ADHD desynchronizes brain activity during watching a distracted multi-talker conversation

Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Juha Salmi, Mostafa Metwaly, Jussi Tohka, Kimmo Alho, Sami Leppämäki, Pekka Tani, Anniina Koski, Tamara Vanderwal, Matti LaineAbstractIndividuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties navigating dynamic everyday situations that contain multiple sensory inputs that need to either be attended to or ignored. As conventional experimental tasks lack this type of everyday complexity, we administered a film-based multi-talker condition with auditory distractors in the background. ADHD-related aberrant brain responses to this naturalistic stimulus were identified using intersubject correlations (ISCs) in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from 51 adults with ADHD and 29 healthy controls. A novel permutation-based approach introducing studentized statistics and subject-wise voxel-level null-distributions revealed that several areas in cerebral attention networks and sensory cortices were desynchronized in participants with ADHD (n = 20) relative to healthy controls (n = 20). Specifically, desynchronization of the posterior parietal cortex occurred when irrelevant speech or music was presented in the background, but not when irrelevant white noise was presented, or when there were no distractors. We also show regionally distinct ISC signatures for inattention and impulsivity. Finally, post-scan recall of the film contents was associ...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Authors: Tran K, Wu J Abstract A 2-year-old male pediatric patient experienced a partial occlusion of the internal carotid and subsequent asphyxiation resulting in hypoxic brain injury that was later misdiagnosed as primary attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Imaging analyses using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) quantitative volumetrics (QV) were used nine years following the incident to identify whether his development of ADHD is of a primary heritability or secondary hypoxic brain injury sequelae. The patient's DTI analysis g...
Source: Brain Injury - Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Inj Source Type: research
Abstract The study aimed to investigate the pathologic mechanism of functional brain regions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients through making comparisons of normal and ADHD children from the perspective of the network nodes of brain network and the intensity of functional connection between bilateral of hemispheres by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-five ADHD and forty-two children were examined by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans. Data analysis was done via the degree centrality (DC) and voxel-mirrored homotopic connectiv...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, while rs-fMRI use in clinical neuroradiology practice is limited, enthusiasm appears to be quite high and there are several possible avenues in which further research and development may facilitate its penetration into clinical practice. Introduction Techniques for quantifying spatial and temporal brain activity have developed rapidly since the first demonstrations that MRI could be used to measure modulations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) tissue contrast (1). The observation that MRI could be used to monitor temporally correlated low-frequency activity fluctuations in spatially remote brain a...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This study found that HIV-infected pubertal children showed a delayed cortical maturation with atrophy. This abnormal pattern of cortical development may be the structural basis for cognitive impairment in HIV-infected children. Introduction Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related encephalopathy is one of the most serious complications of AIDS and is more common in children than in adults (1). At present, there are nearly 2 million children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world, almost all newly infected children are infected through mother-to-child transmission (2). Effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Nicola Cellini1,2, Renee E. Shimizu3, Patrick M. Connolly3, Diana M. Armstrong4, Lexus T. Hernandez2, Anthony G. Polakiewicz3, Rolando Estrada3†, Mario Aguilar-Simon3, Michael P. Weisend4†, Sara C. Mednick2 and Stephen B. Simons3* 1Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy 2Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States 3Teledyne Scientific &Imaging, Durham, NC, United States 4Rio Grande Neurosciences, Dayton, OH, United States Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) during sleep has been shown to successfully modula...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: World J Biol Psychiatry Source Type: research
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