Role of BRAF in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rationale for Future Targeted Cancer Therapies.

Role of BRAF in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rationale for Future Targeted Cancer Therapies. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019 Nov 21;55(12): Authors: Gnoni A, Licchetta A, Memeo R, Argentiero A, Solimando AG, Longo V, Delcuratolo S, Brunetti O Abstract The few therapeutic strategies for advance hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on poor knowledge of its biology. For several years, sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) inhibitor, has been the approved treatment option, to date, for advanced HCC patients. Its activity is the inhibition of the retrovirus-associated DNA sequences protein (RAS)/Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma protein (RAF)/mitogen-activated and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK) signaling pathway. However, the efficacy of sorafenib is limited by the development of drug resistance, and the major neuronal isoform of RAF, BRAF and MEK pathways play a critical and central role in HCC escape from TKIs activity. Advanced HCC patients with a BRAF mutation display a multifocal and/or more aggressive behavior with resistance to TKI. Moreover, also long non-coding RNA (lnc-RNA) have been studied in epigenetic studies for BRAF aggressiveness in HCC. So far, lnc-RNA of BRAF could be another mechanism of cancer proliferation and TKI escape in HCC and the inhibition could become a possible strategy treatment for HCC. Moreover, recent preclinical studies and clinical trials evidence that combined treatments, ...
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research

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Gulcin Tezcan1, Ekaterina V. Martynova1, Zarema E. Gilazieva1, Alan McIntyre2, Albert A. Rizvanov1 and Svetlana F. Khaiboullina1,3* 1Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia 2Centre for Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, United States Inflammation has a crucial role in protection against various pathogens. The inflammasome is an intracellular multiprotein signaling complex that is linked to pathogen sensing and...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Yíngyún Caì1†, Shuǐqìng Yú1†, Rohit K. Jangra2, Elena N. Postnikova1, Jiro Wada1, Robert B. Tesh3, Sean P. J. Whelan4, Michael Lauck5, Michael R. Wiley6, Courtney L. Finch1, Sheli R. Radoshitzky6, David H. O’Connor5, Gustavo Palacios6, Kartik Chandran2, Charles Y. Chiu7 and Jens H. Kuhn1* 1Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD, United States 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States 3Depart...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract A new series of compounds containing (sulfonamido) propanamide (6a1-13, 6b1-15, 7c1-5, 6d1-5, 6e1-6) was designed and synthesized. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. The target compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB), and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, with gemcitabine and mitomycin C as positive controls. Most of these compounds exhibit a more potent cytotoxic effect than the positive control group o...
Source: Chemistry and Biodiversity - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chem Biodivers Source Type: research
Conclusions:Combination of SUVmax with TLR could accurately differentiate malignant from benign cardiac tumors by using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Research Support: Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.81571717, NO.81071177) Table1. Comparison of SUVmax and TLR in patients with benign and malignant cardiac tumorSUVmaxTLRBenignMalignantBenignMalignant1h (n=15)Delay(n=8)1h (n=23)Delay(n=17)1h (n=15)Delay(n=8)1h (n=23)Delay(n=14)Mean ± SD(range)2.73±1.53[asterisk](0.5~5.4)3.04±1.96[asterisk](0.8~7.2)11.10±6.41(3.8~31.6)15.76±8.16[asterisk][asterisk](6.2~34.1)0.74±0.33[asterisk] (0.2~1.4)0.97 ...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Other Solid Tumors Posters Source Type: research
Authors: Willmer T, Cooper A, Peres J, Omar R, Prince S Abstract T-box factors comprise an archaic family of evolutionary conserved transcription factors that regulate patterns of gene expression essential for embryonic development. The T-box transcription factor 3 (TBX3), a member of this family, is expressed in several tissues and plays critical roles in, among other structures, the heart, mammary gland and limbs and haploinsufficiency of the human TBX3 gene is the genetic basis for the autosomal dominant disorder, ulnar-mammary syndrome. Overexpression of TBX3 on the other hand has been linked to several cancers...
Source: BioScience Trends - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biosci Trends Source Type: research
ConclusionNano-Pulse Stimulation treatment at specific energies was able to trigger the emission of three key DAMPs at levels comparable to Doxorubicin and Mitoxantrone, two known inducers of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Therefore NPS is a physical modality that can trigger immunogenic cell death in tumor cells.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report a case of a 44-year-old man with a localized right renal pelvis mass treated with a right nephroureterectomy. The pathological examination showed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, stage III (pT3aNxM0). A few days later, he developed lower back pain, hematuria, cough with hemoptoic sputum and progressive dyspnea. Radiological explorations showed multiple bilateral lung nodules and a retroperitoneal mass. A CT-guided biopsy of the retroperitoneal mass revealed a high-grade angiosarcoma. A review of the nephrectomy specimen showed a microscopic focus of angiosarcoma in the urothelial carcinoma. ...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: PTF induces cell apoptosis and inhibits the migration and invasion of NCI-H1703 cells by decreasing MPPs expression through regulation of the MAPK pathway. PMID: 25864648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
Conclusions: We have discovered migracins as novel inhibitors of cellular migration and invasion. Migracin inhibited invasion of ovarian carcinoma cells, and is considered to be a candidate of new metastasis inhibitor.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Poster session 5: New drugs/targets: signaling pathways Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang Y, Zhang N, Hoffman RM, Zhao M Abstract Salmonella typhimurium A1-R is auxotrophic for arg and leu, which attenuates growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor targeting and virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer as well as osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and glioma in clinically-relevant mouse models. VNP20009 is also a genetically-modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium that has been tested in Phase I clinical trials, but is more attenuated than S. typhimurium A1-R and in addition of multiple amino-acid auxotrophs, is purine auxotropic with th...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
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