Plants used for the treatment of diarrhoea from Mexican flora with amoebicidal and giadicidal activity, and their phytochemical constituents

ConclusionResearch performed in the past 25 years on specialized metabolites derived from plants with antiprotozoal activity has yielded relevant findings whose results provide evidence-based support for the use of these plants in the traditional medicine of Mexico to treat diarrhoea. Toxicological and clinical trials of standardized extracts and bioactive compounds are proposed as priority future works in this research area. In addition, in vivo assays are required, of more extracts and/or pure compounds. The optimization of the pharmacological properties of the bioactive specialized metabolites through semisynthetic derivatives and computational methods could aid in developing new antiprotozoal phytomedicines and novel drugs for the treatment of these types of infections. Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanism of action of these bioactive compounds through pharmacological and molecular studies are also necessary.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Abstract Giardia is an important cause of diarrhoea, and results in post-infectious and extra-intestinal complications. This chapter presents a state-of-the art of our understanding of how this parasite may cause such abnormalities, which appear to develop at least in part in Assemblage-dependent manner. Findings from prospective longitudinal cohort studies indicate that Giardia is one of the four most prevalent enteropathogens in early life, and represents a risk factor for stunting at 2 years of age. This may occur independently of diarrheal disease, in strong support of the pathophysiological significance of th...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract A study was conducted in two different areas in Greece to investigate the presence of intestinal human parasitic infections (targeting healthy and individuals with diarrhoea). In total, 876 stool samples were collected from 822 adults and 54 children. Both sedimentation (acid/ether) and concentration/flotation techniques were performed in all samples to detect intestinal parasites. Additionally, a quantitative direct immunofluorescence assay was used specifically for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. PCR followed by sequencing was applied to genotype Giardia and Cryptosporidium positive sample...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Abstract Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are recognized by the WHO as important emerging diseases of the 21st century. Symptoms are similar and include diarrhoea and vomiting, which may be severe, even life-threatening, for the immunocompromised and children under five years of age. Between 2013 and 2017, the Institute for Public Health in Serbia recorded 10 waterborne epidemics that manifested as gastrointestinal disease. Routine testing for enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses did not identify the aetiological agents of these outbreaks. As water is not examined for the presence of protozoa in Serbia, we perfor...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
a IM, Müller N, Robertson LJ Abstract Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important intestinal parasites globally, especially in children, and in Cuba is the leading cause of chronic paediatric diarrhoea in this population. G. duodenalis is composed of eight genetic groups (or assemblages), two of which (A and B) are apparently zoonotic, occurring in both humans and other animals. However, consensus on the most appropriate genotyping scheme for optimal characterization of G. duodenalis isolates is lacking. In this article we present the results of three descriptive observational studies conducted in Havana,...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
ConclusionsAll three RDTs forCryptosporidium spp. andGiardia duodenalis evaluated in this study have a moderate sensitivity, but sufficient specificity. The main value of the RDTs is within their rapidness and their usefulness as screening assays in surveys for diarrhoea.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis are important opportunistic enteric zoonotic pathogens that cause diarrhoea and intestinal diseases in animals and humans. China is the largest producer of pigs, but whether Tibetan pigs, a unique pig breed in Tibet, are infected with E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a molecular epidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China, and identified the genotypes of these causative agents. A total of 345 faecal specimens were collected from Tibetan pigs from three Tib...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2019Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious DiseasesAuthor(s): Katharina Lichtmannsperger, Barbara Hinney, Anja Joachim, Thomas WittekAbstractTo obtain information about the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. intestinalis and C. parvum in Austrian cattle, faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves younger than 180 days of age originating from 70 farms were examined. Of the 177 faecal samples, 27.1% were positive for Giardia cysts (immunofluorescence microscopy) and 55.4% for Cryptosporidium oocysts (phase-contrast microscopy). Positive samples were character...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
AbstractGiardia is a very abundant organism bringing about diarrhoea in human beings. The focus of this analysis was the detection ofGiardia lamblia assemblages in human stool specimens in Hamadan, west of Iran, as well as the association between obtained assemblages and clinical symptoms. Faecal samples of 4066 individuals admitted to  the medical and health care facilities in Hamadan were inspected microscopically for the existence ofGiardia cysts/trophozoites, and the clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded. The DNA of positive samples  was isolated from and the nucleotide sequences of both glutamate d...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
AbstractGiardia intestinalis was included in the World Health Organization ’s Neglected Disease Initiative in 2004 as it may range from asymptomatic to chronic or severe diarrhoea and chronic disorders post-infection. The present study aimed to find out the rate of sole infection ofG. intestinalis and co-infection of this with other protozoan parasites among the inhabitants of Barak Valley region of Southern Assam by conventional and molecular detection. A total of 1168 samples were collected from different groups of individuals, all the collected samples were subjected to microscopy after specific staining by Lugol ...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the MT-PCR Small Animal Diarrhoea panel had a good and poor performance against reference assays for G. intestinalis and T. foetus, respectively. The assay is suitable for detection and differential diagnosis of G. intestinalis and moderate to high burdens of T. foetus in small animal clinical practice.Graphical abstract
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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