Citalopram Discontinuation More Harmful Than Gradual Dosage Reduction?
PMID: 28457157 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - May 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Krijnsen PJC, van Os TWDP, Wunderink L Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Citalopram Discontinuation More Harmful Than Gradual Dosage Reduction?
American Journal of Psychiatry,Volume 174, Issue 5, Page 485-485, May 01, 2017. (Source: American Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Psychiatry - May 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clarifying Methods in a Study of Outcomes of Citalopram Dosage Risk Mitigation in a Veteran Population: Response to Krijnsen et al.
American Journal of Psychiatry,Volume 174, Issue 5, Page 485-486, May 01, 2017. (Source: American Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: American Journal of Psychiatry - May 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Improvement of Escitalopram-Induced Sweating With Citalopram.
Authors: Kolli V, Rainville CT PMID: 28426928 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders)
Source: The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders - April 22, 2017 Category: Primary Care Tags: Prim Care Companion CNS Disord Source Type: research

Cross ‐species studies of cognition relevant to drug discovery: A translational approach
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross‐species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross‐species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the sel...
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - April 22, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: TW Robbins Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE THEMED ISSUE Source Type: research

Rivastigmine and citalopram treatment for Alzheimers disease in every day clinical praxis. (P4.195)
Conclusions:The combination of rivastigmine and citalopram had no better results than rivastigmine alone in patients with AD.Disclosure: Dr. Pathak has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pandit has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ghimire has nothing to disclose. Dr. Gaire has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 17, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Pathak, k. P., Pandit, A., Ghimire, B. d., Gaire, T. Tags: Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology: Neurodegenerative Disorders Source Type: research

A Pilot Study: Cardiac Parameters in Children Receiving New-Generation Antidepressants
Conclusions: Although limited by a relatively small sample size, these results suggest that therapeutic doses of non-TCA antidepressants when used in children do not seem to be associated with prolonged QTc interval or other adverse cardiovascular effects. (Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology - April 15, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Validation of a dried blood spot method for therapeutic drug monitoring of citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone and its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone using HPLC –MS
Publication date: 5 June 2017 Source:Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 140 Author(s): Johanna Weber, Stefanie Oberfeld, Andrea Bonse, Klaus Telger, Rainer Lingg, Georg Hempel Citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone are frequently prescribed for psychiatric illnesses such as depression and psychosis or for aggressive behavior in elderly patients with dementia. The plasma concentrations vary greatly between patients, especially in elderly patients. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) increases the safety of antipsychotic treatment and a more rapid response to treatment may be achieved. To facilit...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - April 10, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and demethylcitalopram in human whole blood by chiral LC –MS/MS and application in forensic cases
In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0.10 g) were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting the pH with 2 M NaOH. The analytes were separated on a 250 × 4.6 mm Chirobiotic V, 5 μm column by isocratic elution with methanol:ammonia:acetic acid (1000:1:1) using an ultra‐high‐pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system. Quantification was performed by tandem mass spec...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - April 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sys Stybe Johansen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Abstract 049: Smart Rx [Session Title: Poster Session I]
Conclusion: Use of prescription drugs known to cause major or moderate adverse events among patients with HF is quite common. An automated software platform for rapid real-time assessment of drug disease interactions can help identify gaps in care and help improve the quality of care among patients with cardiovascular disease and multiple comorbidities. (Source: Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes)
Source: Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes - March 31, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gandhi, S.-C. C., Zern, E. K., Majmudar, M. D. Tags: Session Title: Poster Session I Source Type: research

Double-blind switch study of vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder
Approximately 40% of patients treated for depression do not respond to a trial of an antidepressant. The aim of the proposed study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of switching to vilazodone in patients with major depressive disorder who are unresponsive or only partially responsive to a trial of citalopram. Seventy-nine adults with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an open-label study of citalopram (20 mg/day) for 6 weeks. Those still symptomatic after 6-weeks of citalopram were randomly assigned to either a higher dose of citalopram (40 mg/day) or to vilazodone in a double-blind trial for 6 ...
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - March 30, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Is Really Crocus Sativus as Effective as Citalopram in the Treatment of Depression?
Pharmacopsychiatry DOI: 10.1055/s-0043-105075 © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Pharmacopsychiatry)
Source: Pharmacopsychiatry - March 28, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N. Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Early Symptom Trajectories as Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Citalopram Versus Placebo.
CONCLUSIONS: The subgroup of citalopram-treated patients exhibiting better symptom trajectory early in a trial are likely to have beneficial outcomes relative to placebo. Future research should focus on developing reliable pre-treatment clinical and biological measures to identify this subgroup. PMID: 28318797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - March 23, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sigma-1 Receptor Agonists and Their Clinical Implications in Neuropsychiatric Disorders.
Authors: Albayrak Y, Hashimoto K Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that sigma-1 receptors play a role in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as in the mechanisms of some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Among the SSRIs, the order of affinity for sigma-1 receptors is as follows: fluvoxamine> sertraline> fluoxetine> escitalopram> citalopram>> paroxetine. Some SSRIs (e.g., fluvoxamine, fluoxetine and escitalopram) and other drugs (donepezil , ifenprodil , dehydroepiandeterone (DHEA)) potentiate nerve-growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cel...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - March 22, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

Citalopram amplifies the influence of living conditions on mood in depressed patients enrolled in the STAR*D study
Branchi (Source: Translational Psychiatry)
Source: Translational Psychiatry - March 21, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: F Chiarotti A Viglione A Giuliani I Branchi Source Type: research

An update on the advancements in the treatment of agitation in Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Porsteinsson AP, Antonsdottir IM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with significant negative outcomes for patients and their caregivers. Agitation, one of the most distressing NPS, lacks well-established long term interventions that are both effective and safe. While nonpharmacological interventions are suggested as first-line treatment, they aren't effective in managing symptoms for every patient, resulting in pharmacological interventions for some patients. Traditionally these interventions consist of off-label use of antipsychotics, sedativ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 18, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Dapoxetine induces neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by inhibiting calcium signaling and mitochondrial depolarization in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
Abstract Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have an inhibitory effect on various ion channels including Ca(2+) channels. We used fluorescent dye-based digital imaging, whole-cell patch clamping and cytotoxicity assays to examine whether dapoxetine, a novel rapid-acting SSRI, affect glutamate-induced calcium signaling, mitochondrial depolarization and neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Pretreatment with dapoxetine for 10min inhibited glutamate-induced intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) increases in a concentration-dependent manner (Half maximal inhibitory concentr...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - March 16, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jeong I, Seon Yang J, Jae Hong Y, Jung Kim H, June Hahn S, Hee Yoon S Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Further evaluation of mechanisms associated with the antidepressant-like signature of scopolamine in mice.
Abstract Conventional antidepressants lack efficacy for many patients (treatment-resistant depression or TRD) and generally take weeks to produce full therapeutic response in others. Emerging data has identified certain drugs such as ketamine as rapidly-acting antidepressants for major depressive disorder and TRD. Scopolamine, a drug used to treat motion sickness and nausea, has also been demonstrated to function as a rapidly-acting antidepressant. The mechanisms associated with efficacy in TRD patients and rapid onset of action have been suggested to involve a-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (A...
Source: CNS and Neurological Disorders Drug Targets - March 9, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Martin AE, Schober DA, Nikolayev A, Tolstikov VV, Anderson WH, Higgs RE, Kuo MS, Laksmanan A, Catlow JT, Li X, Felder CC, Witkin JM Tags: CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research

Determination of drugs in plasma samples by disposable pipette extraction with C18-BSA phase and liquid chromatography –tandem mass spectrometry
Publication date: 30 May 2017 Source:Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 139 Author(s): Mônia Ap. Lemos Pinto, Israel D. de Souza, Maria Eugênia C. Queiroz This work describes restricted access material (RAM) constituted of porous octadecylsilane particles with the outer surface covered with bovine serum albumin (C18-BSA) as a stationary phase to extract drugs from plasma samples by disposable pipette extraction (DPX) for further analysis by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The C18-BSA phase simultaneously excluded macromolecules by chemical diffusion...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - March 7, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Depressive-like effect of prenatal exposure to DDT involves global DNA hypomethylation and impairment of GPER1/ESR1 protein levels but not ESR2 and AHR/ARNT signaling
This study demonstrated the isomer-specific induction of depressive-like behavior and impairment of Htr1a/serotonin signaling in one-month-old mice that were prenatally exposed to DDT. The effects were reversed by the antidepressant citalopram as evidenced in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests in the male and female mice. Prenatally administered DDT accumulated in mouse brain as determined with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, led to global DNA hypomethylation, and altered the levels of methylated DNA in specific genes. The induction of depressive-like behavior and impairment of Htr1a...
Source: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - March 3, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Remission in visual hallucinatory experiences after citalopram treatment in a patient with dementia
(Source: Geriatrics and Gerontology International)
Source: Geriatrics and Gerontology International - February 27, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Ahmet Ozturk, Halit Yasar, Murat Gulsun, Adem Bal ıkcı, Ergun Bozoglu, Mehmet Ilkin Naharcı, Ozgur Boyraz, Hasan Oztın, Huseyin Doruk Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Beyond negative valence: 2-week administration of a serotonergic antidepressant enhances both reward and effort learning signals
by Jacqueline Scholl, Nils Kolling, Natalie Nelissen, Michael Browning, Matthew F. S. Rushworth, Catherine J. Harmer To make good decisions, humans need to learn about and integrate different sources of appetitive and aversive information. While serotonin has been linked to value-based decision-making, its role in learning is less clear, with acute manipulations often producing inconsistent results. Here, we sho w that when the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) are studied over longer timescales, learning is robustly improved. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonan...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - February 16, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Jacqueline Scholl Source Type: research

Effects of acute dopaminergic and serotonergic manipulations in the ACI paradigm depend on the basal valence of cognitive judgement bias in rats.
Abstract Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a DA precursor (dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; L-DOPA), but not the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, increases an optimism bias in humans. To test whether dopamine might play a similar role in non-human animals, in the present study, we evaluated the effects of acute injections of L-DOPA, the D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol, and the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. Three different doses of each...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - February 14, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Golebiowska J, Rygula R Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Estimation of amount of selected pharmaceuticals sorbed onto digested sludge from wastewater treatment plant Bratislava-Petr žalka.
Estimation of amount of selected pharmaceuticals sorbed onto digested sludge from wastewater treatment plant Bratislava-Petržalka. Environ Res. 2017 Feb 06;155:31-35 Authors: Ivanová L, Fáberová M, Mackuľak T, Grabic R, Bodík I Abstract Antibiotics and antidepressants are among the most successful drugs used for human therapy. Their concentration in influent on WWTP is relative high and there can be removed by biodegradation or sorption. The aim of this study was to define the amounts of sorbed pharmaceuticals on digested sludge from WWTP Bratislava - Petržalka. The amou...
Source: Environmental Research - February 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ivanová L, Fáberová M, Mackuľak T, Grabic R, Bodík I Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

The six most widely used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors decrease androgens and increase estrogens in the H295R cell line.
tyrishave B Abstract Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used as first line of treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD) are known to exert negative effects on the endocrine system and fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible endocrine disrupting effect of six SSRIs, fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram and its active enantiomer escitalopram, sertraline and fluvoxamine using the OECD standardized and validated human in vitro adrenocortical H295R cell assay. All the major steroids, including progestagens, corticoids, androgens and estrogens were analysed using a fully val...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - February 5, 2017 Category: Toxicology Authors: Hansen CH, Larsen LW, Sørensen AM, Halling-Sørensen B, Styrishave B Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research

Early Symptom Trajectories as Predictors of Treatment Outcome for Citalopram Versus Placebo
We examined whether depressed patients in a large clinical trial exhibit distinct trajectories of early symptom change that predict differential response to medication or placebo. (Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - February 3, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Sigal Zilcha-Mano, Steven P. Roose, Patrick J. Brown, Bret R. Rutherford Tags: Regular Research Articles Source Type: research

Inhibition of the NMDA and AMPA receptor channels by antidepressants and antipsychotics.
In this study we systematically studied action of seven drugs (Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Desipramine, Amitriptyline, Atomoxetine, Chlorpromazine, and Clozapine) on NMDA receptors and Ca(2+)-permeable and -impermeable AMPA receptors in rat brain neurons by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Except for weak effect of fluoxetine, all drugs were virtually inactive against Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors. Fluoxetine and desipramine significantly inhibited Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (IC50 = 43±7 and 105±12 µM, respectively). Desipramine, atomoxetine and chlorpromazine inhibited NMDA receptors in clinicall...
Source: Brain Research - February 3, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Barygin OI, Nagaeva EI, Tikhonov DB, Belinskaya DA, Vanchakova NP, Shestakova NN Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response: A polygenic approach
Discussion We identified no significant predictive effect using PRS between pharmacogenetic studies. The genetic liability to MDD or schizophrenia did not predict response to antidepressants, suggesting differences between the genetic component of depression and treatment response. Larger or more homogeneous studies will be necessary to obtain a polygenic predictor of antidepressant response. (Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry)
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - February 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

66-Year-Old Woman With Falls and Confusion
A 66-year-old woman with a medical history of vertigo, nicotine dependence, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented to the emergency department with recent-onset generalized weakness, headache, confusion, and frequent falls, which had progressed over the past months. She did not have visual symptoms, tongue biting, incontinence, dysarthria, cardiopulmonary symptoms, or constitutional symptoms. Her home medications consisted of aspirin, atenolol, citalopram, gemfibrozil, lisinopril, lovastatin, omeprazole, and a multivitamin. (Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings)
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - February 1, 2017 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Jordan K. Schaefer, Hassan B. Alkhateeb, Carrie A. Thompson Tags: Residents' clinic Source Type: research

Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and demethylcitalopram in human whole blood by chiral LC ‐MS/MS and application in forensic cases
In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS) method is developed for the measurement of citalopram and demethylcitalopram enantiomers in whole blood and is applied to forensic cases. Whole blood samples (0.10 g) were extracted with butyl acetate after adjusting the pH with 2 M NaOH. The analytes were separated on a 250 x 4.6 mm Chirobiotic V, 5 µm column by isocratic elution with methanol:ammonia:acetic acid (1000:1:1) using an ultra‐high‐pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) system. Quantification was performed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/...
Source: Drug Testing and Analysis - February 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sys Stybe Johansen Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Medications Used in the Treatment of Depression: An Analysis of Cases Reported to U.S. Poison Control Centers, 2000-2014.
CONCLUSIONS: Serious outcomes after overdose or nonintentional exposures to medications used to treat depression have risen dramatically over the past 15 years. The present data suggest that the morbidity and mortality risks vary substantially among these medications. These differences become important when selecting treatments for patients with depression, especially those at increased risk for suicide. PMID: 28135844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Psychiatry - January 31, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nelson JC, Spyker DA Tags: Am J Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessment of Lemna minor (duckweed) and Corbicula fluminea (freshwater clam) as potential indicators of contaminated aquatic ecosystems: responses to presence of psychoactive drug mixtures.
Florence G Abstract The pharmaceutical products are emerging pollutants continuously released into the environment, because they cannot be effectively removed by the wastewater treatment plants. In recent years, questions have been raised concerning the environmental risks related to these pollutants. The goal of this research was to evaluate the responses in Lemna minor after 7 days and in Corbicula fluminea after differing durations (1, 3, 7, and 19 days) of exposure to the psychoactive drug mixture (valproic acid, citalopram, carbamazepine, cyamemazine, hydroxyzine, oxazepam, norfluoxetine, lorazepam...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - January 31, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mohamed B, Jean-Yves M, Pierre M, Hélène B, Aleya L, Elsa B, Florence G Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

Serotonin enhances the impact of health information on food choice.
TW Abstract Serotonin has been implicated in promoting self-control, regulation of hunger and physiological homeostasis, and regulation of caloric intake. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of serotonin on caloric intake reflect purely homeostatic mechanisms, or whether serotonin also modulates cognitive processes involved in dietary decision making. We investigated the effects of an acute dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on choices between food items that differed along taste and health attributes, compared with placebo and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Twenty-...
Source: Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience - January 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vlaev I, Crockett MJ, Clark L, Müller U, Robbins TW Tags: Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci Source Type: research

More ACTIONS needed to reach a consensus on adjunctive antidepressant therapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia
ABSTRACT FROM: Barnes TR, Leeson VC, Paton C, et al.. Antidepressant Controlled Trial For Negative Symptoms In Schizophrenia (ACTIONS): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial. Health Technol Assess 2016;20:1–46. What is already known on this topic? Persistent negative symptoms which do not respond to antipsychotic regimens are experienced by 15–20% of patients with schizophrenia.1 Antidepressants have been the most studied augmentation strategy in these patients;2 however, previous findings are inconsistent in terms of their potential benefits. Methods of the study In this double-blind, p...
Source: Evidence-Based Mental Health - January 20, 2017 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Akhondzadeh, S., Moazen-Zadeh, E. Tags: Electronic pages Source Type: research

Tramadol vs. Everything: 744 Drug Interactions and Counting
​​BY THOMAS BARROWS, MDA 43-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with complaints of anxiety, intermittent “cramping” in her left hand, and jerking movements of her body that had been going on for five days. She had depression following the death of her son 14 months earlier, for which she was started on Effexor 37.5 mg once daily two weeks earlier.​One week before this visit, the patient had back pain and headache, for which she was evaluated at a local emergency department. She had lumbar x-rays showing mild degenerative changes in her spine and a normal head CT scan. The emergency p...
Source: The Case Files - January 17, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Investigation of antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions and cognitive and motor side effects of four N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in mice
This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like actions, and cognitive and motor side effects of four NMDAR antagonists. MK-801, ketamine, S-ketamine, RO 25-6981 and the positive control, citalopram, were tested for antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects in mice using the forced-swim test, the elevated zero maze and the novelty-induced hypophagia test. Side effects were assessed using a locomotor activity test, the modified Y-maze and the rotarod test. All compounds increased swim distance in the forced-swim test. In the elevated zero maze, the GluN2B subtype-selective RO 25-6981 affected none of ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - January 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research

Effect of Maternal ±Citalopram Exposure on P11 Expression and Neurogenesis in the Mouse Fetal Brain
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00339 (Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience)
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - January 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jennifer R. King, Juan C. Velasquez, Masaaki Torii and Alexandre Bonnin Source Type: research

Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of major congenital malformations in a cohort of depressed pregnant women: an updated analysis of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort
Conclusions Antidepressants with effects on serotonin reuptake during embryogenesis increased the risk of some organ-specific malformations in a cohort of pregnant women with depression. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - January 12, 2017 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Berard, A., Zhao, J.-P., Sheehy, O. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Paediatrics, Public health Research Source Type: research

Citicoline Combination Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Conclusions: Citicoline was an effective adjuvant to citalopram in the therapy of major depressive disorder. (Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology)
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - January 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quality of Life and Functioning in Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder After Treatment With Citalopram Monotherapy
Conclusions: Findings suggested that participants with MDD + PTSD are at a greater risk for severe impairment across all domains and less likely to achieve remission from MDD after treatment with citalopram monotherapy. As such, the use of patient-reported measures of QOL and functioning may inform practicing clinicians' and clinical trial researchers' abilities to develop appropriate interventions and monitor treatment efficacy. More importantly, we encourage clinicians and health care providers to routinely screen for PTSD in patients with MDD because this at-risk group requires tailored and specific pharmacotherapy and ...
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - January 1, 2017 Category: Neurology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Analysis of Patient-reported Outcomes of Quality of Life and Functioning Before and After Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Alcohol Use Disorders
Conclusions: The overall study population demonstrated a significant response to treatment with large effect sizes in depressive symptom reduction, but to a lesser extent in QOL and functioning. Findings suggest that subjects with MDD + AUD benefited equally as MDD-no-AUD from treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) medication, yet both groups continue to experience reduced QOL and functioning after treatment. Monitoring QOL and functioning is critical to determine whether interventions that improve clinical outcomes also impact patient-centered outcomes, and our analysis suggests that there is a ...
Source: Journal of Addiction Medicine - January 1, 2017 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

The injury of serotonin on intestinal epithelium cell renewal of weaned diarrhoea mice
Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in children and weaned animals. Recent research has found that serotonin (5-HT) in the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in regulating growth and the maintenance of mucosa, which protect against diarrhoea. To determine the influence of 5-HT on intestinal epithelium cell renewal under weaned stress diarrhoea, a weaned-stress diarrhoea mouse model was established with senna infusion (15 mL/Kg)via intragastric administration and stress restraint (SR). Mice with an increase in 5-HT were induced by intraperitoneal injection with citalopram hydrobromide (CH, 10 mg/Kg). The result...
Source: European Journal of Histochemistry - December 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Unintended Consequences of Adjusting Citalopram Prescriptions Following the 2011 FDA Warning.
Authors: Gerlach LB, Kales HC, Maust DT, Chiang C, Stano C, Choe HM, Zivin K Abstract OBJECTIVES: In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a safety announcement cautioning providers against prescribing citalopram above 40 mg per day given concerns for QT prolongation. We assessed the impact of a health system quality improvement initiative to identify patients taking higher than the recommended dose of citalopram. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine primary care clinics within the University of Michigan from March 2012 to February 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patient...
Source: The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry - December 26, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Geriatr Psychiatry Source Type: research

X-ray structure based evaluation of analogs of citalopram: Compounds with increased affinity and selectivity compared with R-citalopram for the allosteric site (S2) on hSERT.
ø KP Abstract The recent publication of X-ray structures of SERT includes structures with the potent antidepressant S-Citalopram (S-Cit). Earlier predictions of ligand binding at both a primary (S1) and an allosteric modulator site (S2), were confirmed. We provide herein examples of a series of Citalopram analogs, showing distinct structure-activity relationship (SAR) at both sites that is independent of the SAR at the other site. Analogs with a higher affinity and selectivity than benchmark R-Citalopram (R-Cit) for the S2 versus the S1 site were identified. We deploy structural and computational analyses t...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters - December 21, 2016 Category: Chemistry Authors: Topiol S, Bang-Andersen B, Sanchez C, Plenge P, Loland CJ, Juhl K, Larsen K, Bregnedal P, Bøgesø KP Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Lett Source Type: research

Immediate resolution of acute, choreatic hyperkinesias following intravenous fentanyl
J Finsterer, J RettensteinerNigerian Journal of Clinical Practice 2017 20(1):119-122Acute hyperkinesia after discontinuation of tramadol in a patient with chronic pain using citalopram and pramipexole for restless legs syndrome (RLS) has not been reported. An 81-year-old female was admitted for increasing hyperkinesias of the whole body after she had discontinued tramadol 300 mg (taken during 3 months) without tapering 4 days earlier. In addition, she was on treatment with pramipexole (0.18 mg) for RLS for years, citalopram 10 mg/day for ~4 years, and fentanyl 75 μg/day for 1 year. Hyperkinesias did not respond to ben...
Source: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice - December 12, 2016 Category: Rural Health Authors: J Finsterer J Rettensteiner Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and effect on the corrected QT interval of single-dose escitalopram in healthy elderly compared with younger adults
In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics and QT effect of a single dose of escitalopram observed in the elderly without comorbidities and younger adults were generally similar. (Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology)
Source: International Clinical Psychopharmacology - December 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Psychopharmacotherapy in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
Conclusions and Relevance: Taking psychoactive drugs is possible during pregnancy, but it is important to consider various effects of the drugs. Future research should focus on prospective and longitudinal studies with an adequate evaluation of confounding variables. This should be followed by long-term studies to obtain accurate measures of child development. Target Audience: Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives: After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to identify the main categories of psychiatric drugs used during pregnancy and breastfeeding, discuss side eff...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - December 1, 2016 Category: OBGYN Tags: CME Articles Source Type: research

Long-term antidepressant treatment in general practice: changes in body mass index [Original papers]
Aims and method To discern changes in body mass index (BMI) in patients on long-term antidepressant treatment in a general practice population and establish BMI changes in patients with and without a diagnosis of diabetes. We used a retrospective observational method and identified patients on four antidepressants of interest. We excluded those who did not have start and current BMI readings within the past 3 years and noted whether or not patients had a diagnosis of diabetes. Results Long-term treatment with citalopram, fluoxetine, mirtazapine and sertraline was associated with increased BMI in two-thirds of patients. The...
Source: Psychiatric Bulletin - December 1, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chiwanda, L., Cordiner, M., Thompson, A. T., Shajahan, P. Tags: Original papers Source Type: research

A review of the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Indian water bodies.
Abstract Little information exists on the occurrence and the ultimate fate of pharmaceuticals in the water bodies in India despite being one of the world leaders in pharmaceutical production and consumption. This paper has reviewed 19 published reports of pharmaceutical occurrence in the aquatic environment in India [conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WTPs), hospital WTPs, rivers, and groundwater]. Carbamazepine (antipsychoactive), atenolol (antihypertensive), triclocarban and triclosan (antimicrobials), trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (antibacterials), ibuprofen and acetaminophen (analge...
Source: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety - December 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Balakrishna K, Rath A, Praveenkumarreddy Y, Guruge KS, Subedi B Tags: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf Source Type: research