The pharmacological and hormonal therapy of hot flushes in breast cancer survivors.
Abstract The side effects of oncological treatment, which appear during or after therapy, are sometimes very annoying for patients and are not adequately treated by physicians. Among the symptoms experienced by breast cancer patients are hot flushes, which result from a natural or cancer therapy-induced menopause. The intensity of hot flushes in breast cancer patients may be more severe than those experienced by women undergoing a natural menopause. Taking into account the incidence of breast cancer and long-lasting hormone-suppression therapies, the problem of hot flushes will affect many women. Hormonal replacem...
Source: Breast Cancer - October 24, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wiśniewska I, Jochymek B, Lenart-Lipińska M, Chabowski M Tags: Breast Cancer Source Type: research

Ion transfer stripping voltammetry for the detection of nanomolar levels of fluoxetine, citalopram, and sertraline in tap and river water samples
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 223 Author(s): Anahita Izadyar, Dinusha Ranawaka Arachchige, Hayden Cornwell, John C. Hershberger The ion transfer stripping voltammetry (ITSV) technique is used to detect selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac®), citalopram (Celexa®), and sertraline (Zoloft®) in drinking and river water. These are common antidepressants that become highly toxic contaminants when they get into the drinking water. In this work we applied ITSV to detect the SSRIs in their cationic form at nanomolar concentrat...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - October 20, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Prevalence and correlates of QTc prolongation in Italian psychiatric care: cross-sectional multicentre study.
CONCLUSIONS: The confirmation of a link between antipsychotic polypharmacy and QTc prolongation supports the current guidelines that recommend avoiding the concurrent use of two or more antipsychotic drugs, and the confirmation of a link between citalopram and QTc prolongation supports the need for routine QTc monitoring. The relatively low proportion of patients with QTc prolongation not only suggests compliance with current safety warnings issued by regulatory authorities, but also casts some doubts on the clinical relevance of QTc prolongation related to some psychotropic drugs. PMID: 26467074 [PubMed - as supplied ...
Source: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences - October 18, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci Source Type: research

Genomic predictors of remission to antidepressant treatment in geriatric depression using genome‐wide expression analyses: a pilot study
ConclusionsRemission to antidepressants in geriatric depression may be associated with a particular gene expression profile in monoaminergic and metabolic pathways and needs to be replicated in a larger sample. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - October 17, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Harris A. Eyre, Ascia Eskin, Stanley F. Nelson, Natalie M. St. Cyr, Prabha Siddarth, Bernhard T. Baune, Helen Lavretsky Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Serotonin stimulates lateral habenula via activation of the post-synaptic serotonin 2/3 receptors and transient receptor potential channels.
Abstract There is growing interest on the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in depression, because it closely and bilaterally connects with the serotoninergic raphe nuclei. The LHb sends glutamate efferents to the raphe nuclei, while it receives serotoninergic afferents, and expresses a high density of serotonin (5-HT) receptors. Recent studies suggest that 5-HT receptors exist both in the presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of LHb neurons, and activation of these receptors may have different effects on the activity of LHb neurons. The current study focused on the effect of 5-HT on the postsynaptic membrane. We fo...
Source: Neuropharmacology - October 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zuo W, Zhang Y, Xie G, Gregor D, Bekker A, Ye JH Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Serotonin transporter occupancy by escitalopram and citalopram in the non-human primate brain: a [ 11 C]MADAM PET study
Conclusions Escitalopram or citalopram doses nearly saturated SERT in previous monkey studies which examined serotonin sensitivity of receptor radioligands. PET-measured cross-species differential effects of SSRI on cortical serotonin concentration may thus be related to SSRI dose. Future monkey studies using SSRI doses inducing clinically relevant SERT occupancy may further illuminate the delayed onset of SSRI therapeutic effects. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Source: Psychopharmacology - October 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Autism in the Son of a Woman with Mitochondrial Myopathy and Dysautonomia: A Case Report
Conclusion Given emerging evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction, particularly in the electron transport chain needed for cellular energy production, is an underlying pathophysiological mechanism for some varieties of ASD, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for mitochondrial disease, especially when they encounter a patient with unusual neurological or constitutional symptoms. The prevalence of mitochondrial disease in ASD patients may be as high as five percent, which means that it is not the “zebra”[27] diagnosis that it might be in a non-ASD patient, where prevalence is about 0.01 percent.10 R...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - October 9, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Authors: ICN Online Editor Tags: Anxiety Disorders Asperger's syndrome Autism Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology Case Report Current Issue Intellectual Disability Neurologic Systems and Symptoms Pervasive Developmental Disorders ASD autism spectrum disorder dysauton Source Type: research

Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Serotonin Syndrome
A 72-year-old woman presents via emergency medical services from her nursing home with agitation, disorientation, and restlessness. She is protecting her airway, and a finger-stick glucose test is normal. Although she is unable to provide much history, staff who are contacted at her skilled nursing facility (SNF) report recent fever, vomiting, and diarrhea for the past 7 hours. The patient is taking 9 regularly dosed medications and various “PRN” medications, including citalopram 40 mg, methylphenidate 10 mg 3 times daily, and tramadol 50 mg every 6 hours as needed. (Source: The Journal...
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - October 7, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Kimberly Nordstrom, Gary M. Vilke, Michael P. Wilson Source Type: research

Organic Cation Transporter 3 Contributes to Norepinephrine Uptake into Perivascular Adipose Tissue.
Abstract Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) reduces vasoconstriction to norepinephrine (NE). A potential mechanism by which PVAT could function to reduce vascular contraction is by decreasing the amount of NE to which the vessel is exposed. PVATs from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to test the hypothesis that PVAT has a NE uptake mechanism. NE was detected by HPLC in mesenteric PVAT and isolated adipocytes. Uptake of NE (10 µM) was reduced by the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor nisoxetine (1 µM; 73.68±7.62%; all values reported as percent of vehicle), the 5-hydroxytryptamine trans...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - October 2, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Ayala-Lopez N, Jackson WF, Burnett R, Wilson JN, Thompson JM, Watts SW Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Health Canada Warning on Citalopram and Escitalopram – Its Effects on Prescribing in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry
Reports have suggested that citalopram and escitalopram may prolong the QTc interval, leading Health Canada to issue a warning to limit their dosages in 2012. Little is known about the effects of this warning and similar ones (e.g. by the Food and Drug Administration) on antidepressant prescribing in acutely medically-ill inpatients, who are theoretically at high risk of QTc prolongation. The main objective of our study is to examine the effect of the Health Canada warning on citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting. (Source: Psychosomatics)
Source: Psychosomatics - September 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: André Do, Saeid Noohi, Dominique Elie, Artin A. Mahdanian, Ching Yu, Marilyn Segal, Karl J. Looper, Soham Rej Source Type: research

Health Canada Warning on Citalopram and EscitalopramIts Effects on Prescribing in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry
Reports have suggested that citalopram and escitalopram may prolong the QTc interval, leading Health Canada to issue a warning to limit their dosages in 2012. Little is known about the effects of this warning and similar ones (e.g., by the Food and Drug Administration) on antidepressant prescribing in inpatients with acute medical illness, who are theoretically at high risk of QTc prolongation. The main objective of our study is to examine the effect of the Health Canada warning on citalopram/escitalopram prescribing patterns in the consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry setting. (Source: Psychosomatics)
Source: Psychosomatics - September 29, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: André Do, Saeid Noohi, Dominique Elie, Artin A. Mahdanian, Ching Yu, Marilyn Segal, Karl J. Looper, Soham Rej Tags: Original Research Reports Source Type: research

Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.
Abstract Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R app...
Source: Neuropharmacology - September 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Haq RU, Anderson ML, Hollnagel JO, Worschech F, Sherkheli MA, Behrens CJ, Heinemann U Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence for ketamine's efficacy over placebo at time points up to one week in terms of the primary outcome, response rate. The effects were less certain at two weeks post-treatment. No significant results were found for the remaining ten glutamate receptor modulators, except for sarcosine being more effective than citalopram at four weeks. In terms of adverse events, the only significant differences in favour of placebo over ketamine were in regards to confusion and emotional blunting. Despite the promising nature of these preliminary results, our confidence in the evidence was limited by ris...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - September 23, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Caddy C, Amit BH, McCloud TL, Rendell JM, Furukawa TA, McShane R, Hawton K, Cipriani A Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

A population PK model for citalopram and its major metabolite, N-desmethyl citalopram, in rats
Abstract A population PK model was developed in order to simultaneously describe citalopram and its major metabolite, n-desmethyl citalopram, plasma concentrations in two different strain of rats after intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration of citalopram. Citalopram was administered to Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats at doses: 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg IV and 10 mg/kg PO. The compound was dosed orally to Wistar rats at doses: 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg. Plasma samples were collected for citalopram and metabolite. Pharmacokinetic analyses were conducted using NONMEM 7.2. Values below the quan...
Source: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics - September 22, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Simple and Accurate Quantitative Analysis of 16 Antipsychotics and Antidepressants in Human Plasma by Ultrafast High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Conclusions: This new validated method fulfills all criteria for TDM and was successfully applied in the routine TDM of antipsychotics and antidepressants at the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - September 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Use of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and breast-feeding.
CONCLUSION: It is important that health professionals treating fertile women with a psychiatric disease discuss whether psychotropic drugs are needed during pregnancy and how it has to be administered. PMID: 26344706 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum)
Source: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum - September 11, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl Source Type: research

MiR-335 is involved in major depression disorder and antidepressant treatment through targeting GRM4
Publication date: 8 October 2015 Source:Neuroscience Letters, Volume 606 Author(s): Jing Li, Huaqing Meng, Wan Cao, Tian Qiu Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent mood disorder. Treatment of MDD includes a variety of biopsychosocial approaches. Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4 (GRM4) has been implicated in the regulation of MDD and it is seen as an attractive target for drug discovery and development. Here we reported using cellular assays and blood samples from MDD patients and showed that miR-335 was downregulated in individuals with depression compared with healthy controls. Additionally, we confirmed t...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - September 10, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Citalopram and sertraline exposure compromises embryonic bone development
L J Williams & Y Gibert (Source: Molecular Psychiatry)
Source: Molecular Psychiatry - September 8, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: D FraherJ M HodgeF M CollierJ S McMillanR L KennedyM EllisG C NicholsonK WalderS DoddM BerkJ A PascoL J WilliamsY Gibert Source Type: research

The impact of CYP2C19 polymorphisms on citalopram metabolism in patients with major depressive disorder
The objective of this study was to determine CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms and to evaluate the impact of these polymorphisms on the metabolism of citalopram in a sample of the Turkish population. We also assessed *17 polymorphism in healthy subjects in this population. MethodsThe CYP2C19 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism method (209 healthy individuals and 50 patients for CIT metabolism), and the plasma concentrations of CIT and demethylcitalopram (DCIT) were quantified by high‐performance liquid chromatography. Results and discussionThe CYP2C19*1 a...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics - September 7, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Z. Uckun, B. Baskak, E. T. Ozel‐Kizil, H. Ozdemir, H. Devrimci Ozguven, H. S. Suzen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Antidepressants and their effect on cognition in major depressive disorder.
Authors: Papakostas GI Abstract Cognitive functioning is a symptom of major depressive disorder (MDD) that deserves particular attention by clinicians and researchers. Despite the fact that cognitive dysfunction represents a symptom of MDD as well as a functional outcome measure, cognition has been insufficiently investigated in antidepressant trials. While, until recently, few placebo-controlled trials have measured cognition in MDD, those examples which did have consisted of older adults. Of agents tested thus far in placebo-controlled trials (citalopram, duloxetine, vortioxetine), only the latter has been studie...
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - September 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research

Enantiospecific effects of chiral drugs on cytochrome P450 inhibition in vitro.
Abstract 1. The aim of this work was to examine the differences in the inhibitory potency of individual enantiomers and racemic mixtures of selected chiral drugs on human liver microsomal cytochromes P450. 2. The interaction of enantiomeric forms of six drugs (tamsulosin, tolterodine, citalopram, modafinil, zopiclone, ketoconazole) with nine cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2B6, CYP2A6, CYP1A2) was examined. HPLC methods were used to estimate the extent of the inhibition of specific activity in vitro. 3. Tamsulosin (TAM) and tolterodine (TOL) inhibited CYP3A4 act...
Source: Xenobiotica - September 4, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Krasulova K, Siller M, Holas O, Dvorak Z, Anzenbacher P Tags: Xenobiotica Source Type: research

Retrospective Pilot Study for Analysis of Antidepressant Serum Concentrations of Citalopram and Venlafaxine during Inflammation
The objective of this study was to find out whether elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased serum concentrations of the antidepressants citalopram and venlafaxine. Methods: Therapeutic drug monitoring request forms of psychiatric patients were screened retrospectively. The serum concentrations in relation to the daily doses [(C/D) (ng/ml/mg)] and the metabolic ratios (metabolite/drug) were compared intraindividually under normal (5 mg/l) condition by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Elevated levels of CRP were not associated with a significant (P>0.05) increase in C/...
Source: Pharmacopsychiatry - September 3, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Hefner, G.Shams, M. E. E.Unterecker, S.Falter, T.Hiemke, C. Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Interventions for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Neurocognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review of the Literature
Abstract: Neurocognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease (previously termed Alzheimer’s dementia) (AD) is the most common form of cognitive impairment worldwide. Given the anticipated increase in the population aged 65 and over, the prevalence of persons with AD is expected to increase exponentially during the next 30 years. Noncognitive neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) commonly occur in AD and are associated with adverse outcomes for patients and their caregivers. This review summarizes randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2004 and 2014 with a primary outcome measure of change in symptom...
Source: Harvard Review of Psychiatry - September 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

The Association Between Latent Depression Subtypes And Remission After Treatment With Citalopram: A Latent Class Analysis With Distal Outcome
The objectives were to characterize latent depression subtypes by symptoms, evaluate sex differences in and examine correlates of these subtypes, and examine the association between subtype and symptom remission after citalopram treatment. (Source: Journal of Affective Disorders)
Source: Journal of Affective Disorders - September 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Christine M. Ulbricht, Anthony J. Rothschild, kate L. Lapane Source Type: research

Systematic forensic toxicological analysis by GC ‐MS in serum using automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system
Non‐targeted screening of body fluids for psychoactive agents is an essential task for forensic toxicology. The challenge is the identification of xenobiotics of interest from background noise and endogenous matrix components. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of an Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) based toxicological serum screening. One hundred fifty serum samples submitted to the authors´ laboratory for systematic forensic toxicological analysis underwent GC‐MS screening after neutral and basic liquid...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - September 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marcel Grapp, Hans H. Maurer, Herbert Desel Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Polypyrrole/magnetic nanoparticles composite as an efficient sorbent for dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of antidepressant drugs from biological fluids
In this study, polypyrrole/magnetic nanoparticles composites in the presence of two different dopants were synthesized with the aid of chemical oxidative polymerization process for dispersive-μ-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE). The synthesized magnetic sorbents were characterized by various techniques. The results exhibited that the nanocomposite modified by polypyrrole with sodium perchlorate as a dopant demonstrated higher extraction efficiency for citalopram (CIT) and sertraline (STR) as the model compounds. This nanosorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection was applied for ex...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - August 26, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analyzing Information Seeking and Drug-Safety Alert Response by Health Care Professionals as New Methods for Surveillance
Conclusions: Understanding the information-seeking behavior associated with online evidence sources can offer insight into the information needs of health professionals and enable large-scale medical surveillance. Our Web log mining approach has the potential to monitor responses to FDA alerts at a national level. Our findings can also inform the design and content of evidence-based medical information resources such as UpToDate. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Alison CallahanIgor PernekGregor StiglicJure LeskovecHoward R StrasbergNigam Haresh Shah Source Type: research

The effectiveness and limitations of regulatory warnings for the safe prescribing of citalopram
Kevin J Friesen, Shawn C BugdenFaculty of Health Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Citalopram is the most commonly prescribed antidepressant in Canada. Concerns have been raised about its cardiac safety, and a dose-dependent prolongation of the QT interval has been documented. Drug interactions involving concomitant use of other medications that prolong the QT interval or increase citalopram levels by interfering with its metabolism increase the cardiac risk. Regulatory bodies (Health Canada and the US Food and Drug Administration) issued warnings and required labeling c...
Source: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety - August 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety Source Type: research

Citalopram prescribing changes post regulatory warnings
Friesen KJ, Bugden SC (Source: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety)
Source: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety - August 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sinus arrest during Citalopram treatment: dose- or age- related?
Citalopram is the most selective of the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors that is used for long-term antidepressant treatment with relative cardiovascular safety [1]. Citalopram has no significant reported effect on blood pressure, cardiac conduction nor heart rate, but exacerbation of preexisting bradycardia has been reported [2,3]. The emphasis on the need for long-term antidepressant treatment in elderly patients suffering from depression has required that particular attention be paid to cardiovascular safety in this age group [4]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 17, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Polychronis Dilaveris, Alexios Antonopoulos, Christos Antoniou, Petros Arsenos, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Dimitrios Tousoulis Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Sinus arrest during citalopram treatment: Dose- or age-related?
Citalopram is the most selective of the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors that is used for long-term antidepressant treatment with relative cardiovascular safety [1]. Citalopram has no significant reported effect on blood pressure, cardiac conduction nor heart rate, but exacerbation of preexisting bradycardia has been reported [2,3]. The emphasis on the need for long-term antidepressant treatment in elderly patients suffering from depression has required that particular attention be paid to cardiovascular safety in this age group [4]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 17, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Polychronis Dilaveris, Alexios Antonopoulos, Christos Antoniou, Petros Arsenos, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Dimitrios Tousoulis Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Antidepressants for people with epilepsy and depression
Conclusion Current evidence suggests antidepressants of various classes are effective in treating depressive symptoms associated with epilepsy. However we have no high quality evidence of informing on the best choice of antidepressant drug or class of drug in treating depression in patients with epilepsy. This review provides low quality evidence that SSRIs are not associated with seizure exacerbation, but there are currently no data comparing antidepressant classes. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - August 13, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Maguire, M. J., Weston, J., Singh, J., Marson, A. G. Tags: Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Epilepsy and seizures, Child and adolescent psychiatry, Mood disorders (including depression), Drugs: musculoskeletal and joint diseases MEMBERS ' POSTERS Source Type: research

Serotonergic drugs for management of behavioural symptoms of frontotemporal dementia: a systematic review
Conclusion The systematic review provides evidence for use of serotonergic drugs for management of behavioural symptoms of FTD, though the overall effect size for the drugs was found to be statistically non-significant. There is paucity of research data on the topic, and scope for evidence from large pragmatic randomised controlled trials, to further inform clinical practice. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - August 13, 2015 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Bhandari, N. Tags: Dementia, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Anxiety disorders (including OCD and PTSD), Memory disorders (psychiatry), Personality disorders MEMBERS ' POSTERS Source Type: research

Formation of GSH-trapped reactive metabolites in human liver microsomes, S9 fraction, HepaRG-cells, and human hepatocytes
The objective was to compare several in vitro human liver-derived subcellular and cellular incubation systems for the formation of GSH-trapped reactive metabolites. Incubations of pooled human liver microsomes, human liver S9 fractions, HepaRG-cells, and human hepatocytes were performed with glutathione as a trapping agent. Experiments with liver S9 were performed under two conditions, using only NADPH and using a full set of cofactors enabling also conjugative metabolism. Ten structurally different compounds were used as a test set, chosen as either “positive” (ciprofloxacin, clozapine, diclofenac, ethinyl est...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - August 10, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Analytical Challenge in Postmortem Toxicology Applied to a Human Body Found into a Lake after Three Years Immersion.
Abstract The body of a 30-year-old woman was found in Como lake at a depth of about 120 meters in her own car after 3 years of immersion. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychoactive drugs as well as alcohol biomarkers in biological matrices. The following analyses were initially performed: GC-MS systematic toxicological analysis on biological fluids and tissues; GC-MS analysis of drugs of abuse on pubic hair; direct ethanol metabolite determination in pubic hair by LC-MS/MS. After 7 years, the samples, that had been stored at -20°C, were re-analyzed and submitted to an LC-MS/MS targeted s...
Source: Journal of Forensic Sciences - August 10, 2015 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Morini L, Vignali C, Tricomi P, Groppi A Tags: J Forensic Sci Source Type: research

Time to Response to Citalopram Treatment for Agitation in Alzheimer Disease.
CONCLUSION: Treatment with citalopram for agitation in AD needs to be at least 9 weeks in duration to allow sufficient time for full response. Study duration is an important factor to consider in the design of clinical trials for agitation in AD. PMID: 26238225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - August 7, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research

The 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter is functional in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation and is regulated by Interleukin-1 beta.
Abstract Abnormal human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs) proliferation and migration are key factors in coronary artery restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Platelets release 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), which is a strong mitogen for pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration. Here, we investigated the effects of 5-HT and role of 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) on hCASMCs proliferation and migration. The 5-HT (10(-6)-10(-5) mol/l) significantly increased hCASMCs proliferation and migration, and these effects were inhibited by fluoxetine (10(-5) mol/l) and citalopram (10(-...
Source: exp Mol Med - August 2, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wang QJ, Wang D, Tang CC Tags: Int J Clin Exp Med Source Type: research

Effect of Vortioxetine vs. Escitalopram on Sexual Functioning in Adults with Well‐Treated Major Depressive Disorder Experiencing SSRI‐Induced Sexual Dysfunction
This study compared the effects of vortioxetine and escitalopram on sexual functioning in adults with well‐treated MDD experiencing treatment‐emergent sexual dysfunction (TESD). MethodsParticipants treated with, and responding to, citalopram, paroxetine, or sertraline were randomized to switch to either vortioxetine (10/20 mg; n = 225) or escitalopram (10/20 mg; n = 222) for 8 weeks. Sexual function was assessed using the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire Short Form (CSFQ‐14), and antidepressant efficacy was assessed using the Montgomery‐Åsberg Depression Ra...
Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine - August 1, 2015 Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Paula L. Jacobsen, Atul R. Mahableshwarkar, Yinzhong Chen, Lambros Chrones, Anita H. Clayton Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Systematic forensic toxicological analysis by GC‐MS in serum using automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system
Non‐targeted screening of body fluids for psychoactive agents is an essential task for forensic toxicology. The challenge is the identification of xenobiotics of interest from background noise and endogenous matrix components. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of an Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) for gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) based toxicological serum screening. One hundred fifty serum samples submitted to the authors´ laboratory for systematic forensic toxicological analysis underwent GC‐MS screening after neutral and basic liquid...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - August 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marcel Grapp, Hans H. Maurer, Herbert Desel Tags: Research article Source Type: research

The role of serotonergic mechanism in the rat prefrontal cortex for controlling the micturition reflex: an in vivo microdialysis study
AimsTo investigate the role of the PFC in the micturition reflex using an in vivo microdialysis study in rats. MethodsAdult female Sprague‐Dawley rats were used and microdyalysis in the PFC and cystometrography (CMG) were performed under consciousness and free movement in the present study. Experiment 1: Samples including extracellular neurotransmitters were collected by microdyalysis and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. At the same time, CMG were performed to measure intercontraction interval (ICI) and maximum voiding pressure (MVP).  Experiment 2: SSRI (citalopram, 1 µM) was admin...
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - July 31, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Hiroki Chiba, Takahiko Mitsui, Takeya Kitta, Yu Ohmura, Kimihiko Moriya, Yukiko Kanno, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Nobuo Shinohara Tags: Original Basic Science Article Source Type: research

Use of selective serotonin re‐uptake inhibitors and the heart rate corrected QT interval in a real‐life setting: the population‐based Rotterdam Study
ConclusionsAlthough no SSRI class effect was observed, use of citalopram was associated with a longer QTcF, even after considering the recommended restrictions. Other SSRIs may not give a clinically relevant QTcF prolongation. (Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - July 29, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nevena M. Maljuric, Raymond Noordam, Nikkie Aarts, Maartje N. Niemeijer, Marten E. Berg, Albert Hofman, Jan A. Kors, Bruno H. Stricker, Loes E. Visser Tags: Drug Safety Source Type: research

Poorer Drinking Outcomes with Citalopram Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Trial
ConclusionsThis trial does not support the use of citalopram in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The results suggest that the use of SSRIs among depressed and nondepressed alcohol‐dependent individuals early in recovery, prior to the onset of abstinence, may be contraindicated. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research - July 24, 2015 Category: Addiction Authors: Dara A. Charney, Laura M. Heath, Eugenia Zikos, Jorge Palacios‐Boix, Kathryn J. Gill Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Poorer Drinking Outcomes with Citalopram Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: This trial does not support the use of citalopram in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The results suggest that the use of SSRIs among depressed and nondepressed alcohol-dependent individuals early in recovery, prior to the onset of abstinence, may be contraindicated. PMID: 26208048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - July 24, 2015 Category: Addiction Authors: Charney DA, Heath LM, Zikos E, Palacios-Boix J, Gill KJ Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Modulation of muscarinic system with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressant attenuates depression in mice
Paramdeep Singh, Thakur Gurjeet SinghIndian Journal of Pharmacology 2015 47(4):388-393Objective: Several studies suggest that muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine is a rapidly acting antidepressant for the treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the possibility of synergistic potential of scopolamine with antidepressants for the treatment of depression without memory impairment in mice. Materials and Methods: Antidepressants such as citalopram, duloxetine, fluvoxamine, and venlafaxine at their median effective dose that is 12.5, 42.8, 17.5, 15.7 mg/kg p.o., respectively, ...
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - July 21, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Paramdeep SinghThakur Gurjeet Singh Source Type: research

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Elderly Patients
Background: Elderly patients are at increased risk for elevated serum concentrations from treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The aim of this study was to examine the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of SSRIs in elderly compared with younger patients. Methods: All serum concentration measurements of SSRIs (escitalopram, citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) performed at our laboratory in 2011 were included. The use of TDM (relative frequency) in older versus younger patients was examined by comparing the use of TDM in patients aged 60 years or older with that i...
Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - July 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Common Questions About the Pharmacologic Management of Depression in Adults.
Abstract One in 11 U.S. adults currently meets diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, and a similar number report that they have taken an antidepressant medication in the past 30 days. In the primary care population, medications are modestly superior to placebo in achieving remission, with a number needed to treat of seven or eight for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and seven to 16 for tricyclic antidepressants. The benefit of antidepressants over placebo is more pronounced in patients with severe depression. Second-generation antidepressants are generally considered first-line therapy. Specif...
Source: American Family Physician - July 15, 2015 Category: Primary Care Authors: Kovich H, DeJong A Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research

Differential Modulation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 channels by antidepressant drugs.
ine M Abstract Antidepressant drugs of the SSRI family are used as a third-line treatment for neuropathic pain. In contrast MAOi antidepressants, that also increase extracellular serotonin bioavailability have little or no effects on this condition. In addition to their action of the serotonin transporter, some SSRI have been shown to inhibit voltage gated sodium channels. Here we investigated the potential inhibition of SSRIs and MAOi antidepressants on Nav1.7 or Nav1.8, which are expressed in sensory neurons and play an important role in pain sensation. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique on HEK293 cell...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - July 14, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thériault O, Poulin H, Beaulieu JM, Chahine M Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Successful treatment of agitation and aggression with prazosin in an elderly patient with dementia and comorbid heart disease
Publication date: Available online 10 July 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics Author(s): Matthew J. Greve , David DesJarlais , Iqbal Ahmed An elderly male with dementia was admitted for increasing aggression and agitation. He was initially treated with risperidone, citalopram, and memantine, as well as nonpharmacological interventions such as behavioral approaches, environmental modifications, and maintaining sleep routines without improvement. He was treated with the addition of the alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin, with a subsequent reduction in the number of doses of antipsychotic med...
Source: Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics - July 11, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.
This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID: 26159649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology)
Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology - July 10, 2015 Category: Toxicology Authors: Bruccoleri RE, Burns MM Tags: J Med Toxicol Source Type: research

Novel Azido-Iodo Photoaffinity Ligands for the Human Serotonin Transporter Based on the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (S)-Citalopram
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00682 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - July 8, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Vivek Kumar, Nageswari Yarravarapu, David J. Lapinsky, Danielle Perley, Bruce Felts, Michael J. Tomlinson, Roxanne A. Vaughan, L. Keith Henry, John R. Lever and Amy Hauck Newman Source Type: research