The Induction of a Permissive Environment to Promote T Cell Immune Evasion in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Metabolic Perspective

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the acute leukemia with highest incidence amongst adults. Despite significant improvements in understanding the genomic landscape and the introduction of novel drugs, long-term outcome remains unsatisfactory. Recently, immunotherapeutic approaches have heralded a new era in cancer treatment. The success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML highlights the disease's immunoresponsiveness. Several immunotherapeutic applications are currently under clinical evaluation and include immune checkpoint blockades, T cell-engaging antibodies, and genetically engineered T cells. However, immunoevasive mechanisms employed by AML blasts severely hamper our endeavors. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains a prerequisite for improving treatment efficacy. One of the hallmarks of the cancer cells is metabolic reprogramming, introduced by Otto Warburg's seminal studies during the beginnings of the last century. Nowadays, it is well established that metabolic adaptation is not just an epiphenomenon during oncogenesis but rather a necessity for tumor development and progression. Furthermore, accumulating data suggest an important role of aberrant tumor cell metabolism for immune escape. AML blasts display a number of metabolic alterations that could be linked to immunoregulation, and these include competition over substrates, abundant release of bioactive metabolites, and an overall microenvironmental metabolic re-modeli...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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This article reviews the current landscape of antibody-based and cellular immunotherapies under current clinical evaluation with an emphasis on active or soon-to-open phase 1 trials for children with relapsed/refractory AML. PMID: 31808843 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Hematology ASH Education Program - Category: Hematology Tags: Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program Source Type: research
In this study, the protein expression of 79 AML blast samples collected from newly diagnosed patients was examined through flow cytometry. Gamma-secretase inhibitors were used in AML mouse xenograft models to evaluate the contribution of Notch pharmacological inhibition to mouse survival. We used univariate analysis for testing the correlation and/or association between protein expression and well-known prognostics markers. All the four receptors (Notch1–4) and some ligands (Jagged2, DLL-3) were highly expressed in less mature subtypes (M0–M1). Notch3, Notch4, and Jagged2 were overexpressed in an advers...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Wu S, Zhang W, Shen D, Lu J, Zhao L Abstract Phospholipase C (PLC) is a membrane-associated enzyme that regulates several cellular behaviors including cell motility, growth, transformation and differentiation. PLC is involved in cancer migration, invasion and drug resistance. However, the expression status and prognostic role of PLCB4 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. In the present study, the complete clinical and mRNA expression data of 285 pediatric patients with de novo AML were obtained from the Therapeutically Available Research to Generate Effective Treatments database. The association...
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
Abstract Accumulating studies have proved EZH2 dysregulation mediated by mutation and expression in diverse human cancers including AML. However, the expression pattern of EZH2 remains controversial in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). EZH1/2 expression and mutation were analysed in 200 patients with AML. EZH2 expression was significantly decreased in AML patients compared with normal controls but not for EZH1 expression. EZH2 mutation was identified three of the 200 AML patients (1.5%, 3/200), whereas none of the patients harboured EZH1 mutation (0%, 0/200). EZH2 expression and mutation were significantly associated...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Cancer CellAuthor(s): Huacheng Luo, Ganqian Zhu, Jianfeng Xu, Qian Lai, Bowen Yan, Ying Guo, Tsz Kan Fung, Bernd B. Zeisig, Ya Cui, Jie Zha, Christopher Cogle, Fei Wang, Bing Xu, Feng-Chun Yang, Wei Li, Chi Wai Eric So, Yi Qiu, Mingjiang Xu, Suming HuangSummaryLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical for regulating HOX genes, aberration of which is a dominant mechanism for leukemic transformation. How HOX gene-associated lncRNAs regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and contribute to leukemogenesis remains elusive. We found that HOTTIP is aberrantly ac...
Source: Cancer Cell - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, DNA damage inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4), has inducible expression in response to various cellular stresses. In multiple malignancies, studies have shown that DDIT4 participates in tumorigenesis and impacts patient survival. We aimed to study the prognostic value of DDIT4 in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which is currently unclear. Firstly, The Cancer Genome Atlas was screened for AML patients with complete clinical characteristics and DDIT4 expression data. A total of 155 patients were included and stratified according to the treatment modality and th...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
Abstract In this label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) study of genomic DNA, we demonstrate that the cancer-specific DNA methylation pattern translates into specific spectral differences. Thus, DNA extracted from an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line presented a decreased intensity of the 1005 cm-1 band of 5-methylcytosine compared to normal DNA, in line with the well-described hypomethylation of cancer DNA. The unique methylation pattern of cancer DNA also influences the DNA adsorption geometry, resulting in higher adenine SERS intensities for cancer DNA. The possibility of detecting cancer DNA ...
Source: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Anal Bioanal Chem Source Type: research
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is the most established and commonly used cellular immunotherapy in cancer care. It is the most potent anti-leukemic therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is routinely used with curative intent in patients with intermediate and poor risk disease. Donor T cells, and possibly other immune cells, eliminate residual leukemia cells after prior (radio)chemotherapy. This immune-mediated response is known as graft-versus-leukemia (GvL). Donor alloimmune responses can also be directed against healthy tissues, which is known as graft-versus-host diseas...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conditions:   Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML);   Cancer Interventions:   Drug: Venetoclax;   Drug: Azacitidine;   Other: Best Supportive Care (BSC) Sponsor:   AbbVie Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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