The Whole Picture: From Isolated to Global MRI Measures of Neurovascular and Neurodegenerative Disease.

The Whole Picture: From Isolated to Global MRI Measures of Neurovascular and Neurodegenerative Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1205:25-53 Authors: Dickie DA, Quinn TJ, Dawson J Abstract Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to characterise the appearance of the brain in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), ischaemic stroke, cognitive impairment, and dementia. SVD is a major cause of stroke and dementia; features of SVD include white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin, lacunes of presumed vascular origin, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces. Cognitive impairment and dementia have traditionally been stratified into subtypes of varying origin, e.g., vascular dementia versus dementia of the Alzheimer's type (Alzheimer's disease; AD). Vascular dementia is caused by reduced blood flow in the brain, often as a result of SVD, and AD is thought to have its genesis in the accumulation of tau and amyloid-beta leading to brain atrophy. But after early seminal studies in the 1990s found neurovascular disease features in around 30% of AD patients, it is becoming recognised that so-called "mixed pathologies" (of vascular and neurodegenerative origin) exist in many more patients diagnosed with stroke, only one type of dementia, or cognitive impairment. On the back of these discoveries, attempts have recently been made to quantify the full extent of degenerative and vascular disease in the brain in vivo on MRI. The hop...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Conclusion Due to its long-term and often invisible course, CCCI has received less attention than acute cerebral ischemic stroke. However, without appropriate intervention, CCCI may lead to a variety of adverse events. Because the pathophysiological changes associated with CCCI are complex, pharmacological research in this area has been disappointing. Recent research suggests that RLIC, which is less invasive and more well-tolerated than drug treatment, can activate endogenous protective mechanisms during CCCI. In the present report, we reviewed studies related to CCCI (Table 1), as well as those related to stroke and sta...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD. Introduction Atherosclerosis is a systemic vascular process that is considered a major cause of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular di...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data support that plasma DAO levels were increased in PSD patients and correlated with brain WMH, independent of age, gender, hypertension, and renal function. Plasma DAO levels may therefore aid in PSD diagnosis. Introduction Stroke is a risk factor for both vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease (1, 2). Functional recovery develops over the course of 26 weeks after a stroke (3), but the survivors are often left with disabilities. In addition to the sequelae of acute neuronal damage, the 1-year post-stroke dementia (PSD) rates after first-ever and recurrent stroke are ~10 and 30%, respe...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the presence and extent of cSS are associated with reduced CSF ß-amyloid 42 levels. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this association. Introduction Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)—characterized by the deposition of ß-amyloid in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels—is a common cerebral small vessel disease and a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly (1–3). Furthermore, it has become evident that CAA is associated with cognitive impairment (4). Specifically, it has been shown that CAA patien...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Wei Li1†, Wei-Min Xiao1†, Yang-Kun Chen1*, Jian-Feng Qu1, Yong-Lin Liu1, Xue-Wen Fang2, Han-Yu Weng1 and Gen-Pei Luo11Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, China2Department of Radiology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, ChinaBackground: Anxiety is prevalent after a stroke. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of poststroke anxiety (PSA) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroimaging risk factors for development of PSA and examine the effects of PSA on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion In this study, reduced CBF and FA and increased MD in the inner NAWM layers for both PVWMH and DWMH suggested extensive WM alterations beyond the visible WM lesions commonly observed on clinical MRI of svMCI subjects. CBF penumbras cover more extensive WM at risk than DTI penumbras, suggesting the likelihood that compromised CBF precedes white matter integrity changes, and CBF penumbras may be a potential target for the prevention of further microstructural white matter damage. The imaging parameters investigated, however, did not correlate to cognition. Author Contributions YZ, QX, and XG conceived and desig...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Consecutive slides on axial view (≥4 consecutive slices) might be more effective than transversal diameter to identify the atherosclerotic mechanisms of SSIs in the lenticulostriate artery territory. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00664846 Introduction Single subcortical infarctions (SSIs) have been considered to be caused by lipohyalinosis degeneration in small artery disease, traditionally called lacunar infarct (1). However, atherosclerosis occurring in the parental artery blocking the orifice of the branch artery or atherosclerosis in the proxim...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Endothelial cells of the central nervous system over-express surface proteins during neurological disorders, either as a cause, or a consequence, of the disease. Since the cerebral vasculature is easily accessible by large contrast-carrying particles, it constitutes a target of choice for molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this review, we highlight the most recent advances in molecular MRI of brain endothelial activation and focus on the development of micro-sized particles of iron oxide (MPIO) targeting adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (...
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Background and Purpose— Autopsy studies suggest that cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with cognitive impairment and risk for dementia. We analyzed neuropsychological test data from a prospective cohort study of patients with CAA to identify the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its associations with brain magnetic resonance imaging features and the apolipoprotein E genotype. Methods— Data were analyzed from 34 CAA, 16 Alzheimer’s disease, 69 mild cognitive impairment, and 27 ischemic stroke participants. Neuropsychological test results were expressed as z scores in relation to normati...
Source: Stroke - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke, Cognitive Impairment, Intracranial Hemorrhage Clinical Sciences Source Type: research
Abstract Introduction The hippocampus is known to play a vital role in learning and memory and was demonstrated as an early imaging marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its role as a predictor for mild cognitive impairment and dementia following stroke is unclear. The main purpose of this study was to examine the associations between hippocampal volume, mean diffusivity (MD) and connectivity and cognitive state following stroke. Materials and Methods Eighty three consecutive first ever mild to moderate stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) survivors from our ongoing prospective TABASCO (Tel Aviv Brain Acute St...
Source: Hippocampus - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
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