Global Evolution of Pathogenic Bacteria With Extensive Use of Fluoroquinolone Agents

It is well-established that the spread of many multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is predominantly clonal. Interestingly the international clones/sequence types (STs) of most pathogens emerged and disseminated during the last three decades. Strong experimental evidence from multiple laboratories indicate that diverse fitness cost associated with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones contributed to the selection and promotion of the international clones/STs of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Clostridioides difficile. The overwhelming part of the literature investigating the epidemiology of the pathogens as a function of fluoroquinolone use remain in concordence with these findings. Moreover, recent in vitro data clearly show the potential of fluoroquinolone exposure to shape the clonal evolution of Salmonella Enteritidis. The success of the international clones/STs in all these species was linked to the strains’ unique ability to evolve multiple energetically beneficial gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutations conferring high-level resistance to fluorquinolones and concomittantly permitting the acquisition of an extra resistance gene load without evoking appreciable fitness cost. Furthermore, by analyzing the clonality of multiple species, the review highlights, that in environments under high antibiotic exposure virul...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 27 March 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General SubjectsAuthor(s): Angela Di Somma, Concetta Avitabile, Arianna Cirillo, Antonio Moretta, Antonello Merlino, Luigi Paduano, Angela Duilio, Alessandra Romanelli
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
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Source: Scandinavian Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Scand J Urol Source Type: research
Source: Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research
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Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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