Recent insights into innate and adaptive immune responses to Giardia.

Recent insights into innate and adaptive immune responses to Giardia. Adv Parasitol. 2019;106:171-208 Authors: Singer SM, Fink MY, Angelova VV Abstract Infection with Giardia produces a wide range of clinical outcomes. Acutely infected patients may have no overt symptoms or suffer from severe cramps, diarrhea, nausea and even urticaria. Recently, post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome have been identified as long-term sequelae of giardiasis. Frequently, recurrent and chronic Giardia infection is considered a major contributor to stunting in children from low and middle income countries. Perhaps the most unusual outcome of infection with Giardia is the apparent reduced risk of developing moderate-to-severe diarrhea due to other enteric infections which has been noted in several recent studies. The goal of understanding immune responses against Giardia is therefore to identify protective mechanisms which could become targets for vaccine development, but also to identify mechanisms whereby infections lead to these other diverse outcomes. Giardia induces a robust adaptive immune response in both humans and animals. It has been known for many years that there is production of large amounts of parasite-specific IgA following infection and that CD4+ T cell responses contribute to this IgA production and control of the infection. In the past decade, there have been advances in our understanding of the non-antibody effector mechanis...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

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