Modification of stem cell states by alcohol and acetaldehyde

Publication date: Available online 14 December 2019Source: Chemico-Biological InteractionsAuthor(s): Ryan N. Serio, Lorraine J. GudasAbstractEthanol (EtOH) is a recreationally ingested compound that is both teratogenic and carcinogenic in humans. Because of its abundant consumption worldwide and the vital role of stem cells in the formation of birth defects and cancers, delineating the effects of EtOH on stem cell function is currently an active and urgent pursuit of scientific investigation to explicate some of the mechanisms contributing to EtOH toxicity. Stem cells represent a primordial, undifferentiated phase of development; thus encroachment on normal physiologic processes of differentiation into terminal lineages by EtOH can greatly alter the function of progenitors and terminally differentiated cells, leading to pathological consequences that manifest as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and cancers. In this review we explore the disruptive role of EtOH in differentiation of stem cells. Our primary objective is to elucidate the mechanisms by which EtOH alters differentiation-related gene expression and lineage specifications, thus modifying stem cells to promote pathological outcomes. We additionally review the effects of a reactive metabolite of EtOH, acetaldehyde (AcH), in causing both differentiation defects in stem cells as well as genomic damage that incites cellular aging and carcinogenesis.
Source: Chemico Biological Interactions - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

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Abstract Ethanol (EtOH) is a recreationally ingested compound that is both teratogenic and carcinogenic in humans. Because of its abundant consumption worldwide and the vital role of stem cells in the formation of birth defects and cancers, delineating the effects of EtOH on stem cell function is currently an active and urgent pursuit of scientific investigation to explicate some of the mechanisms contributing to EtOH toxicity. Stem cells represent a primordial, undifferentiated phase of development; thus encroachment on normal physiologic processes of differentiation into terminal lineages by EtOH can greatly alt...
Source: Chemico-Biological Interactions - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Chem Biol Interact Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Bárbara Paranhos Coelho, Mariana Maier Gaelzer, Fernanda dos Santos Petry, Juliana Bender Hoppe, Vera Maria Treis Trindade, Christianne G. Salbego, Fátima T.C.R. GumaAbstractSeveral studies have demonstrated the antitumor effect of doxazosin, an α1-adrenergic blocker, against glioma and breast, bladder and prostate cancers. Doxazosin is also being evaluated as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism, and α1-adrenergic blockers have been linked to neuroprotection in neurodegenerative disorders, su...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Discussion This case study illustrated not only the veracity of the maxim “chance favors the prepared mind” exquisitely because of the judicious, albeit auspicious, identification of the assiduous bacterium by the owner’s veterinarian, but also the high level of patient care that can potentially be achieved when veterinary personnel actively foster working relationships with their local public health counterparts. In this case, the owner was prophylactically treated with doxycycline for F. tularensis exposure within 24 hours of being bitten and given the rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (human rabies imm...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: The investigation of clinical factors identified smoking history as being possibly contributing to the pathogenesis of HPUGC. Future research is necessary at the cellular and genetic levels.Digestion 2017;96:213 –219
Source: Digestion - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Testa Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries). In cirrhosis, hepa...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: International Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Alcohol is a carcinogen suspected of increasing lung cancer risk. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma in 492,902 persons from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. Between 1995/1996 and December 31, 2006, there were 10,227 incident cases of lung carcinoma, classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 4,036), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,998), small cell carcinoma (n = 1,524), undifferentiated carcinoma (n =...
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH-ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusion EBV radiosensitized the p53 mutant tobacco associated head and neck cell line, FaDu. Objectives In the head and neck, HPV is a major risk factor associated with tonsil and base of tongue cancers, while a majority of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancers are positive for EBV. Clinically, head and neck tumors positive for HPV or EBV are more radiosensitive than tumors associated with tobacco and alcohol. This study aimed to evaluate whether viral infections can sensitize tobacco-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line that harbors multiple mutations, especially TP53, to radiotherapy. Method Fo...
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Acta Otolaryngol Source Type: research
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, is a multi-factorial disease caused by many risk factors, such as viral infections, cirrhosis, toxic chemical exposure and alcohol abuse [1]. Based on tumor differentiation, HCC can be classified into 4 histological grades, including well-differentiated (G1), moderately differentiated (G2), poorly differentiated (G3), and undifferentiated (G4) types, and the histological grade is a very important predictor of survival after various treatments for HCC such as liver resection, transplantation, or radiofrequency ablation [2].
Source: Cancer Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
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