Brain free water alterations in first-episode psychosis: a longitudinal analysis of diagnosis, course of illness, and medication effects.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the presence of elevated FW at the onset of psychosis in both Sz and BD, which remains stable during the early course of the illness, with no evidence of either progression or remission. PMID: 31910929 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS.: Despite sharing a lower IQ and a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, brain abnormalities in BDo appear less pronounced (but are not absent) than in SZo. Lower ICV in SZo implies that familial risk for schizophrenia has a stronger association with stunted early brain development than familial risk for bipolar disorder. PMID: 32093799 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Psychiatry Source Type: research
Hui Xu1,2,3, Chenguang Guo1, Haining Li1, Lin Gao2, Ming Zhang1* and Yuan Wang1* 1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 3Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background and Purpose: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by unilateral, involuntary, and paroxysmal contractions of orofacial muscles. To eluci...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has b...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Beta Amyloid Deposition Is Not Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease Tracy R. Melzer1,2,3†, Megan R. Stark1,2†, Ross J. Keenan1,4, Daniel J. Myall1, Michael R. MacAskill1,2, Toni L. Pitcher1,2,3, Leslie Livingston1,2, Sophie Grenfell1, Kyla-Louise Horne1,2, Bob N. Young1, Maddie J. Pascoe1, Mustafa M. Almuqbel1,2,4, Jian Wang5, Steven H. Marsh6, David H. Miller1,2,7, John C. Dalrymple-Alford1,2,3,8 and Tim J. Anderson1,2,3,9* 1New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand 2Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand 3Brain Rese...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Ivy D. Deng1, Luke Chung2, Natasha Talwar3,4, Fred Tam1, Nathan W. Churchill3, Tom A. Schweizer3,4,5,6† and Simon J. Graham1,2*† 1Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute (SRI), Toronto, ON, Canada 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 3Neuroscience Research Program, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Toronto, ON, Canada 4Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 5Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada 6Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Univer...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: The baseline deficit in a covariance-based network-like spatial component comprising of insula and IFG is predictive of the clinical course of schizophrenia. We do not find any evidence to support the notion of symptoms per se being neurotoxic to gray matter tissue. If judiciously combined with other available predictors of clinical outcome, multivariate morphometric information can improve our ability to predict prognosis in schizophrenia.IntroductionOver the last five decades, several neuroimaging studies have reported numerous morphological abnormalities in the brain, especially in the gray matter volume (G...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we compared the dynamic resting-state local and large-scale FC between PTSD patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC; n = 22; conducted as standard deviation in resting-state local and large-scale FC over a series of sliding windows). Local dynamic FC was examined by calculating the dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo), and large-scale dynamic FC (dFC) was investigated between regions with significant dReHo group differences. For the PTSD patients, we also investigated the relationship between symptom severity and dFC/dReHo. Our results showed that PTSD patients were characterized by I) increased dynamic (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: These findings suggest that at-risk mental state patients with a transition and first-episode psychosis patients have a higher genetic risk for schizophrenia than at-risk mental state patients with no transition to psychosis; this risk was associated with psychopathological symptoms. Further analyses may allow polygenic schizophrenia-related risk scores to be used as biomarkers to predict psychosis.Cell Physiol Biochem 2018;48:1201 –1214
Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
DiscussionOur study identified the relationship between abnormalities of thalamic-limbic network and alterations of circadian gene pathway in BDP and UDP. The shared GMV abnormality was the right thalamus. PER3 might be critical to hippocampus dysfunction in UDP, and CRY2 might be critical to thalamus dysfunction at a right-hemisphere function in BDP.
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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