Inhibition of biofilm- and hyphal- development, two virulent features of Candida albicans by secondary metabolites of an endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima having broad spectrum antifungal potential

Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): Sohini Chatterjee, Ranjan Ghosh, Narayan Chandra MandalAbstractFungal resistance against frequently used antifungal medicines used for invasive candidiasis and other fungal infections is directing scientist for searching and developing novel antifungal drugs. An endophytic fungal strain Alternaria tenuissima OE7 has been isolated from leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. which showed antifungal activity against numbers of human pathogenic fungi including Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Aspergillus parasiticus, A. flavus, A. fumigates, Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. Thermostable, non-proteinacious antifungal metabolites produced zones of inhibition against all pathogenic fungi tested. The ethyl acetate extract of the cell free supernatant was found inhibitory to the radial growth and conidial germination of T. rubrum and M. gypseum. It also showed cidal mode of action against C. albicans at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. Most interestingly, inhibition of biofilm formation and hyphal development of C. albicans were observed upon treatment with EA fraction at comparatively lower concentrations (100- 500 µg/ml). Release of intracellular contents from treated cells of Candida and scanning electron microscopic observation suggested cellular disruptions by antifungal metabolites. Checkerboard study revealed synergy between EA fraction of OE7 (150 µg...
Source: Microbiological Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Paediatric invasive fungal infections have significantly increased over the past few decades, in particular among the immunocompromised population. Candida and Aspergillus spp. are still the most commonly isolated organisms. Image-based assessment of fungal infections can indeed be challenging especially in oncological patients where the differential diagnosis relative to other infections and neoplastic lesions cannot be often obvious. Therefore, the knowledge of the main radiological features associated with fungal infections is crucial to achieve an early correct diagnosis and address the most appropriate therapeutic app...
Source: In Vivo - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
In conclusion, potential biological applications of PF-SeNPs were explored by antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and biocompatibility assays. Materials and Methods Chemicals and Reagents Sodium selenite (98%), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT), Tween 80, methanol, acetate buffer, tetracycline, nystatin, rhodamine 123, caspase-3 kit, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle media (DMEM), Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 (DPBS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) w...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study has revealed the intestinal and hepatopancreas mycobiota of L. vannamei and the effects of diseases and seasonal variation to the mycobiota. Our study provides important guidance for Pacific white shrimp farming and sheds further insight on the fungal microbiota. Introduction The digestive system hosts a large number of microorganisms dominated by bacteria, which constitute an enormous microbial ecosystem called the microbiota (O’Hara and Shanahan, 2006; Clemente et al., 2012). The microbiota has multiple functions, such as the maintenance of the functional stability and metabolic balance in the di...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This prospective multicenter study provides information on the current incidence and outcome of IFD in the real life setting. Practice variation between the centers may help to ultimately improve antifungal management in children at highest risk for IFDs. Introduction Available data on the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children treated for a hematological malignancy or undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are mostly based on single site, retrospective studies or on studies performed prior to the availability of newer compounds such as broad-sp...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was financially supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) with the projects FWF P25894-B20 and FWF I1644-B20 to FM and a MUI Start grant of the Medical University of Innsbruck to MAK. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We thank Doris Bratschun-Khan for technical support. Supplementary Material The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00605/...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion In conclusion, F. keratoplasticum and F. petroliphilum were the most frequent species in this study. Amphotericin B showed lower MICs against Fusarium species whereas the antifungal azoles and the fungicide difenoconazole exhibited higher MICs against FSSC. Ethics Statement Samples were collected during routine patient care and the study was retrospective, therefore it was determined by the local Institutional Review Board of the Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná and CAPES that ethical clearance was not indicated. Author Contributions PH, AA-H, FQ-T, and JM designed the study....
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study, the largest series of infection in MDS patients, seeks to comprehensively analyse infection in this cohort.Method: CT scan, microbiology results and hospital admission ICD codes from January 1999 to April 2017 were analysed for 657 MDS patients enrolled in the South Australian MDS (SA-MDS) registry. Cox regression analysis was performed to ascertain risk factors for developing infection.Results: There were 531 primary and 126 therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) patients with median age of 69.2 (18-97) years. According to Revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), 44.7% of patients were classi...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 637. Myelodysplastic Syndromes-Clinical Studies: Poster I Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 April 2017 Source:Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 73 Author(s): Farnoush Asghari Paskiabi, Shahin Bonakdar, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Mohammad Imani, Zahra Jahanshiri, Masoomeh Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electr...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Summary Invasive fungal infections, usually Aspergillus and Candida, represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant haematological diseases, but in the last years rare fungal infections have more frequently been reported. Here, we report the clinical history of three patients affected with haematological malignancies who developed an infection caused by Geotrichum (G.) clavatum. Two out of three patients were affected by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and one by mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). All patients received cytarabine‚Äźbased chemotherapeutic regimens and developed G. clavatum infection w...
Source: Mycoses - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
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