Closing Clostridium botulinum group I genomes using a combination of short and long-reads

Clostridium botulinum is a gram positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacterium that produces botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Closing their genomes provides information about their neurotoxin cluster arrangement(s) and location (e.g. chromosome or plasmid) which cannot be assessed using draft genomes. Therefore, we tested the use of long-read sequencing (Nanopore sequencing) in combination with short-read sequencing to close two toxin-producing strains. These genomes could be used by the Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response staff during botulism outbreaks. The genomes of two toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum strains, one from an environmental sample (83F_CFSAN034202) and the other from a clinical sample (CDC51232_CFSAN034200), were sequenced using MinION and MiSeq devices. The genomes, including the chromosomes and the plasmids, were closed by a combination of long-read and short-read sequencing. They belonged to different C. botulinum sequence types (ST), with 83F belonging to ST4 and CDC51232 to ST7. A whole genome SNP analysis clustered these two strains with strains in Lineage 2 (e.g. 6CDC297) and 4 (e.g. NCTC2916) from Group I, respectively. These two strains were also bivalent strains with the BoNTB and BoNTA4 clusters located in the larger plasmid for CDC51232, and the BoNTB and BoNTA1 clusters located both in the chromosome for 83F. Overall, this study showed the advantage of combining these two sequencing methods to obtain high quality closed C. botulinum g...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Foodborne botulism is an intoxication caused by ingestion of food containing botulinum neurotoxin. Cases of foodborne botulism are usually sporadic (single, unrelated) but outbreaks of two or more cases occur. In this mini-review we will examine the following for the period 2001–2017, in the United States: botulism surveillance data, outbreaks of botulism affecting 10 or more people, and the public health preparedness and response approach.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jun 28. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-14909-z. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn October 2019, ninety-four patients were admitted into Alexandria Poison Center (APC) with a history of ingestion of Feseekh (salted fish). In an attempt to allocate the resources, not all patients were given HBAT (botulism antitoxin heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) equine immediately. The current study aimed to portray the clinical characteristics of the cases, explore the possible relation between these characteristics and necessity of HBAT administration, explore the reliability of mouse lethal test, and establish ...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
CDC officials have issued the first comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines to help physicians, hospitals, and public health agencies respond in the event of a large-scale botulism outbreak.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Purpose of review The incidence rates of the toxin-related infectious diseases, tetanus, diphtheria and botulism declined dramatically over the past decades mainly because of the implementation of immunization programs also in low-and-middle-income countries (LAMICs) and by improving hygiene conditions. But still, single cases occur, and they need fastest possible recognition and management. Recent findings Over the past 20 years, the incidence of neonatal tetanus has declined by more than 90%. This success was achieved by immunizing women in reproductive age in areas of high risk as sub-Saharan Africa and par...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: CNS INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS: INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Edited by Erich Schmutzhard Source Type: research
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021 May 7;70(2):1-30. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr7002a1.ABSTRACTBotulism is a rare, neurotoxin-mediated, life-threatening disease characterized by flaccid descending paralysis that begins with cranial nerve palsies and might progress to extremity weakness and respiratory failure. Botulinum neurotoxin, which inhibits acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, is produced by the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum and, rarely, by related species (C. baratii and C. butyricum). Exposure to the neurotoxin occurs through ingestion of toxin (foodborne botulism), bacterial colonization of...
Source: MMWR Recomm Rep - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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