When Taxol met tubulin Classics

When the drug Taxol® was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1993, it was a game changer for cancer patients. The compound, which arrests cell division by preventing the disassembly of tubulin microfibers, has been used over the past three decades to treat millions of cases of breast, lung, and ovarian cancer as well as Kaposi's sarcoma. In 1990, Bristol Myers Squibb applied to trademark the name Taxol, which was approved in 1992, changing the drug's generic name to paclitaxel.At the time that Taxol was entering clinical trials in the late 1970s, it also proved to be a valuable tool for cytoskeletal research. Tubulin had been discovered in the late 1960s, but it was still unclear how the soluble protein dimer polymerized (Fig. 1) to form the long, complex structures of the cytoskeleton.jbc;295/41/13994/F1F1F1Figure 1.Strands of tubulin, a protein in the cell's skeleton, photographed using a high-resolution microscopy technique. Image made by Pakorn Kanchanawong (National University of Singapore) and Clare Waterman (NHLBI, National Institutes of Health).“Back then, people were just discovering the most basic functions of tubulin and how it polymerized, and then they found a drug that affected this,” said Velia Fowler, a cell biologist at the University of Delaware and former Associate Editor at the Journal of Biological Chemistry.The drug and its cytoskeletal activity intersected in the 1981 JBC paper “Taxol-induced polymerizatio...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Classics Source Type: research

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Triple negative (progesterone receptor (PR)-, estrogen receptor (ER)-, human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2)-) breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype that affects 15-20% of the 1.7 million cases of breast cancer occurring annually.   Currently, standard treatments of TNBC include cytotoxic chemotherapies, surgery, and radiation. However, TNBC readily becomes resistant to chemotherapy, and those with TNBC are more likely to have a recurrence or die within five years compared to those with other breast cancer types. Therefore, there is a need for safer and more effective TNBC treatments to improve patient outc...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Gnagnarella P, Raimondi S, Aristarco V, Johansson HA, Bellerba F, Corso F, Gandini S Abstract Increasing scientific evidence supports the link between vitamin D and cancer risk. The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D exerts its activity by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an intracellular receptor that mediates transcriptional activation and repression of target genes. The binding of 1,25(OH)2D to VDR is able to regulate hundreds of different genes. VDR is active in virtually all tissues including the colon, breast, lung, ovary, bone, kidney, parathyroid gland, pancreatic b-cells, monocytes, T lymphocyte...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
ean-Yves Blay Franck Tirode A series of 42 patient tumors diagnosed as endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) based on the morphology but negative for JAZF1 and/or YWHAE rearrangement in FISH was analyzed by RNA-sequencing. A chromosomal rearrangement was identified in 31 (74%) of the cases and a missense mutation in known oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes in 11 (26%). Cluster analyses on the expression profiles from this series together with a control cohort composed of five samples of low grade ESS harboring a JAZF1-SUZ12 fusion, one high grade ESS harboring a BCOR-ITD, two uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumo...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2556: Impact of Wnt/β-Catenin Inhibition on Cell Proliferation through CDC25A Downregulation in Soft Tissue Sarcomas Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12092556 Authors: Esther Martinez-Font Marina Pérez-Capó Rafael Ramos Irene Felipe Carmen Garcías Pablo Luna Josefa Terrasa Javier Martín-Broto Oliver Vögler Regina Alemany Antònia Obrador-Hevia The Wnt signaling pathway is an important cellular mechanism for regulating differentiation processes as well as cell cycle events, and different inhibitors of this pathway, for example, PRI-72...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionThe decision to utilize CRS-HIPEC should involve a multidisciplinary team approach and evaluation of prognostic factors to balance the short-term morbidity of the operation with maximum long-term benefits. Large, multi-institutional groups and ongoing trials hold promise for clarifying the role of CRS-HIPEC in peritoneal surface malignancies.
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ssi D Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in various biological functions and disease processes including cancer. The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was initially identified as a lncRNA with elevated expression in primary human non-small cell lung tumors with high propensity to metastasize, and subsequently shown to be highly expressed in numerous other human cancers including breast, ovarian, prostate, cervical, endometrial, gastric, pancreatic, sarcoma, colorectal, bladder, brain, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. MALAT1 is deeply involved in several physiol...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research
             Basel, 03 August 2020 - Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced that the European Commission has granted conditional marketing authorisation for Rozlytrek®(entrectinib) for the treatment of adult and paediatric patients 12 years of age and older with solid tumours expressing a neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusion, who have a disease that is locally advanced, metastatic or where surgical resection is likely to result in severe morbidity, and who have not received a prior NTRK inhibitor, who have no satisfactory t...
Source: Roche Media News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Abstract One of the common indications of ascitic fluid examination in gynecological oncopathology is the detection and classification of malignant cells, especially in cases of clinically suspicious tubo-ovarian masses. The present study was undertaken to assess and validate the diagnostic utility of cell blocks (CBs) and compare its results with the corresponding conventional smears, prepared from effusion samples. CBs were prepared by thromboplastin technique in 220 cases. In 208 cases, diagnostic concordance between results obtained from smears and corresponding CBs was evaluated. Various antibody markers were...
Source: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Indian J Pathol Microbiol Source Type: research
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children and makes up 3% of all childhood cancers. Aveloar Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most aggressive subtype and is primarily established through a chromosomal translocation resulting in the fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Despite aggressive therapy, the 5-year survival rate for patients with high risk or recurrent Fusion Positive RMS (FP-RMS) is low (~30% and ~17%, respectively). Therefore, new therapies targeting the PAX3-FOXO1 oncogenic driver are urgently needed.   To identify inhibitors of PAX3-FOXO1, scientists at the National Cancer Institut...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Lee SJ, Hong JY, Kim K, Kim KM, Kang SY, Lee T, Kim ST, Park SH, Park YS, Lim HY, Kang WK, Lee J, Park JO Abstract Successful identification and targeting of oncogenic gene fusion is a major breakthrough in cancer treatment. Here, we investigate the therapeutic implications and feasibility of using a targeted RNA sequencing panel to identify fusion genes in gastrointestinal and rare cancers. From February through December 2017, patients with gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, gynecologic, sarcoma, or rare cancers were recruited for a clinical sequencing project at Samsung Medical Center (NCT #02593578). The ...
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
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