Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes.

Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2020;110:1-61 Authors: Thornton CR Abstract Fungi are an important but frequently overlooked cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Life-threatening fungal infections mainly occur in immunocompromised patients, and are typically caused by environmental opportunists that take advantage of a weakened immune system. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important and well-documented mold pathogen of humans, causing a number of complex respiratory diseases, including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, an often fatal disease in patients with acute leukemia or in immunosuppressed bone marrow or solid organ transplant recipients. However, non-Aspergillus molds are increasingly reported as agents of disseminated diseases, with Fusarium, Scedosporium, Lomentospora and mucormycete species now firmly established as pathogens of immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals. Despite well-documented risk factors for invasive fungal diseases, and increased awareness of the risk factors for life-threatening infections, the number of deaths attributable to molds is likely to be severely underestimated driven, to a large extent, by the lack of readily accessible, cheap, and accurate tests that allow detection and differentiation of infecting species. Early diagnosis is critical to patient survival but, unlik...
Source: Advances in Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Adv Appl Microbiol Source Type: research

Related Links:

The role of antifungal prophylaxis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be controversial, with national guidelines recommending prophylaxis based on incidence of invasive fungal infection (IFI) to each region. We performed a retrospective, interrupted time series study based on periods where fluconazole was used or not used as prophylaxis during induction for AML. There was a decrease in IFI with fluconazole; however, this was largely driven by probable Aspergillus infection seen in our non-prophylaxis cohort. Our results suggest further investigation of azoles is warranted with consideration of including risk adap...
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Conclusion: This prospective multicenter study provides information on the current incidence and outcome of IFD in the real life setting. Practice variation between the centers may help to ultimately improve antifungal management in children at highest risk for IFDs. Introduction Available data on the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children treated for a hematological malignancy or undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are mostly based on single site, retrospective studies or on studies performed prior to the availability of newer compounds such as broad-sp...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We report that the bifunctional compounds enhance the interactions between primary human neutrophils and A. fumigatus in vitro, using three microfluidic assay platforms. The bifunctional compounds significantly enhance the recruitment of neutrophils, increase hyphae killing by neutrophils in a uniform concentration of drug, and decrease hyphal tip growth velocity in the presence of neutrophils compared to the antifungal targeting moiety alone. We validated that the bifunctional compounds are also effective in vivo, using a zebrafish infection model with neutrophils expressing the appropriate EM receptor. We measured signif...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions: These results demonstrate ISAV to be a safe and effective alternative for antifungal ppx in treatment-naïve pts with AML/MDS undergoing induction therapy with a variety of different regimens. ISAV's weak inhibition of P-glycoprotein and lack of risk of QT prolongation may make ISAV particularly attractive for antifungal ppx in the era of recently approved or emerging AML therapies such as enasidenib, ivosidenib, midostaurin and quizartinib.DisclosuresBose: CTI BioPharma: Research Funding; Constellation Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Blueprint Medicines Corporation: Research Funding; Celgene Corporatio...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 613. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster II Source Type: research
Conclusions. ISV is widely used in hematological pts with IFI also in diseases other than acute myeloid leukemia and it is overall well tolerated. ORR to ISV is at least comparable with other antifungal agents. A rec/ref underlying hematological disease impacts both on OS and response to ISV, while having an IFI refractory to other antifungal agents including azoles does not seem to compromise the response to ISV, although this promising result should be confirmed in prospective studies and larger groups of patients.DisclosuresBusca: Gilead: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Sp...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 203. Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, and Immunodeficiency, including HIV and Other Infections: Poster III Source Type: research
Conclusion Surgeons should be aware of surgical complications of intestinal aspergillosis in children with hematooncological diseases requiring exploration and resection. IA is a rare event and still difficult to diagnose due to unspecific abdominal symptoms. Thus, biopsy sampling is of utmost importance to ensure diagnosis, and resection of necrotic or perforated tissue should be attempted early. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Invasive fungal infections are rare in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It compromises the antileukemia therapy should it happen. Central nervous system fungal infections carry high mortality. We here report the case of a 6.5-year-old girl who developed multiple central nervous system fungal abscesses possibly due to Aspergillus infection during induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who has been successfully managed without compromising antileukemia therapy. She has been receiving antifungal therapy and maintenance chemotherapy for 20 months from diagnosis. We reviewed literature about the optimal d...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Online Articles: Clinical and Laboratory Observations Source Type: research
  Pulmonary aspergillosis is a common opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts.1 The most frequently reported causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus.2 Aspergillus terreus
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - Category: Journals (General) Tags: ISSUE 5 Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Micafungin is associated with a good safety profile and is an interesting option for preventing invasive fungal infections in the high-risk population of patients presenting with hematological disorders. PMID: 27126350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
More News: Acute Leukemia | Aspergillosis | Aspergillus | Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy | Environmental Health | Epidemiology | Fungal Infections | Leukemia | Microbiology | Respiratory Medicine | Transplants