropsychopharmacology)
Source: Neuropsychopharmacology - November 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Alex G NackenoffAlexandra B Moussa-TooksAustin M McMeekinJeremy Veenstra-VanderWeeleRandy D Blakely Source Type: research

Assessing the reliability and validity of the Sheehan Irritability Scale in patients with major depressive disorder.
Authors: Khan SA, Revicki DA, Hassan M, Locklear JC, Friedman LA, Mannix S, Tummala R, Dunbar GC, Eriksson H, Sheehan DV Abstract OBJECTIVE: Irritability is a significant component in the clinical manifestation of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Sheehan Irritability Scale (SIS) was developed to assess irritability-related symptoms in patients with psychiatric disorders. Data from a phase 2 clinical trial (June 2008-July 2009) was utilized to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SIS. The trial population included patients diagnosed with MDD, according to DSM-IV and confirmed via the MINI diagnostic scale...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - November 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dosing of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Among Children and Adults Before and After the FDA Black-Box Warning.
CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of commercially insured children initiating an SSRI with a low dose was higher after the 2004 FDA warning on the risk of suicidality among children, suggesting improved prescribing practices surrounding SSRI dosing among children. PMID: 26567938 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychiatric Services)
Source: Psychiatric Services - November 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Serv Source Type: research

Phencyclidine-induced disruption of oscillatory activity in prefrontal cortex: Effects of antipsychotic drugs and receptor ligands
The non-competitive NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) markedly disrupts thalamocortical activity, increasing excitatory neuron discharge and reducing low frequency oscillations (LFO, ~1Hz) that temporarily group neuronal discharge. These actions are mainly driven by PCP interaction with NMDA-R in GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus and likely underlie PCP psychotomimetic activity. Here we report that classical (haloperidol, chlorpromazine, perphenazine) and atypical (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripripazole) antipsychotic drugs –but not the antidepr...
Source: European Neuropsychopharmacology - November 19, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: L Lladó-Pelfort, E Troyano-Rodriguez, H E Van den Munkhof, A Cervera-Ferri, N Jurado, M Núñez-Calvet, F Artigas, P Celada Source Type: research

Serotonergic regulation of distention-induced ATP release from the urothelium.
Abstract 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) is involved in both motor and sensory functions in hollow organs, especially the gastrointestinal tract. However, the involvement of 5-HT in visceral sensation of the urinary bladder remains unknown. Because distention-induced ATP release from the urothelium plays an essential role in visceral sensation of the urinary bladder, we investigated regulation of urothelial ATP release by the 5-HT signaling system. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses of the urothelium revealed specific expression of 5-HT1D and 5-HT4 receptors. Addition of 5-HT did not affect urothelial A...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - November 18, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Matsumoto-Miyai K, Yamada E, Shinzawa E, Koyama Y, Shimada S, Yoshizumi M, Kawatani M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

More Children Were Prescribed Low-Dose Antidepressants After FDA Warnings, Study Finds
Following the Food and Drug Administration’s decision in 2004 to add a black-box warning to all antidepressants due to the increased risk of suicidal thinking or behavior among children, the proportion of youth who initiated a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) at a low dose grew, according to a study published Monday in Psychiatric Services in Advance.Although several studies have noted various effects of the 2004 black-box warnings—including changes in the use of antidepressants among youth and a shift in the care of these patients from generalists to psychiatrists—the warning’s effect ...
Source: Psychiatr News - November 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: antidepressants black box warning Food and Drug Administration Psychiatric Services in Advance suicide Source Type: research

Cardiac Toxicity in Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Users
Abstract: Several classes of recreational and prescription drugs have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the occurrence of arrhythmias, which may be involved in sudden deaths in chronic users even at therapeutic doses. The study presented herein focuses on pathological changes involving the heart, which may be caused by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and their possible role in the occurrence of sudden cardiac death. A total of 40 cases were included in the study and were divided evenly into 2 groups: 20 cases of patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and ...
Source: The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology - November 14, 2015 Category: Forensic Medicine Tags: CME Articles Source Type: research

Combined treatment with memantine/es‐citalopram for older depressed patients with cognitive impairment: a pilot study
ConclusionsIn this open‐label trial, combined antidepressant and memantine treatment in patients with DEP‐CI was associated with improved cognition and a low rate of conversion to dementia compared with published studies in patients with DEP‐CI. Although limited by the open‐label study design that incorporates practice effects that can improve cognitive test performance, the findings suggest the need for a larger randomized placebo‐controlled trial. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - November 13, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Gregory H. Pelton, Oliver L. Harper, Steven P. Roose, Karen Marder, Kristina D'Antonio, D. P. Devanand Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Citalopram in Treating Post-Stroke Depression: A Meta-Analysis
Background and Purpose: To evaluate the citalopram in post-stroke depression treatment, we compared its use to other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Methods: We searched databases up to May 2015. Relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data and standard mean difference (SMD) for continuous variables were analyzed using Stata 13.1. Results: The RR of the efficacy index compared to TCAs was 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.14, p = 0.02), and the Hamilton Depression Scale with citalopram was lower than that found with other SSRIs (SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.85 to -0.01, p
Source: European Neurology - November 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Antidepressant medication can improve hypertension in elderly patients with depression
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, Volume 22, Issue 12 Author(s): Wenjing Fu, Lina Ma, Xiaoling Zhao, Yun Li, Hong Zhu, Wei Yang, Chuan Liu, Jia Liu, Rui Han, Huizhen Liu We explored the influence of antidepressant therapy on blood pressure and quality of life in elderly patients with hypertension. Depression occurs at a higher rate in patients with hypertension than in the normal population. It has been reported that depressive symptoms lead to poorer hypertension control, resulting in the development of complications. We conducted a randomized, parallel group study. A tot...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - November 9, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Decreases HIV Receptor and Coreceptor Expression in Immune Cells
This study investigated whether a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram, downregulates the expression of HIV receptor (CD4) and coreceptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages ex vivo as a potential mechanism of reducing susceptibility to HIV infection. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeffrey M. Greeson, David R. Gettes, Sergei Spitsin, Benoit Dubé, Tami D. Benton, Kevin G. Lynch, Steven D. Douglas, Dwight L. Evans Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

The Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Citalopram Decreases Human Immunodeficiency Virus Receptor and Coreceptor Expression in Immune Cells
This study investigated whether the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram downregulates the expression of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) and coreceptors chemokine receptor type 5 and chemokine-related receptor type 4 (CCR5 and CXCR4) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages ex vivo as a potential mechanism of reducing susceptibility to HIV infection. (Source: Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Biological Psychiatry - November 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jeffrey M. Greeson, David R. Gettes, Sergei Spitsin, Benoit Dubé, Tami D. Benton, Kevin G. Lynch, Steven D. Douglas, Dwight L. Evans Tags: Archival Report Source Type: research

Linking Annual Prescription Volume of Antidepressants to Corresponding Web Search Query Data: A Possible Proxy for Medical Prescription Behavior?
Abstract: Persons using the Internet to retrieve medical information generate large amounts of health-related data, which are increasingly used in modern health sciences. We analyzed the relation between annual prescription volumes (APVs) of several antidepressants with marketing approval in Germany and corresponding web search query data generated in Google to test whether web search query volume may be a proxy for medical prescription practice. We obtained APVs of several antidepressants related to corresponding prescriptions at the expense of the statutory health insurance in Germany from 2004 to 2013. Web search query ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology - November 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Contributions Source Type: research

Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress
Publication date: 3 December 2015 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 310 Author(s): S. Liang, T. Wang, X. Hu, J. Luo, W. Li, X. Wu, Y. Duan, F. Jin Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota–gut–brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics ca...
Source: Neuroscience - November 1, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Citalopram Plus Methylphenidate Better Than Either Alone for Geriatric Depression.
PMID: 26554476 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Family Physician)
Source: American Family Physician - November 1, 2015 Category: Primary Care Authors: Speer L Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Antidepressants and antipsychotics classified with Torsades de Pointes arrhythmia risk and mortality in older adults ‐ a Swedish nationwide study
ConclusionThe CredibleMeds system predicted drug‐associated risk for mortality in the elderly at the risk class level. Among antipsychotics haloperidol and among antidepressants, mirtazapine and citalopram, were associated with the highest risks. The results suggest that the TdP risk with antidepressants and antipsychotics should be taken into consideration when prescribing to the elderly. (Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - November 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: B. Danielsson, J. Collin, G. Jonasdottir Bergman, N. Borg, P. Salmi, J. Fastbom Tags: Pharmacoepidemiology Source Type: research

Consensus Guideline Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in Psychiatry and Neurology.
Abstract Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valuable tool for tailoring the dosage of the prescribed medication(s) to the individual pharmacokinetic characteristics of a patient. In psychiatry and neurology, however, proven evidence that TDM should be used for treatment with the multiple neuropsychiatric medications is restricted to few compounds. Well-designed clinical trials on medical and economic benefits of TDM are rare. The use of TDM is limited in most countries to few antiepileptics, especially carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, some mood stabilizers, especially lithium and valproic acid, some...
Source: Current Drug Delivery - October 28, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hiemke C Tags: Curr Drug Deliv Source Type: research

Serum level of venlafaxine is associated with better memory in psychotic disorders
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of psychosis spectrum disorders. Antipsychotics have at best small positive effects on cognitive performance. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the effects of antidepressants on cognitive functioning in these disorders. In the present study cognitive performance was investigated in relation to serum levels of antidepressants in persons with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Serum concentrations of escitalopram, citalopram and venlafaxine plus O-desmethylvenlafaxine were measured in a total of 187 participants with bipolar disorder (N=74) or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (N=1...
Source: Schizophrenia Research - October 27, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nils Eiel Steen, Monica Aas, Carmen Simonsen, Ingrid Dieset, Martin Tesli, Mari Nerhus, Erlend Gardsjord, Ragni Mørch, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid Melle, Anja Vaskinn, Olav Spigset, Ole A. Andreassen Source Type: research

Serotonergic signalling suppresses ataxin 3 aggregation and neurotoxicity in animal models of Machado-Joseph disease
Polyglutamine diseases are a class of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorders for which there is no effective treatment. Here we provide evidence that activation of serotonergic signalling is beneficial in animal models of Machado-Joseph disease. We identified citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in a small molecule screen of FDA-approved drugs that rescued neuronal dysfunction and reduced aggregation using a Caenorhabditis elegans model of mutant ataxin 3-induced neurotoxicity. MOD-5, the C. elegans orthologue of the serotonin transporter and cellular target of citalopram, and the serotonin recep...
Source: Brain - October 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Teixeira-Castro, A., Jalles, A., Esteves, S., Kang, S., da Silva Santos, L., Silva-Fernandes, A., Neto, M. F., Brielmann, R. M., Bessa, C., Duarte-Silva, S., Miranda, A., Oliveira, S., Neves-Carvalho, A., Bessa, J., Summavielle, T., Silverman, R. B., Oliv Tags: Neurodegeneration - Cellular & Molecular Original Articles Source Type: research

Antidepressant drugs specifically inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake enhance recognition memory in rats.
Patients suffering from major depression often experience memory deficits even after the remission of mood symptoms, and many antidepressant drugs do not affect, or impair, memory in animals and humans. However, some antidepressant drugs, after a single dose, enhance cognition in humans (Harmer et al., 2009). To compare different classes of antidepressant drugs for their potential as memory enhancers, we used a version of the novel object recognition task in which rats spontaneously forget objects 24 hr after their presentation. Antidepressant drugs were injected systemically 30 min before or directly after the training ph...
Source: Behavioral Neuroscience - October 26, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feltmann, Kristin; Konradsson-Geuken, Åsa; De Bundel, Dimitri; Lindskog, Maria; Schilström, Björn Source Type: research