Main Nutritional and Environmental Risk Factors in Children with Leukemia from a Public Hospital of the State of Guanajuato, Mexico

Conclusion: The main nutritional and environmental risk factors found were early complementary feeding, cow’s milk prior to 1 year of age, a duration of breastfeeding of fewer than 6 months, birth weight of>3,500 g, a positive smoking habit in the children’s parents, as well as exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Identification of these risk factors could constitute an input for integrating novel prevention alternatives and the nutritional management of leukemia.
Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Taking advantage of the immune system to exert an antitumor effect is currently a novel approach in cancer therapy. Adoptive transfer of T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting a desired antigen has shown extraordinary antitumor activity, especially in refractory and relapsed B-cell malignancies. The most representative in this respect, as well as the most successful example, is CD19 CAR T-cell therapy in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). However, with the widespread use of CAR T-cell therapy, problems of resistance and relapse are starting to be considered. This review provides...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
nski J, Urbano-Ispizua A, Hayden PJ, Kröger N Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells are a novel class of anti-cancer therapy in which autologous or allogeneic T-cells are engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor targeting a membrane antigen. In Europe, Tisagenlecleucel (KymriahTM) is approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children and young adults as well as relapsed/refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YescartaTM) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory high-grade B-cell Lymphoma and Primary Mediastinal B-cel...
Source: Haematologica - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Haematologica Source Type: research
Bergh J, Gisselbrecht C, Tzogani K, Papadouli I, Pignatti F Abstract Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T-cell therapy is becoming one of the most promising approaches in the treatment of cancer. On June 28, 2018, the Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) and the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency adopted a positive opinion, recommending the granting of a marketing authorization for the medicinal product Kymriah for pediatric and young adult patients up to 25 years of age with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is refractory, in relap...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Therapies for paediatric ALL have improved such that more than 80% of patients survive to 5 years post-therapy, and most survive to adulthood. However, these ALL patients experience long-term side effects, which permanently affect their quality of life. Bone loss is the most common skeletal abnormality in paediatric ALL survivors, and 40% of patients experience a fracture before therapy completion. Reduced longitudinal growth (short stature) is another significant side effect of ALL therapy.
Source: Experimental Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 3129 Source Type: research
Authors: Tsaouli G, Ferretti E, Bellavia D, Vacca A, Felli MP Abstract Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer among children. Recent advances in chemotherapy have made ALL a curable hematological malignancy. In children, there is 25% chance of disease relapse, typically in the central nervous system. While in adults, there is a higher chance of relapse. ALL may affect B-cell or T-cell lineages. Different genetic alterations characterize the two ALL forms. Deregulated Notch, either Notch1 or Notch3, and CXCR4 receptor signaling are involved in ALL disease development and progression. By analyzi...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research
Abstract Effector lymphocytes are multifunctional cells of the immune system that promote cytolysis of pathogen-infected cells and nascent tumors. Tumors must learn to evade effectors and employ a wide variety of mechanisms to do so. Bispecific Abs (BsAbs) are an emerging cancer immunotherapy approach seeking to re-engage either T effectors or NK cells with malignant cells. Possessing specificity for effector cells on one end and a tumor Ag on the other, these molecules work by attracting effectors to the target cell to build an immunologic synapse and induce tumor cell killing. The BsAb blinatumomab, for example,...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Conclusion and Future Perspectives This review illustrates our current knowledge of USP7, including its source and characterization, structure, binding partners and substrates in various biological processes. Besides, how USP7 regulates various aspects of a cell under both normal and pathological states are elaborated in detail. As the processes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination are extremely dynamic and context-specific, a series of studies have linked USP7 to different cancers. The biology, particularly the immune oncology mechanisms, reveal that USP7 inhibitors would be useful drugs, thus it is vital to develop hi...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions Several model systems are now available to characterize the MSC-tumour interplay in the TME. These offer early promise in establishing robust preclinical platforms for the identification of crucial molecular pathways and for the assessment of clinical efficacy of novel drugs to inhibit cancer development and progression. However, selection of the right model for a given study should be shaped on the purpose, and should also consider fixed biological, biochemical, and biophysical parameters according to the specific tumour type. Finally, in order to get reliable and useful results to be translated to the clinic...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, CAR-T treatment combined with intratumoral delivery of poly I:C resulted in synergistic antitumor activity. We thus provide a rationale to translate this immunotherapeutic strategy to solid tumors. Introduction Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be a new way to fight malignancies. In particular, T lymphocytes engineered to express chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have shown great promise in treating hematological malignancies (1). CD19-targeted CAR-T cells have been approved by FDA to treat relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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