MRI-based measures of intracortical myelin are sensitive to a history of TBI and are associated with functional connectivity
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Evan M. Gordon, Geoffrey J. May, Steven M. NelsonAbstractTraumatic brain injuries (TBIs) induce persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits via diffuse axonal injury. Axonal injuries are often examined in vivo using diffusion MRI, which identifies damaged and demyelinated regions in deep white matter. However, TBI patients can exhibit impairment in the absence of diffusion-measured abnormalities, suggesting that axonal injury and demyelination may occur outside the deep white matter. Importantly, myelinated axons are also present within the cortex...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Different patterns of cortical activity in females and males during spatial long-term memory
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Dylan S. Spets, Brittany M. Jeye, Scott D. SlotnickAbstractIt is generally assumed that identical neural regions mediate the same cognitive functions in females and males. However, anatomic and molecular sex differences exist in the brain, including in regions associated with long-term memory, which suggests there may be functional differences. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation aimed to identify the differences and similarities in brain activity between females and males during spatial long-term memory. During e...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A new blind source separation framework for signal analysis and artifact rejection in functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
We present a novel suitable BSS framework that tackles these issues by incorporating A) Independent Component Analysis methods that exploit both higher order statistics and sample dependency, B) multimodality, i.e., fNIRS with accelerometer signals, and C) Canonical-Correlation Analysis with temporal embedding. This enables analysis of signal components and rejection of motion-induced physiological hemodynamic artifacts that would otherwise be hard to identify. We implement a method for Blind Source Separation and Accelerometer based Artifact Rejection and Detection (BLISSA2RD). It allows the analysis of a novel n-back bas...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Towards OPM-MEG in a virtual reality environment
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: NeuroImage, Volume 199Author(s): Gillian Roberts, Niall Holmes, Nicholas Alexander, Elena Boto, James Leggett, Ryan M. Hill, Vishal Shah, Molly Rea, Richard Vaughan, Eleanor A. Maguire, Klaus Kessler, Shaun Beebe, Mark Fromhold, Gareth R. Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J. BrookesAbstractVirtual reality (VR) provides an immersive environment in which a participant can experience a feeling of presence in a virtual world. Such environments generate strong emotional and physical responses and have been used for wide-ranging applications. The ability to collect functional neuroimaging d...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Visualization of thalamic calcium influx with quantitative susceptibility mapping as a potential imaging biomarker for repeated mild traumatic brain injury
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Ferdinand Schweser, Jenni Kyyriäinen, Marilena Preda, Asla Pitkänen, Kathryn Toffolo, Austin Poulsen, Kaitlynn Donahue, Benett Levy, David PoulsenAbstractA key event in the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the influx of substantial amounts of Ca2+ into neurons, particularly in the thalamus. Detection of this calcium influx in vivo would provide a window into the biochemical mechanisms of TBI with potentially significant clinical implications. In the present work, our central hypothesis was that the Ca2+ influx could be i...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Estimation of brain age delta from brain imaging
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Stephen M. Smith, Diego Vidaurre, Fidel Alfaro-Almagro, Thomas E. Nichols, Karla L. MillerAbstractIt is of increasing interest to study “brain age” - the apparent age of a subject, as inferred from brain imaging data. The difference between brain age and actual age (the “delta”) is typically computed, reflecting deviation from the population norm. This therefore may reflect accelerated aging (positive delta) or resilience (negative delta) and has been found to be a useful correlate with factors such as disease and cognitive ...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Latency analysis of resting-state BOLD-fMRI reveals traveling waves in visual cortex linking task-positive and task-negative networks
In this study we describe a method for analyzing the latency structure within BOLD-fMRI data and apply it to resting-state data of 94 participants from the Human Connectome Project. The method shows that task-positive and task-negative networks are integrated through traveling BOLD waves within early visual cortex. The waves are initiated at the periphery of the visual field and propagate towards the fovea. This observation suggests a mechanism for the functional integration of task-positive and task-negative networks, argues for an eccentricity-based view on visual information processing, and contributes to the emerging v...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Association between the oral microbiome and brain resting state connectivity in smokers
Publication date: Available online 13 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Dongdong Lin, Kent E. Hutchison, Salvador Portillo, Victor Vegara, Jarrod M. Ellingson, Jingyu Liu, Kenneth S. Krauter, Amanda Carroll-Portillo, Vince D. CalhounAbstractRecent studies have shown a critical role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in brain and behavior via the complex gut–microbiome–brain axis. However, the influence of the oral microbiome in neurological processes is much less studied, especially in response to the stimuli, such as smoking, within the oral microenvironment. Additionally, given the complex structural and ...
Source: NeuroImage - June 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Brain network reconfiguration for language and domain-general cognitive control in bilinguals
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): JunJie Wu, Jing Yang, Mo Chen, Shuhua Li, Zhaoqi Zhang, Chunyan Kang, Guosheng Ding, Taomei GuoAbstractFor bilinguals, language control is needed for selecting the target language during language production. Numerous studies have examined the neural correlates of language control and shown a close relationship between language control and domain-general cognitive control. However, it remains unknown how these brain regions coordinate with each other when bilinguals exert cognitive control over linguistic and nonlinguistic representations. We addres...
Source: NeuroImage - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neurofeedback helps to reveal a relationship between context reinstatement and memory retrieval
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Megan T. deBettencourt, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne, Kenneth A. NormanAbstractTheories of mental context and memory posit that successful mental context reinstatement enables better retrieval of memories from the same context, at the expense of memories from other contexts. To test this hypothesis, we had participants study lists of words, interleaved with task-irrelevant images from one category (e.g., scenes). Following encoding, participants were cued to mentally reinstate the context associated with a particular list, by thinking about the images t...
Source: NeuroImage - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Success, but not failure feedback guides learning during neurofeedback: An ERP study
Publication date: Available online 12 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Ioanna Zioga, Rawan Hassan, Caroline Di Bernardi LuftAbstractNeurofeedback is a promising self-regulation technique used to modify specific targeted brain patterns. During neurofeedback, target brain activity is monitored in real time and fed back to the subject in a chosen format (e.g. visual stimulus). To date, we do not know how success and failure feedback are processed during neurofeedback learning. Here we analysed the event related potentials (ERPs) in response to success and failure feedback during a single neurofeedback session in two expe...
Source: NeuroImage - June 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Reducing variability in along-tract analysis with diffusion profile realignment
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Samuel St-Jean, Maxime Chamberland, Max A. Viergever, Alexander LeemansAbstractDiffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides a non invasive virtual reconstruction of the brain's white matter structures through tractography. Analyzing dMRI measures along the trajectory of white matter bundles can provide a more specific investigation than considering a region of interest or tract-averaged measurements. However, performing group analyses with this along-tract strategy requires correspondence between points of tract pathways across sub...
Source: NeuroImage - June 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The relationship between negative BOLD responses and ERS and ERD of alpha/beta oscillations in visual and motor cortex
This study provides a new body of evidence that the coupling between BOLD and low-frequency (alpha/beta) sensory cortex EEG responses extends to cross-modal NBR. (Source: NeuroImage)
Source: NeuroImage - June 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Tractography-based parcellation does not provide strong evidence of anatomical organisation within the thalamus
In this study, we demonstrate that internal structure in diffusion anisotropy is not necessary for a plausible parcellation to be obtained, by spatially permuting diffusion parameters within the thalami and repeating the parcellation. Moreover, we show that, in a winner-takes-all paradigm, most voxels receive the same label before and after this shuffling process—a finding that is stable across image acquisitions and tractography algorithms. We therefore suggest that such parcellations should be interpreted with caution. (Source: NeuroImage)
Source: NeuroImage - June 8, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Relationship between topological efficiency in white matter structural networks with cerebral oxygen metabolism in young adults
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Bing Yu, Mingzhu Huang, Xu Zhang, Miao Peng, Yang Hou, Qiyong GuoAbstractThe relationship between the topological characteristics of the white matter (WM) network have been shown to be related to neural development, intelligence, and various diseases; however, few studies have been conducted to explore the relationship between topological characteristics of the WM network and cerebral metabolism. In a recent study we investigated the relationship between WM network topological and metabolic metrics of the cerebral parenchyma in healthy volunteers us...
Source: NeuroImage - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Trial-by-trial source-resolved EEG responses to gait task challenges predict subsequent step adaptation
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Johanna Wagner, Ramon Martinez-Cancino, Scott MakeigAbstractA growing body of evidence indicates a pivotal role of cognition and in particular executive function in gait control and fall prevention. In a recent gait study using electroencephalographic (EEG) imaging, we provided direct proof for cortical top-down inhibitory control in step adaptation. A crucial part of motor inhibition is recognizing stimuli that signal the need to inhibit or adjust motor actions such as steps during walking. One of the EEG signatures of performance monitoring in res...
Source: NeuroImage - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In vivo widefield calcium imaging of the mouse cortex for analysis of network connectivity in health and brain disease
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Julia V. Cramer, Benno Gesierich, Stefan Roth, Martin Dichgans, Marco Düring, Arthur LieszAbstractThe organization of brain areas in functionally connected networks, their dynamic changes, and perturbations in disease states are subject of extensive investigations. Research on functional networks in humans predominantly uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, adopting fMRI and other functional imaging methods to mice, the most widely used model to study brain physiology and disease, poses major technical challenges and faces...
Source: NeuroImage - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

High-fidelity mapping of repetition-related changes in the parietal memory network
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Adrian W. Gilmore, Steven M. Nelson, Timothy O. Laumann, Evan M. Gordon, Jeffrey J. Berg, Deanna J. Greene, Caterina Gratton, Annie L. Nguyen, Mario Ortega, Catherine R. Hoyt, Rebecca S. Coalson, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Steven E. Petersen, Nico U.F. Dosenbach, Kathleen B. McDermottAbstractfMRI studies of human memory have identified a “parietal memory network” (PMN) that displays distinct responses to novel and familiar stimuli, typically deactivating during initial encoding but robustly activating during retrieval. The small size of PMN r...
Source: NeuroImage - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimization of graph construction can significantly increase the power of structural brain network studies
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Eirini Messaritaki, Stavros I. Dimitriadis, Derek K. JonesAbstractStructural brain networks derived from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data have been used extensively to describe the human brain, and graph theory has allowed quantification of their network properties. Schemes used to construct the graphs that represent the structural brain networks differ in the metrics they use as edge weights and the algorithms they use to define the network topologies. In this work, twenty graph construction schemes were considered. The schemes use the num...
Source: NeuroImage - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Dissociating the functions of superior and inferior parts of the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex during visual word and object processing
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Philipp Ludersdorfer, Cathy J. Price, Keith J. Kawabata Duncan, Kristina DeDuck, Nicholas H. Neufeld, Mohamed L. SeghierAbstractDuring word and object recognition, extensive activation has consistently been observed in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (vOT), focused around the occipito-temporal sulcus (OTs). Previous studies have shown that there is a hierarchy of responses from posterior to anterior vOT regions (along the y-axis) that corresponds with increasing levels of recognition - from perceptual to semantic processing, respectively. ...
Source: NeuroImage - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Towards magnetoencephalography in a virtual reality environment
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Gillian Roberts, Niall Holmes, Nicholas Alexander, Elena Boto, James Leggett, Ryan M. Hill, Vishal Shah, Molly Rea, Richard Vaughan, Eleanor A. Maguire, Klaus Kessler, Shaun Beebe, Mark Fromhold, Gareth R. Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J. BrookesAbstractVirtual reality (VR) provides an immersive environment in which a participant can experience a feeling of presence in a virtual world. Such environments generate strong emotional and physical responses and have been used for wide-ranging applications. The ability to collect functional neuroimaging...
Source: NeuroImage - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

From intermodulation components to visual perception and cognition-a review
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Noam Gordon, Jakob Hohwy, Matthew James Davidson, Jeroen J.A. van Boxtel, Naotsugu TsuchiyaAbstractPerception results from complex interactions among sensory and cognitive processes across hierarchical levels in the brain. Intermodulation (IM) components, used in frequency tagging neuroimaging designs, have emerged as a promising direct measure of such neural interactions. IMs have initially been used in electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate low-level visual processing. In a more recent trend, IMs in EEG and other neuroimaging methods are bein...
Source: NeuroImage - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Acute psychosocial stress alters thalamic network centrality
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Reinelt Janis, Uhlig Marie, Müller Karsten, Mark E. Lauckner, Kumral Deniz, Schaare H. Lina, Blazej M. Baczkowski, Babayan Anahit, Erbey Miray, Roebbig Josefin, Reiter Andrea, Bae Yoon Ju, Kratzsch Juergen, Thiery Joachim, Hendler Talma, Villringer Arno, Gaebler MichaelAbstractAcute stress triggers a broad psychophysiological response that is adaptive if rapidly activated and terminated. While the brain controls the stress response, it is strongly affected by it. Previous research of stress effects on brain activation and connectivity has mainl...
Source: NeuroImage - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantifying performance of machine learning methods for neuroimaging data
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Lee Jollans, Rory Boyle, Eric Artiges, Tobias Banaschewski, Sylvane Desrivières, Antoine Grigis, Jean-Luc Martinot, Tomáš Paus, Michael N. Smolka, Henrik Walter, Gunter Schumann, Hugh Garavan, Robert WhelanAbstractMachine learning is increasingly being applied to neuroimaging data. However, most machine learning algorithms have not been designed to accommodate neuroimaging data, which typically has many more data points than subjects, in addition to multicollinearity and low signal-to-noise. Consequently, the relative efficacy o...
Source: NeuroImage - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural correlates of anticipatory cardiac deceleration and its association with the speed of perceptual decision-making, in young and older adults
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Maria J. Ribeiro, Miguel Castelo-BrancoAbstractWarning stimuli in sensorimotor tasks induce a state of preparedness characterized by increased alertness, focused attention and immobility. This state of attentive anticipation is associated with heart rate deceleration. Ageing affects the amplitude of the anticipatory cardiac deceleration responses; yet, the impact of this physiological change on cognitive performance is still to be elucidated. In fact, how cardiac deceleration relates to brain function and cognitive performance in the context of perc...
Source: NeuroImage - June 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synchrony, metastability, dynamic integration, and competition in the spontaneous functional connectivity of the human brain
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Vincent Wens, Mathieu Bourguignon, Marc Vander Ghinst, Alison Mary, Brice Marty, Nicolas Coquelet, Gilles Naeije, Philippe Peigneux, Serge Goldman, Xavier De TiègeAbstractThe human brain is functionally organized into large-scale neural networks that are dynamically interconnected. Multiple short-lived states of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) identified transiently synchronized networks and cross-network integration. However, little is known about the way brain couplings covary as rsFC states wax and wane. In this magnetoencepha...
Source: NeuroImage - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

A simple sleep EEG marker in childhood predicts brain myelin 3.5 years later
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Monique K. LeBourgeois, Douglas C. Dean, Sean C.L. Deoni, Malcolm Kohler, Salome KurthAbstractEpidemiological research reveals that insufficient sleep in children has negative cognitive and emotional consequences; however, the physiological underpinnings of these observations remain understudied. We tested the hypothesis that the topographical distribution of deep sleep slow wave activity during the childhood predicts brain white matter microstructure (myelin) 3.5 y later. Healthy children underwent sleep high-density EEG at baseline (n = 13; ...
Source: NeuroImage - June 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Shared genetic influences on adolescent body mass index and brain structure: A voxel-based morphometry study in twins
ConclusionThese results suggested genetic factors are responsible for the relationship between BMIz and heritable BMIz related brain structure in areas related to eating behavior. (Source: NeuroImage)
Source: NeuroImage - June 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimization of q-space sampling for mean apparent propagator MRI metrics using a genetic algorithm
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Daniel V. Olson, Volkan E. Arpinar, L. Tugan MuftulerAbstractMean Apparent Propagator (MAP) MRI is a recently introduced technique to estimate the diffusion probability density function (PDF) robustly. Using the estimated PDF, MAP MRI then calculates zero-displacement and non-Gaussianity metrics, which might better characterize tissue microstructure compared to diffusion tensor imaging or diffusion kurtosis imaging. However, intensive q-space sampling required for MAP MRI limits its widespread adoption. A reduced q-space sampling scheme that maintai...
Source: NeuroImage - June 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Population receptive field estimates for motion-defined stimuli
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Anna E. Hughes, John A. Greenwood, Nonie J. Finlayson, D. Samuel SchwarzkopfAbstractThe processing of motion changes throughout the visual hierarchy, from spatially restricted ‘local motion’ in early visual cortex to more complex large-field ‘global motion’ at later stages. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine spatially selective responses in these areas related to the processing of random-dot stimuli defined by differences in motion. We used population receptive field (pRF) analyses to map ret...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effects of 3.5–23.0 T static magnetic fields on mice: A safety study
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Xiaofei Tian, Dongmei Wang, Shuang Feng, Lei Zhang, Xinmiao Ji, Ze Wang, Qingyou Lu, Chuanying Xi, Li Pi, Xin ZhangAbstractPeople are exposed to various magnetic fields, including the high static/steady magnetic field (SMF) of MRI, which has been increased to 9.4 T in preclinical investigations. However, relevant safety studies about high SMF are deficient. Here we examined whether 3.5–23.0 T SMF exposure for 2 h has severe long-term effects on mice using 112 C57BL/6J mice. The food/water consumption, blood glucose levels, blood routine,...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Off-resonance correction for pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling using the optimized encoding scheme
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Eleanor S.K. Berry, Peter Jezzard, Thomas W. OkellAbstractPseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) MRI has become a popular tool for non-invasive perfusion imaging and angiography. However, it suffers from sensitivity to off-resonance effects within the labeling plane, which can be exacerbated at high field or in the presence of metallic implants, leading to spatially varying signal loss and cerebral blood flow underestimation. In this work we propose a prospective correction technique based on the optimized encoding scheme, which allows the...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Effective degrees of freedom of the Pearson's correlation coefficient under autocorrelation
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Soroosh Afyouni, Stephen M. Smith, Thomas E. NicholsAbstractThe dependence between pairs of time series is commonly quantified by Pearson's correlation. However, if the time series are themselves dependent (i.e. exhibit temporal autocorrelation), the effective degrees of freedom (EDF) are reduced, the standard error of the sample correlation coefficient is biased, and Fisher's transformation fails to stabilise the variance. Since fMRI time series are notoriously autocorrelated, the issue of biased standard errors – before or after Fisher's tra...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

QUEST MRI assessment of fetal brain oxidative stress in utero
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Bruce A. Berkowitz, Roberto Romero, Robert H. Podolsky, Karen M. Lins-Childers, Yimin Shen, Tilman Rosales, Youssef Zaim Wadghiri, D. Minh Hoang, Marcia Arenas-Hernandez, Valeria Garcia-Flores, George Schwenkel, Bogdan Panaitescu, Nardhy Gomez-LopezAbstractPurposeTo improve precision of R1 (=1/T1) maps of fetal brain in utero in order to perform QUEnch-assiSTed (QUEST) MRI in which a significant anti-oxidant-induced reduction in R1 indicates oxidative stress.MethodsC57BL/6 mouse fetuses in utero (E16.5) were gently and non-surgically isolated and se...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Enhancing sensorimotor BCI performance with assistive afferent activity: An online evaluation
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): C. Vidaurre, A. Ramos-Murguialday, S. Haufe, M. Gómez-Fernández, K.-R. Müller, V.V. NikulinAbstractAn important goal in Brain-Computer Interfacing (BCI) is to find and enhance procedural strategies for users for whom BCI control is not sufficiently accurate. To address this challenge, we conducted offline analyses and online experiments to test whether the classification of different types of motor imagery could be improved when the training of the classifier was performed on the data obtained with the assistive muscular stimulati...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optimization of preprocessing strategies in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) neuroimaging: A [11C]DASB PET study
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Vibe G. Frokjaer, Douglas N. Greve, Stephen C. Strother, Gitte M. KnudsenAbstractPositron Emission Tomography (PET) is an important neuroimaging tool to quantify the distribution of specific molecules in the brain. The quantification is based on a series of individually designed data preprocessing steps (pipeline) and an optimal preprocessing strategy is per definition associated with less noise and improved statistical power, potentially allowing for more valid neurobiological interpretations. In ...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Specific nutrient patterns are associated with higher structural brain integrity in dementia-free older adults
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Federica Prinelli, Laura Fratiglioni, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Massimo Musicco, Fulvio Adorni, Ingegerd Johansson, Anna Marseglia, Weili XuAbstractOptimal nutrition may play a beneficial role in maintaining a healthy brain. However, the relationship between nutrient intake and brain integrity is largely unknown. We investigated the association of specific nutrient dietary patterns with structural characteristics of the brain. Within the population-based Swedish National study on Aging and Care-Kungsholmen (SNAC-K), a cross-sectional study of 417 d...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Prediction mechanisms in motor and auditory areas and their role in sound perception and language understanding
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Luigi Grisoni, Bettina Mohr, Friedemann PulvermüllerAbstractIs the meaning of an expected stimulus manifest in brain activity even before it appears? Although theories of predictive coding see anticipatory activity as crucial for the understanding of brain function, few studies have explored neurophysiologically manifest semantic predictions. Here, we report predictive negative-going potentials before the onset of action (i.e. whistle and hand clap) and non-action (i.e. pure tone, water drop) sounds. These prediction potentials (PP) indexed the...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Characterization of lenticulostriate arteries with high resolution black-blood T1-weighted turbo spin echo with variable flip angles at 3 and 7 Tesla
ConclusionThe high-resolution black-blood 3D T1w TSE-VFA sequence offers a new method for the visualization and quantification of LSAs at both 3 T and 7 T, which may be applied for a number of pathological conditions related to the damage of LSAs. (Source: NeuroImage)
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Quantitatively validating the efficacy of artifact suppression techniques to study the cortical consequences of deep brain stimulation with magnetoencephalography
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Matthew J. Boring, Zachary F. Jessen, Thomas A. Wozny, Michael J. Ward, Ashley C. Whiteman, R. Mark Richardson, Avniel Singh GhumanAbstractDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established and effective treatment for several movement disorders and is being developed to treat a host of neuropsychiatric disorders including epilepsy, chronic pain, obsessive compulsive disorder, and depression. However, the neural mechanisms through which DBS produces therapeutic benefits, and in some cases unwanted side effects, for each of these disorders are only partia...
Source: NeuroImage - June 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

In vivo serial MRI of age-dependent neural progenitor cell migration in the rat brain
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Dorela D. Shuboni-Mulligan, Shatadru Chakravarty, Christiane L. Mallett, Alexander Wolf, Pauline Dmitriev, Stacey Forton, Erik M. ShapiroAbstractThe subventricular zone (SVZ) is a neurogenic niche in the mammalian brain, giving rise to migratory neural progenitor cells (NPC). In rodents, it is well-established that neurogenesis decreases with aging. MRI-based cell tracking has been used to measure various aspects of neurogenesis and NPC migration in rodents, yet it has not yet been validated in the context of age-related decrease in neurogenesis. Th...
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Modulation of somatosensory processing by action” [Elsevier, 70 (2013) 356-362]
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Sukhwinder S. Shergill, Thomas P. White, Daniel W. Joyce, Paul M. Bays, Daniel M. Wolpert, Chris D. Frith (Source: NeuroImage)
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Retrieval orientation alters neural activity during autobiographical memory recollection
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Lauri Gurguryan, Signy SheldonAbstractWhen an autobiographical memory is retrieved, the underlying memory representation is constructed by flexibly activating a broad neural network. As such, the content used to reconstruct a memory can bias activity within this neural network. Here, we tested the hypothesis that focusing on the conceptual and contextual aspects of a memory to construct a memory representation will recruit distinct neural subsystems. To test this hypothesis, we measured neural activity as participants retrieved memories under retrie...
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-specific optimization of T1-weighted brain MRI throughout infancy
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Hongxi Zhang, Can Lai, Ruibin Liu, Tingting Liu, Weiming Niu, Kenichi Oishi, Yi Zhang, Dan WuAbstractThe infant brain undergoes drastic morphological and functional development during the first year of life. Three-dimensional T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3D T1w-MRI) is a major tool to characterize the brain anatomy, which however, manifests inherently low and rapidly changing contrast between white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in the infant brains (0-12 month-old). Despite the prior efforts made to maximize tissue contrast in the neon...
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cognitive and neural architecture of decision making competence
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Francisco J. Román, Roberto Colom, Charles Hillman, Arthur Kramer, Neal Cohen, Aron K. BarbeyAbstractAlthough cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the neural foundations of goal-directed behavior and decision making, neuroscience research on decision making competence, the capacity to resist biases in human judgment and decision making, remain to be established. Here, we investigated the cognitive and neural mechanisms of decision making competence in 283 healthy young adults. We administered the Adult Decision...
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Selective spatial attention involves two alpha-band components associated with distinct spatiotemporal and functional characteristics
Publication date: Available online 30 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Jianrong Jia, Fang Fang, Huan LuoAbstractAttention is crucial for efficiently coordinating resources over multiple objects in a visual scene. Recently, a growing number of studies suggest that attention is implemented through a temporal organization process during which resources are dynamically allocated over a multitude of objects, yet the associated neural evidence, particularly in low-level sensory areas, is still limited. Here we used EEG recordings in combination with a temporal response function (TRF) approach to examine the spatiotemporal ch...
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The time-course of component processes of selective attention
Publication date: Available online 29 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Tanya Wen, John Duncan, Daniel J. MitchellAbstractAttentional selection shapes human perception, enhancing relevant information, according to behavioral goals. While many studies have investigated individual neural signatures of attention, here we used multivariate decoding of electrophysiological brain responses (MEG/EEG) to track and compare multiple component processes of selective attention. Auditory cues instructed participants to select a particular visual target, embedded within a subsequent stream of displays. Combining single and multi-item...
Source: NeuroImage - May 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

System-level matching of structural and functional connectomes in the human brain
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Yusuf Osmanlıoğlu, Birkan Tunç, Drew Parker, Mark A. Elliott, Graham L. Baum, Rastko Ciric, Theodore D. Satterthwaite, Raquel E. Gur, Ruben C. Gur, Ragini VermaAbstractThe brain can be considered as an information processing network, where complex behavior manifests as a result of communication between large-scale functional systems such as visual and default mode networks. As the communication between brain regions occurs through underlying anatomical pathways, it is important to define a “traffic pattern” that properly describ...
Source: NeuroImage - May 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Optically pumped magnetometers: From quantum origins to multi-channel magnetoencephalography
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Tim M. Tierney, Niall Holmes, Stephanie Mellor, José David López, Gillian Roberts, Ryan M. Hill, Elena Boto, James Leggett, Vishal Shah, Matthew J. Brookes, Richard Bowtell, Gareth R. BarnesAbstractOptically Pumped Magnetometers (OPMs) have emerged as a viable and wearable alternative to cryogenic, superconducting MEG systems. This new generation of sensors has the advantage of not requiring cryogenic cooling and as a result can be flexibly placed on any part of the body. The purpose of this review is to provide a neuroscience audience...
Source: NeuroImage - May 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Validating the sensitivity of inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) MRI to myelin with fluorescence microscopy
Publication date: Available online 26 May 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): G. Duhamel, V.H. Prevost, M. Cayre, A. Hertanu, S. Mchinda, V.N. Carvalho, G. Varma, P. Durbec, D.C. Alsop, O.M. GirardAbstractInhomogeneous Magnetization Transfer (ihMT) is a development from the MT MRI technique. IhMT can be considered as a dipolar order relaxation time (T1D) weighted imaging modality whose signal has shown an enhanced selectivity for myelin-rich structures. However, a formal validation of the ihMT sensitivity relative to a gold standard myelin density measurement has not yet been reported. To address this need, we compared ihMT M...
Source: NeuroImage - May 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research