The olfactory deficits of depressed patients are restored after remission with venlafaxine treatment.
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether olfactory deficits improve after remission in depressed patients. Therefore, we aimed to assess in drug-free patients the olfactory performance of patients with major depressive episodes (MDE) and its change after antidepressant treatment. METHODS: In the DEP-ARREST-CLIN study, 69 drug-free patients with a current MDE in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD) were assessed for their olfactory performances and depression severity, before and after 1 (M1) and 3 (M3) months of venlafaxine antidepressant treatment. They were compared to 32 age- and sex-matched he...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Colle R, El Asmar K, Verstuyft C, Lledo PM, Lazarini F, Chappell K, Deflesselle E, Ait Tayeb AEK, Falissard B, Duron E, Rotenberg S, Costemale-Lacoste JF, David DJ, Gressier F, Gardier AM, Hummel T, Becquemont L, Corruble E Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Impact of the hospital built environment on treatment satisfaction of psychiatric in-patients.
CONCLUSIONS: As hospitals are among the most expensive facilities to build, their design should be guided by research evidence. Two design features can potentially improve patient satisfaction: family rooms off wards and mixed-sex wards. This evidence should be considered when designing or renovating psychiatric facilities. PMID: 33087185 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jovanović N, Miglietta E, Podlesek A, Malekzadeh A, Lasalvia A, Campbell J, Priebe S Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Comment on Starke et al.: 'Computing schizophrenia: ethical challenges for machine learning in psychiatry': from machine learning to student learning: pedagogical challenges for psychiatry.
PMID: 33087200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Christophe G, Jean-Arthur MF, Guillaume D Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Prospective associations between vitamin D and depression in middle-aged adults: findings from the UK Biobank cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: The prospective associations found between vitamin D status and depression suggest that both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be risk factors for the development of new-onset depression in middle-aged adults. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency (and to a lesser extent insufficiency) might be a predictor of sustained depressive symptoms in those who are already depressed. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is very common, meaning that these findings have significant implications for public health. PMID: 33081855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ronaldson A, Arias de la Torre J, Gaughran F, Bakolis I, Hatch SL, Hotopf M, Dregan A Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Using age difference and sex similarity to detect evidence of sibling influence on criminal offending.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Sibling resemblance in crime may be due to genetic relatedness, shared environment, and/or the interpersonal influence of siblings on each other. This latter process can be understood as a type of 'peer effect' in that it is based on social learning between individuals occupying the same status in the social system (family). Building on prior research, we hypothesized that sibling pairs that resemble peer relationships the most, i.e., same-sex siblings close in age, exhibit the most sibling resemblance in crime. METHODS: Drawing on administrative microdata covering Finnish children born i...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Mikkonen J, Savolainen J, Aaltonen M, Martikainen P Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Oral contraceptive use and risk of suicidal behavior among young women.
CONCLUSIONS: Young women using oral contraceptives may be at increased risk of suicidal behavior, but risk declines with increased duration of use. Analysis of former users suggests that women susceptible to depression/anxiety are more likely to cease hormonal contraceptive use. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether the observed association is attributable to a causal mechanism. PMID: 33084550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Edwards AC, Lönn SL, Crump C, Mościcki EK, Sundquist J, Kendler KS, Sundquist K Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Toward measuring effective treatment coverage: critical bottlenecks in quality- and user-adjusted coverage for major depressive disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: Decision-makers need to increase the utilization and quality of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Innovations such as telehealth for training and supervision plus non-specialist or community resources to deliver pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy could address these bottlenecks. PMID: 33077023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Vigo D, Haro JM, Hwang I, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Alonso J, Borges G, Bruffaerts R, Caldas-de-Almeida JM, de Girolamo G, Florescu S, Gureje O, Karam E, Karam G, Kovess-Masfety V, Lee S, Navarro-Mateu F, Ojagbemi A, Posada-Villa J, Sampson NA, Scott K, Stagnaro Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: VRET is an acceptable treatment for SAD patients that has significant, long-lasting efficacy, although it is possible that during long-term follow-up, VRET efficacy lessens as compared to in vivo exposure. PMID: 33070784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Horigome T, Kurokawa S, Sawada K, Kudo S, Shiga K, Mimura M, Kishimoto T Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Efficacy of non-invasive brain stimulation on cognitive functioning in brain disorders: a meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that both TMS and tDCS elicit a small trans-diagnostic effect on working memory, tDCS also improved attention/vigilance across diagnoses. Effects on the other domains were not significant. Observed ES were small, yet even slight cognitive improvements may facilitate daily functioning. While NIBS can be a well-tolerated treatment, its effects appear domain specific and should be applied only for realistic indications (i.e. to induce a small improvement in working memory or attention). PMID: 33070785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Begemann MJ, Brand BA, Ćurčić-Blake B, Aleman A, Sommer IE Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Increased burden of cardiovascular risk among youth suicide attempters.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Suicide and cardiovascular disease rank among the leading causes of disability and premature mortality worldwide. Young adult suicide attempters are at increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease even compared to those with major depressive disorder suggesting an increased burden of cardiovascular risk factors. We compared the cardiovascular risk burden between youth attempters and other high-risk individuals. METHODS: Participants were from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a U.S. population-based study, aged 18-30 years [suicide attempt (SA): n = 303...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Zhong Y, Pham S, Porta G, Douaihy A, Marsland A, Brent D, Melhem NM Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Evidence, and replication thereof, that molecular-genetic and environmental risks for psychosis impact through an affective pathway.
ymak SU, Mihaljevic MM, Petrovic SA, Mirjanic T, Bernardo M, Mezquida G, Amoretti S, Bobes J, Saiz PA, García-Portilla MP, Sanjuan J, Aguilar EJ, Santos JL, Jiménez-López E, Arrojo M, Carracedo A, López G, González-Peñas J, Parellada M, Maric NP, Atbaşoğlu C, Ucok A, Alptekin K, Saka MC, Arango C, O'Donovan M, Rutten BPF, Guloksuz S Abstract BACKGROUND: There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation. METHODS: We analysed t...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: van Os J, Pries LK, Ten Have M, de Graaf R, van Dorsselaer S, Delespaul P, Bak M, Kenis G, Lin BD, Luykx JJ, Richards AL, Akdede B, Binbay T, Altınyazar V, Yalınçetin B, Gümüş-Akay G, Cihan B, Soygür H, Ulaş H, Cankurtaran EŞ, Kaymak SU, Mihaljev Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is associated with beliefs on the origin of the novel coronavirus in the UK and Turkey.
PMID: 33070804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Salali GD, Uysal MS Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Are adult stressful life events associated with psychotic relapse? A systematic review of 23 studies.
Abstract Relapse rates among individuals with psychotic disorders are high. In addition to the financial burden placed on clinical services, relapse is associated with worse long-term prognosis and poorer quality of life. Robust evidence indicates that stressful life events commonly precede the onset of the first psychotic episode; however, the extent to which they are associated with relapse remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize available research investigating the association between recent stressful life events and psychotic relapse or relapse of bipolar disorder if the diagnosis in...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Martland N, Martland R, Cullen AE, Bhattacharyya S Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Personality disorders and cause-specific mortality: a nationwide study of 2 million adolescents.
CONCLUSIONS: Personality disorder in late adolescence is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, external- and all-cause mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality is evident before the age of 40 years and may point to the importance of lifestyle education already in youth. PMID: 33050953 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tiosano S, Laur L, Tirosh A, Furer A, Afek A, Fink N, Derazne E, Tzur D, Fruchter E, Ben-Yehuda A, Bader T, Amital H, Szklo M, Weiser M, Twig G Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Viewpoint: do antipsychotics protect against early death? A critical view.
Abstract In the past 15 years, researchers utilizing prescription databases to assess medication usage have concluded that antipsychotics reduce mortality in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. These findings stand in contrast to studies in non-psychiatric patients that have found that antipsychotics, because of their adverse effects on physical health, increase the risk of early death. A critical review of the evidence reveals that the worry remains. There is reason to conclude that antipsychotics contribute to the 'mortality gap' between the seriously mentally ill and the general...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Whitaker R Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Can metacognitive interventions improve insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis.
rcía E, David AS Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) tend to lack insight, which is linked to poor outcomes. The effect size of previous treatments on insight changes in SSD has been small. Metacognitive interventions may improve insight in SSD, although this remains unproved. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the effects of metacognitive interventions designed for SSD, namely Metacognitive Training (MCT) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT), on changes in cognitive an...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lopez-Morinigo JD, Ajnakina O, Martínez AS, Escobedo-Aedo PJ, Ruiz-Ruano VG, Sánchez-Alonso S, Mata-Iturralde L, Muñoz-Lorenzo L, Ochoa S, Baca-García E, David AS Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Data-driven cognitive phenotypes in subjects with bipolar disorder and their clinical markers of severity.
CONCLUSION: These results corroborate with recent findings of neuropsychological heterogeneity in BD, and suggest an overlapping between premorbid and morbid aspects that influence distinct cognitive courses of the disease. PMID: 33050962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Rabelo-da-Ponte FD, Lima FM, Martinez-Aran A, Kapczinski F, Vieta E, Rosa AR, Kunz M, Czepielewski LS Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring intellectual disability: sibling analysis in an intergenerational Danish cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are inconsistent with a causal effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring ID risk. By estimating a within-family effect, our results suggest that prior associations were the result of unmeasured genetic or environmental characteristics of families in which the mother smokes during pregnancy. PMID: 33050963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Madley-Dowd P, Kalkbrenner AE, Heuvelman H, Heron J, Zammit S, Rai D, Schendel D Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Restrictive eating across a spectrum from healthy to unhealthy: behavioral and neural mechanisms.
CONCLUSIONS: A continuous spectrum of behavior was suggested by the increasing amount of weight loss across groups. Yet, data from this Food Choice Task with fMRI suggest there is a behavioral distinction between illness and health, and that the neural mechanisms underlying food choice in AN are distinct. These behavioral and neural mechanisms of restrictive eating may be useful targets for treatment development. PMID: 33046142 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Foerde K, Schebendach JE, Davis L, Daw N, Walsh BT, Shohamy D, Steinglass JE Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Shared intrinsic functional connectivity alterations as a familial risk marker for ADHD: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study with sibling design.
CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in resting-state functional connectivities with the precuneus/PCC, hubs of default-mode network, account for the underlying familial risks of ADHD. Since the left insula and left inferior frontal gyri are key regions of the salience and frontoparietal network, respectively, future studies focusing on alterations of cross-network functional connectivity as the familial risk of ADHD are suggested. PMID: 33046145 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chiang HL, Tseng WI, Wey HY, Gau SS Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Recurrence rates in stable bipolar disorder patients after drug discontinuation v. drug maintenance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining drug treatment during clinically stable BD prevented recurrence for up to 24 months. Discontinuation of medications for ⩾1 month significantly increased recurrence risk. However, 47.3% of patients who discontinued drugs for 6 months did not experience recurrence. PMID: 33046156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Kishi T, Matsuda Y, Sakuma K, Okuya M, Mishima K, Iwata N Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

A replication study of JTC bias, genetic liability for psychosis and delusional ideation.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations. PMID: 33046166 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Henquet C, van Os J, Pries LK, Rauschenberg C, Delespaul P, Kenis G, Luykx JJ, Lin BD, Richards AL, Akdede B, Binbay T, Altınyazar V, Yalınçetin B, Gümüş-Akay G, Cihan B, Soygür H, Ulaş H, Cankurtaran ES, Kaymak SU, Mihaljevic MM, Petrovic SS, Mir Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of bi-directional causal association between depression and cardiovascular diseases: a Mendelian randomization study.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to depression may have positive causal roles on CAD/MI. Genetic susceptibility to self-awareness of mood problems may be a strong causal risk factor of CAD/MI. Blood lipid levels and smoking may potentially mediate the causal pathway. Prevention and early diagnosis of depression are important in the management of CAD/MI. PMID: 33032663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li GH, Cheung CL, Chung AK, Cheung BM, Wong IC, Fok MLY, Au PC, Sham PC Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Reliability of the NIH toolbox cognitive battery in children and adolescents: a 3-year longitudinal examination.
CONCLUSIONS: Reliability of the NIH-TB Cognitive Battery was lower than expected given early work examining shorter test-retest intervals. Moreover, there were very few instances of tests meeting stability requirements for use in research; none of the tests exhibited adequate reliability for use in clinical applications. Reliability is paramount to establishing the validity of the tool, thus the constructs assessed by the NIH-TB may vary over time in youth. We recommend further refinement of the NIH-TB Cognitive Battery and its norming procedures for children before further adoption as a neuropsychological assessment. We a...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Taylor BK, Frenzel MR, Eastman JA, Wiesman AI, Wang YP, Calhoun VD, Stephen JM, Wilson TW Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Alexithymia in autism: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with social-communication difficulties, anxiety and depression symptoms.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Alexithymia (difficulties in identifying and describing emotion) is a transdiagnostic trait implicated in social-emotional and mental health problems in the general population. Many autistic individuals experience significant social-communication difficulties and elevated anxiety/depression and alexithymia. Nevertheless, the role of alexithymia in explaining individual variability in the quality/severity of social-communication difficulties and/or anxiety and depression symptoms in autism remains poorly understood. METHODS: In total, 337 adolescents and adults (autism N = 179) were assess...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Oakley BFM, Jones EJH, Crawley D, Charman T, Buitelaar J, Tillmann J, Murphy DG, Loth E, EU-AIMS LEAP Group Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Why we need more research into the placebo response in psychiatry.
Abstract Placebos are not inert, but exert measurable biological effects. The placebo response in psychiatric illness is important and clinically relevant, but remains poorly understood. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the placebo response in psychiatric medicine and identify research directions for the future. We argue that more research is needed into the placebo response in psychiatric medicine for three broad reasons. First, awareness of factors that cause placebo response, for whom, and when, within clinical trials will allow us to better evidence efficacy of new treatments. Second, by unders...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Huneke NTM, van der Wee N, Garner M, Baldwin DS Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

COVID-19 induced social isolation; implications for understanding social cognition in mental health.
PMID: 33028434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bland AR, Roiser JP, Mehta MA, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW, Elliott R Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Predicting depression outcomes throughout inpatient treatment using the general and specific personality disorder factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Personality disorder symptoms are best represented by a general factor that reflects overall personality disorder severity, and specific factors that reflect unique personality styles. The general factor predicts overall depression severity while specific factors predict poorer prognosis which may be masked in prior studies that do not separate the two. PMID: 33028440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Constantinou MP, Frueh BC, Fowler JC, Allen JG, Madan A, Oldham JM, Fonagy P Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Comparing psychotic experiences in low-and-middle-income-countries and high-income-countries with a focus on measurement invariance.
CONCLUSION: Previous studies using sum scores to compare differences across countries are likely to be biased. The direction of the bias involves both over- and underestimation of PEs in LAMIC compared to HIC. Nevertheless, the study confirms the basic finding that PEs are more frequent in LAMIC than in HIC. PMID: 33023691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Jaya ES, Wüsten C, Alizadeh BZ, van Amelsvoort T, Bartels-Velthuis AA, van Beveren NJ, Bruggeman R, Cahn W, de Haan L, Delespaul P, Luykx JJ, Myin-Germeys I, Kahn RS, Schirmbeck F, Simons CJP, van Haren NE, van Os J, van Winkel R, Fonseca-Pedrero E, Pete Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Does smoking cause lower educational attainment and general cognitive ability? Triangulation of causal evidence using multiple study designs.
e; MR Abstract BACKGROUND: Observational studies have found associations between smoking and both poorer cognitive ability and lower educational attainment; however, evaluating causality is challenging. We used two complementary methods to explore this. METHODS: We conducted observational analyses of up to 12 004 participants in a cohort study (Study One) and Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses using summary and cohort data (Study Two). Outcome measures were cognitive ability at age 15 and educational attainment at age 16 (Study One), and educational attainment and fluid intelligence (Study Two). RESUL...
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Gage SH, Sallis HM, Lassi G, Wootton RE, Mokrysz C, Davey Smith G, Munafò MR Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Perinatal adversity profiles and suicide attempt in adolescence and young adulthood: longitudinal analyses from two 20-year birth cohort studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal adversities associated with suicide attempt cluster in distinct profiles. Suicide prevention may begin early in life and requires a multidisciplinary approach targeting a constellation of factors from different domains (psychiatric, obstetric, socioeconomic), rather than a single factor, to effectively reduce suicide vulnerability. The way these factors cluster together also determined the pathways leading to a suicide attempt, which can guide decision-making on personalized suicide prevention strategies. PMID: 33019954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Orri M, Russell AE, Mars B, Turecki G, Gunnell D, Heron J, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Nuyt AM, Côté SM, Geoffroy MC Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Relationship between jumping to conclusions and clinical outcomes in people at clinical high-risk for psychosis.
CONCLUSIONS: In CHR participants, JTC at baseline was associated with adverse functioning at the follow-up. Interventions designed to improve JTC could be beneficial in the CHR population. PMID: 33019957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Catalan A, Tognin S, Kempton MJ, Stahl D, Salazar de Pablo G, Nelson B, Pantelis C, Riecher-Rössler A, Bressan R, Barrantes-Vidal N, Krebs MO, Nordentoft M, Ruhrmann S, Sachs G, Rutten BPF, van Os J, de Haan L, van der Gaag M, EU-GEI High Risk Study, Val Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Developmental influences on symptom expression in antipsychotic-na ïve first-episode psychosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that as maturation proceeds, perceptual symptoms attenuate while non-perceptual symptoms are enhanced. Findings underscore how pathological brain-behavior relationships vary as a function of development. PMID: 33019960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Bridgwater M, Bachman P, Tervo-Clemmens B, Haas G, Hayes R, Luna B, Salisbury DF, Jalbrzikowski M Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

A repeated cross-sectional survey assessing university students' stress, depression, anxiety, and suicidality in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland.
PMID: 33004087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - October 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Debowska A, Horeczy B, Boduszek D, Dolinski D Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

A randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation and long-acting injectable risperidone after a first episode of schizophrenia: improving cognition and work/school functioning.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that consistent antipsychotic medication adherence and cognitive remediation can significantly improve core cognitive deficits in the initial period of schizophrenia. When combined with supported employment/education, cognitive remediation and LAI antipsychotic medication show separate significant impact on improving work/school functioning. PMID: 32981534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nuechterlein KH, Ventura J, Subotnik KL, Gretchen-Doorly D, Turner LR, Casaus LR, Luo J, Boucher ML, Hayata JN, Bell MD, Medalia A Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Serotonin and early life stress interact to shape brain architecture and anxious avoidant behavior - a TPH2 imaging genetics approach.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that early life stress shapes the neural organization of the limbic-prefrontal circuits in interaction with individual variations in the TPH2 gene to promote a phenotype characterized by facilitated threat avoidance, thus promoting early adaptation to an adverse environment. PMID: 32981537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Liu C, Xu L, Li J, Zhou F, Yang X, Zheng X, Fu M, Li K, Sindermann C, Montag C, Ma Y, Scheele D, Ebstein RP, Yao S, Kendrick KM, Becker B Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Context and contact: a comparison of patient and family engagement with early intervention services for psychosis in India and Canada.
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether patient disengagement from early intervention services for psychosis is as prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India, as it is in high-income countries (HICs). Addressing this gap, we studied two first-episode psychosis programs in Montreal, Canada and Chennai, India. We hypothesized lower service disengagement among patients and higher engagement among families in Chennai, and that family engagement would mediate cross-site differences in patient disengagement. METHODS: Sites were compared on their 2-year patient disengagement and family engag...
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Iyer SN, Malla A, Taksal A, Maraj A, Mohan G, Ramachandran P, Margolese HC, Schmitz N, Joober R, Rangaswamy T Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Efficacy of a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral intervention for eating disorder psychopathology delivered through a smartphone app: a randomized controlled trial.
CONCLUSION: Findings highlight the potential for this app to serve as a cost-effective and easily accessible intervention for those who cannot receive standard treatment. The capacity for apps to be flexibly integrated within current models of mental health care delivery may prove vital for addressing the unmet needs of people with EDs. PMID: 32972467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Linardon J, Shatte A, Rosato J, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Association between genetic and socioenvironmental risk for schizophrenia during upbringing in a UK longitudinal cohort.
CONCLUSION: Genetic risk is correlated with socioenvironmental risk for schizophrenia during upbringing, but the associations between socioenvironmental risk and adolescent psychotic experiences appear, at present, to exist above and beyond this gene-environment correlation. PMID: 32972469 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Newbury JB, Arseneault L, Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Odgers CL, Belsky DW, Sugden K, Williams B, Ambler AP, Matthews T, Fisher HL Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Subgenual activation and the finger of blame: individual differences and depression vulnerability.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite confirming the prediction of SCC activation in self-blame-prone individuals and those vulnerable to MDD, our results suggest that SCC activation reflects blame irrespective of where it is directed rather than selective for self. We speculate that self-critical individuals have more extended SCC representations for blame in the context of self-agency. PMID: 32972471 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lythe KE, Gethin JA, Workman CI, Lambon Ralph MA, Deakin JFW, Moll J, Zahn R Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Public awareness, emotional reactions and human mobility in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in China  - a population-based ecological study.
Public awareness, emotional reactions and human mobility in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in China - a population-based ecological study. Psychol Med. 2020 Sep 25;:1-32 Authors: Li Y, Zeng Y, Liu G, Lu D, Yang H, Ying Z, Hu Y, Qiu J, Zhang C, Fall K, Fang F, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Zhang W, Song H PMID: 32972473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Li Y, Zeng Y, Liu G, Lu D, Yang H, Ying Z, Hu Y, Qiu J, Zhang C, Fall K, Fang F, Valdimarsdóttir UA, Zhang W, Song H Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

The puzzle of quality of life in schizophrenia: putting the pieces together with the FACE-SZ cohort.
CONCLUSION: The pathways to subjective QoL in schizophrenia are complex and the determinants largely influence each other. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these cross-sectional findings. PMID: 32962773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Ehrminger M, Roux P, Urbach M, André M, Aouizerate B, Berna F, Bohec AL, Capdevielle D, Chéreau I, Clauss J, Dubertret C, Dubreucq J, Fond G, Honciuc RM, Lançon C, Laouamri H, Leigner S, Mallet J, Misdrahi D, Pignon B, Rey R, Schürhoff F, Members of t Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

EEG Power spectra and subcortical pathology in chronic disorders of consciousness.
CONCLUSIONS: These results ground, for the first time, electroencephalographic presentation detected with routine clinical techniques in the underlying brain pathology of disorders of consciousness and demonstrate how multimodal combination of clinical, electroencephalographic, and imaging data can be employed in potentially mitigating the high rates of misdiagnosis typical of this patient cohort. PMID: 32962777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lutkenhoff ES, Nigri A, Rossi Sebastiano D, Sattin D, Visani E, Rosazza C, D'Incerti L, Bruzzone MG, Franceschetti S, Leonardi M, Ferraro S, Monti MM Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

The incidence of psychotic disorders among migrants and minority ethnic groups in Europe: findings from the multinational EU-GEI study.
CONCLUSIONS: Incidence rates vary by region of origin, region of destination and their combination. This suggests that they are strongly influenced by the social context. PMID: 32958094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Termorshuizen F, van der Ven E, Tarricone I, Jongsma HE, Gayer-Anderson C, Lasalvia A, Tosato S, Quattrone D, La Cascia C, Szöke A, Berardi D, Llorca PM, de Haan L, Velthorst E, Bernardo M, Sanjuán J, Arrojo M, Murray RM, Rutten BP, Jones PB, van Os J, Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Schneider's first-rank symptoms have neither diagnostic value for schizophrenia nor higher clinical validity than other delusions and hallucinations in psychotic disorders.
In this study, using a rigorously phenomenological approach to elicit FRS, we examined (a) the degree to which unequivocally present FRS differentiated schizophrenia (n=513) from other psychotic disorders (n=633), and (b) the comparative validity between FRS and other reality-distortion symptoms against 16 external validators in the whole sample of psychotic disorders (n=1146). Diagnostic performance indices (with 95% CIs) of FRS for diagnosing schizophrenia were as follows: sensitivity=0.58 (0.54-0.61), specificity=0.65 (0.62-0.67), positive predictive value=0.57 (0.54-0.60) and negative predictive value=0.65 (0.63-0.68)....
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Peralta V, Cuesta MJ Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Evaluation of gray matter reduction in patients with typhoon-related posttraumatic stress disorder using causal network analysis of structural MRI.
This study was to compare temporal and causal relationships of structural changes in recent-onset PTSD with trauma-exposed control (TEC) subjects and non-TEC subjects. METHODS: T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of 27 PTSD, 33 TEC and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects were studied. The causal network of structural covariance was used to evaluate the causal relationships of structural changes in PTSD patients. RESULTS: Volumes of bilateral hippocampal and left lingual gyrus were significantly smaller in PTSD patients and TEC subjects than HC subjects. As symptom scores increase, reduction in...
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Chen HJ, Qi R, Ke J, Qiu J, Xu Q, Zhong Y, Lu GM, Chen F Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

COVID-19, masks and communication in the operating theatre: the importance of face value.
PMID: 32938519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sharif SP, Blagrove E Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

The association between body dysmorphic symptoms and suicidality among adolescents and young adults: a genetically informative study.
CONCLUSIONS: BDD symptoms are associated with a substantial risk of suicidal ideation and behaviours in late adolescence and early adulthood. This relationship is largely explained by common genetic liability, but non-shared environmental effects are also significant and could provide opportunities for prevention among those at high-risk. PMID: 32940195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Krebs G, Fernández de la Cruz L, Rijsdijk FV, Rautio D, Enander J, Rück C, Lichtenstein P, Lundström S, Larsson H, Eley TC, Mataix-Cols D Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

Childhood trauma and amygdala nuclei volumes in youth at risk for mental illness.
CONCLUSION: The experience of physical or sexual abuse may leave detectable structural alterations in key regions of the amygdala, potentially mediating the risk of psychopathology in trauma-exposed youth. PMID: 32940197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychological Medicine)
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Nogovitsyn N, Addington J, Souza R, Placsko TJ, Stowkowy J, Wang J, Goldstein BI, Bray S, Lebel C, Taylor VH, Kennedy SH, MacQueen G Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research

White matter fiber microstructure is associated with prior hospitalizations rather than acute symptomatology in major depressive disorder.
Dannlowski U Abstract BACKGROUND: Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness. METHODS: A total...
Source: Psychological Medicine - September 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Meinert S, Leehr EJ, Grotegerd D, Repple J, Förster K, Winter NR, Enneking V, Fingas SM, Lemke H, Waltemate L, Stein F, Brosch K, Schmitt S, Meller T, Linge A, Krug A, Nenadić I, Jansen A, Hahn T, Redlich R, Opel N, Schubotz RI, Baune BT, Kircher T, Dan Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research