Construction and application of surveillance and response systems for parasitic diseases in China, led by NIPD.
Abstract Parasitic diseases have been widely epidemic in China with a long history. Great endeavours made in past 70 years led to significant decrease in morbidity and mortablity caused by several major parasitic diseases, while challenges existed to eliminate parasitic diseases. Surveillance-response system has play a crucial role in identifying public health problems, ascertaining the distribution and epidemic dynamics, discovering outbreaks and epidemic anomalies, evaluating the effects of on-site intervention activities and identifying risk factors. In this article, we reviewed the progress of the surveillance...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 13, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hao YW, Wang Q, Cao CL, Tian T, Zhu ZL, Xu J, Zhou SS, Wu WP, Chen YD, Zhang Y, Chen JX, Li SZ, Xiao N, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocariasis and the clinical spectrum.
Abstract Toxocara canis and T. cati are among the most widely distributed helminthic species in the world with a high zoonotic impact. Millions of people are infecteda and hundreds of thousands are suffering from toxocarosis, a disease encompassing four different entities: larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome, ocular larva migrans (OLM) syndrome, covert toxocarosis (covT), common toxocarosis (comT) and neurotoxocarosis (NT). Toxocara infections in humans may remain clinically inapparent but may also induce severe diseases. This contribution gives a synoptic overview of the most important historical, clinical, d...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Auer H, Walochnik J Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Serodiagnostic methods for diagnosing larval toxocariasis.
Abstract Toxocariasis is a human infection primarily caused by larvae of Toxocara canis from dogs, and also by T. cati from cats. Children have a more significant risk of acquiring the infection due to their closer contact with pets, and greater chances of ingesting soil. Diagnosis of toxocariasis is based on clinical, epidemiological, and serological data. Indirect IgG ELISA is a widely used serodiagnostic method for toxocariasis, with native T. canis TES most commonly used as the antigen. Western blots, using the same antigen, can be used to confirm positive ELISA findings to reduce false-positive results. Impro...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Noordin R, Yunus MH, Tan Farrizam SN, Arifin N Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Clinical pathology of larval toxocariasis.
Abstract Human toxocariasis is a worldwide helminth zoonosis caused by roundworms of the genus Toxocara. Toxocariasis is the most common helminth infection in many countries. Disease caused by Toxocara can be classified into five clinical forms: generalised, neurological, ocular, covert, and asymptomatic. The clinical pathology of toxocariasis largely depends on the form of infection, the intensity of the infection, the larvae localisation, and the age of the host. Because histological and molecular examination of toxocariasis is limited by difficulties in obtaining material to analyse, clinical diagnosis is often...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mazur-Melewska K, Mania A, Sluzewski W, Figlerowicz M Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Imaging of toxocariasis.
This report reviews the usefulness and value of these individual imaging methods in diagnosis and follow-up of the different cases causing eosinophilic (granulomatous) infiltrations the liver, lungs, brain, heart, and eyes. Imaging provides a means of assisting in diagnosis and management in this infection where diagnosis by biopsy is often unlikely to capture an actual larva for the purpose of making a definitive diagnosis on the basis of larval morphology or DNA detection. PMID: 32381196 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dietrich CF, Cretu C, Dong Y Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

History of Toxocara and the associated larva migrans.
Abstract This review covers the systematics and nomenclature of the Ascaridoid genus toxocara, and more specifically the species Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Also discussed is the discovery of the persistence of these larvae in the tissues of paratenic hosts, and the role that other species of this genus might or could play in other such hosts; including those where the life cycle has been described, i.e., Toxocara vitulorum, Toxocara pteropodis, Toxocara mackerrasae, and Toxocara tanuki. Also examined is the work that led to the realization that the larval stage leaving the egg actually being a third rather ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bowman DD Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara-induced neural larva migrans (neurotoxocarosis) in rodent model hosts.
Abstract Neural larva migrans (NLM), or neurotoxocarosis, induced by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati results from migrating and persisting larvae in the central nervous system of paratenic hosts, including humans. As the diagnosis of NLM in humans is not straightforward, most knowledge on the disease is derived from only a few published clinical cases. To improve our understanding of human NLM, studies on the pathogenesis and clinical symptoms in laboratory animal model systems are indispensable, and rodents have been accepted as the most appropriate model organisms for NLM. As research has mostly focused on neuro...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Strube C, Waindok P, Raulf MK, Springer A Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Neurotoxocariasis.
Abstract Human toxocariasis, caused by larvae of the Toxocara spp., is one of the most prevalent zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. Toxocara larvae can cross the blood-brain barrier, invading the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurotoxocariasis. The clinical presentation consists of a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations such as meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis and cerebral vasculitis, but asymptomatic CNS infection is common. Despite the high seroprevalence, neurotoxocariasis is thought to be rare, even if in many animal models larvae usually migrate to the brain. Indeed, diagnosis of neu...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nicoletti A Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of cerebral toxocariasis and neurodegenerative diseases.
Abstract Toxocara canis belongs to one of zoonotic parasites that commonly infects canines worldwide, and its eggs in host faeces may contaminate the food, water, soil and their fur as well as the larvae entrapped in the granuloma can infect paratenic hosts including mice and humans. Survivability of T. canis embryonated eggs under moist, cool conditions may be as long as 2-4 years or more. In paratenic hosts such as mice and humans, T. canis L3 larvae neither moult, grow, nor replicate and will wander through a number of internal organs in humans so as to cause Th2-dominant pathology in various internal organs as...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fan CK Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric effects of toxocariasis.
Abstract Caused by the neuroinvasive nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, human toxocariasis has a worldwide distribution with seroprevalence in humans associated with low socioeconomic status and low educational attainment. Third-stage Toxocara larvae can invade human tissues, including the brain and spine, where they can result in encephalitis, meningitis, and inflammation. Toxocara infection in animal models has been associated with cognitive and behavioural changes. In humans, preliminary cross-sectional research suggests that Toxocara seropositivity is associated with worse cognitive function in childr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gale SD, Hedges DW Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Global and regional seroprevalence estimates for human toxocariasis: A call for action.
Abstract Human toxocariasis is a parasitic disease transmitted usually from dogs and/or cats that are infected with Toxocara species, and can be associated with a range of allergic, neurological and/or visual disorders. Recent epidemiological research has estimated that ~1.4 billion people worldwide, particularly in subtropical and tropical regions, are infected with, or exposed to Toxocara species, indicating that human toxocariasis is a neglected tropical disease. Here, we review recent research efforts, consider risk factors, discuss limitations in current seroprevalence estimates, and propose some future resea...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ma G, Rostami A, Wang T, Hofmann A, Hotez PJ, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara seroprevalence in Canada-Climate, environment and culture.
Abstract Human infection with larvae of canine and feline roundworms belonging to the genus Toxocara can lead to devastating visceral, neural or ocular larvae migrans disease. However, such overt disease represents a fraction of cases. Far more common is covert toxocariasis, a less severe, but clinically symptomatic form of disease, and those who are exposed to infective larvae and seroconvert, but appear to be asymptomatic. Canada represents a unique epidemiological environment for Toxocara infection and exposure. Although the freezing conditions of the vast Arctic Tundra region of the North are thought unlikely ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bradbury RS, Panicker IS Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara: Protecting pets and improving the lives of people.
Abstract Toxocara sp. are zoonotic parasitic roundworms that cause infection and morbidity in both developed and developing countries. In humans, infection is thought to be most common in children, particularly those living in poverty, and usually results from consumption of soil contaminated with parasite eggs deposited by dog or cat faeces. Infection in humans results in different clinical manifestations, some more overt like visceral or ocular larva migrans and others more cryptic like neurocognitive delay. Despite its pervasiveness, toxocariasis has become a neglected infection. We review the dynamics of the h...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Carlin EP, Tyungu DL Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara seroprevalence in the USA and its impact for individuals and society.
Abstract Toxocara species are intestinal helminths of dogs and cats, the larval stages of which may infect humans and cause severe neural, ocular and visceral larva migrans disease. Such cases of severe overt disease represent only a small fraction of the of the US population who have been exposed and infected with Toxocara, subsequently developing IgG antibodies to the larvae. The true impact of exposure to Toxocara in this large group of Americans remains uncertain. Toxocara antibody positivity is associated with poverty, but other specific risk factors have been identified, including sex, age, rural residence, ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bradbury RS, Hobbs CV Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara: Seroprevalence in Mexico.
lo MN Abstract In Mexico, toxocariasis, like some other parasitosis in humans, is not a disease of conventional surveillance or immediate notification. Seroprevalence studies are scarce, six dealing with paediatric populations and eight dealing with adults; the reports were only from four states in Mexico. There were 1596 children, and the seroprevalence was 13.8%. In the case of adults, there were 1827 subjects, and seroprevalence was 4.7%. There is a significant positive association between seroprevalence and the paediatric population P
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ponce-Macotela M, Martínez-Gordillo MN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence Brazil.
Abstract This chapter presents an overview of the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in Brazil and discusses how this zoonosis is studied, diagnosed, and treated in the Brazilian population. Toxocariasis in humans has a high prevalence in several regions of Brazil; however, this disease is neglected because of lack of knowledge, non-specific clinical signs, and difficult diagnosis. Most studies conducted in Brazil have estimated the prevalence of toxocariasis, i.e., the number of people who presented the disease at any given time. However, a few studies have determined disease incidence (number of new cases in a popul...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fialho PMM, Correa CRS, Lescano SZ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of human toxocarosis in Europe: A review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Toxocarosis is distributed worldwide and represents the most prevalent zoonotic helminth infection in industrialized countries, thereby posing a substantial risk for public health. Thus, toxocarosis is one of CDC's Neglected Parasitic Infections that has been targeted for public health action. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes Toxocara seroprevalence in general populations from Europe, populations suspected of Toxocara infection and defined risk groups. Random-effects meta-analysis of proportions based on 41 publications resulted in an overall seroprevalence of 6.2% (95% CI: 4.7-8.3%) in...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Strube C, Raulf MK, Springer A, Waindok P, Auer H Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

The anatomy of the third-stage larva of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati.
Abstract This review describes the morphology and ultrastructure of the third-stage larva of Toxocara canis, the larval stage that hatches from the egg and persists in the tissues of various paratenic hosts including infected humans. This larva remains unchanged as it passes from host to host and lives for extended periods in this same body form until it makes its way to the gastro-intestinal tract of its final host. There has been less work on the anatomy and ultrastructure of the larva of Toxocara cati, but overall, it appears very similar to that of T. canis with the only apparent difference being that the larv...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bowman DD Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence and incidence of human toxocarosis in Russia.
Abstract Overall incidence of toxocariasis in Russia is low and varies between 1.6 and 2.7 per 100,000, while in several hyper-endemic regions, such as Altay, Kurgan, Perm and Udmurtia, it reaches 43 per 100,000. The seroprevalence of toxocariasis in published references was on average 16% and varied across the regions of Russia from negligible in North Siberia to 40% in southern regions of West Siberia. Seroprevalence in adults in five regions of Russia identified in this study was on average 20%, and varied from 3% in Yakutia (north of East Siberia) to 36% in Rostov-on-Don, South Russia. There was no correlation...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Akhmadishina LV, Ruzina MN, Lukasheva MA, Kyuregyan KK, Mikhailov MI, Lukashev AN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Current epidemic situation of human toxocariasis in China.
Abstract Toxocariasis is a worldwide-distributed helminthic zoonosis, which mainly results from ascarid nematodes Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Humans become infected by accidental ingestion of infective eggs, raw or undercooked meat containing larvae. Keeping and contacting cats and dogs, and bad hygiene situations or habits are the main risk factors for Toxocara infection in China. The seroprevalence of Toxocara spp. is reported from 12.14% to 44.83%, and the overall seroprevalence in children was 12.14% in 1993 and elevated to 19.3% in 2015. Among the 103 cases reported in China during 1983-2019, ocular lar...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kong L, Peng HJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in Southeast Asia and Taiwan.
Abstract Human toxocariasis is a worldwide neglected zoonotic parasitic disease and caused mainly by Toxocara canis, and to a lesser event, by T. cati. There are only 16 epidemiological studies and 5 clinical toxocariasis case reports in 11 Southeast Asia countries and Taiwan (SEAT) that were found by searching data from PubMed in the period from January 1992 to August 2019. The overall seroprevalence in SEAT varied from 3.9% to 84.6% chiefly detected by using T. canis larval excretory-secretory antigen (TcES)-based ELISA. Playing with dogs or contacting Toxocara eggs from the contaminated soil or vegetables or ea...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chou CM, Fan CK Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Sources and seroprevalence of toxocariasis in Turkey.
In conclusion, although there are many studies on toxocariasis in Turkey, it is still not well understood to what extent the infection is responsible for a plethora ascribed symptoms. Standardisation of the diagnostic methods and the use of molecular techniques could further throw light in the real epidemiology and the role played by the infection to induce signs and symptoms. PMID: 32381213 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Taylan-Ozkan A Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Toxocara spp. antibodies in humans in Africa: A review.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxocariasis seems to be very frequent and common in large parts of the African continent. However, no data are available for most countries. The public health impact of human toxocariasis and the frequency of severe manifestations remain unclear. PMID: 32381214 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lötsch F, Grobusch MP Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Seroepidemiology of human toxocariasis in North Africa.
Abstract Seroprevalence studies on human toxocariasis help to assess the burden and the morbidity associated with this zoonosis. This review searched the seroprevalence studies and case reports in six North African countries: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia, since 1990. The search also included studies on the environmental factors related to the risk of transmission. Most of the published epidemiological studies were done in Egypt. Cross-sectional and case-control studies in Egypt demonstrated that toxocariasis is a significant zoonosis that could be associated with conditions like bronchial asth...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Adeel AA Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Pathology of larvae and adults in dogs and cats.
Abstract Endoparasitism remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in puppies and kittens. The ascarids of dogs and cats (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati) cause significant pathology due to either larval migration or adult nematode burden within the gastrointestinal tract. This chapter will review the important pathologic events and lesions that are encountered during ascarid development in dogs and cats with emphasis given to the characteristic gross pathology lesions that are seen in affected animals. PMID: 32381216 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Miller AD Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Antigen detection: Insights into Toxocara and other ascarid infections in dogs and cats.
Abstract Detection of ascarid excreted or secreted (E/S) molecules is an alternative approach to the identification of infection by egg flotation. E/S molecules serve as direct markers for the ascarid nematode commonly found in cats and dogs (Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina and Baylisascaris procyonis). The nematode derived E/S material mixes with the intestinal contents of the host animal and is available for detection as a coproantigen in the host's faeces. Antigen capture immunological techniques allow sensitive coproantigen detection. Different patterns of antigen to egg agreement are demonstrated in an expe...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Elsemore DA Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Global prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs.
Abstract Dogs serve as the most important definitive hosts for Toxocara canis-a causative agent of human toxocariasis and one of the most widespread zoonotic helminth worldwide. The present study was undertaken to assess the global prevalence of T. canis infection in dogs. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE and SciELO were searched to identify relevant studies. A random-effects model was used to estimate the overall and the subgroup-pooled prevalences across studies, and heterogeneity was assessed via the I2 test. The data were categorized according to WHO-region, different types of dogs, risk factors and envi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rostami A, Riahi SM, Hofmann A, Ma G, Wang T, Behniafar H, Taghipour A, Fakhri Y, Spotin A, Chang BCH, Macpherson CNL, Hotez PJ, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Sources of environmental contamination with Toxocara spp.: An omnipresent parasite.
Abstract Embryonated Toxocara eggs in the environment are considered to be the most important source of human toxocariasis. These eggs, however, are also a source of infection for the definitive and paratenic hosts. Most available literature focuses on Toxocara canis in dogs, or other canids. There are, however, other Toxocara species with their accompanying definitive hosts. Results from studies that modelled patent infections in dogs, cats and foxes show that although dogs are a very important source for environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs, other sources cannot be ignored. For a good understanding of ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nijsse R, Overgaauw P, Ploeger H, Mughini-Gras L Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Global prevalence of Toxocara infection in cats.
Abstract Zoonotic parasites, including Toxocara species, of pet and stray cats are of public health importance. Justification for, and the design and implementation of prevention and control of human toxocariasis may benefit from an understanding of the zoonotic potential and prevalence of parasites in this definitive host species. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies, conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxocara infection(s) in cats by geographical location, type (rural vs urban and stray vs pet), gender and age. Pooled data were assessed using a random effects-mode...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rostami A, Sepidarkish M, Ma G, Wang T, Ebrahimi M, Fakhri Y, Mirjalali H, Hofmann A, Macpherson CNL, Hotez PJ, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Visceral larval migrans of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati in non-canid and non-felid hosts.
Abstract Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are considered the most ubiquitous gastrointestinal helminths in domesticated canids and felids. Ascarid eggs passed in the faeces of canids and felids in a suitable environment may remain infective for years and are capable of infecting not only canids and felids, but a large range of other vertebrate paratenic hosts, including man. Infection with Toxocara species also occurs following the ingestion of paratenic hosts containing infective larvae. As infective larvae are incapable of completing their lifecycle in these hosts, they instead travel to different parts of the b...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wu T, Bowman DD Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara spp. in dogs and cats in Canada.
Abstract Toxocara spp. (T. canis and T. cati) are the dominant ascarids of domestic dogs and cats, respectively, in populated regions of southern Canada, where they pose animal and public health concerns. A review of the published literature indicated that prevalence of both parasites is declining in more recent studies (post 2000), likely due to changes in animal husbandry as well as use of anthelmintics. Geographically, prevalence was higher in the east (Atlantic), and in more southerly locations, possibly due to more favourable climate conditions for egg survival and development. At northern latitudes and in wi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jenkins EJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati in domestic dogs and cats in the United States, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean: A review.
Abstract Toxocara prevalence ranges from 0 to>87% and 0 to>60% in dogs and cats, respectively, within the United States, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Higher prevalence occurs in animals less than 1 year of age. Overall, prevalence is higher in cats compared to dogs. The lowest prevalence occurs in the US owned dog population. Specific populations in this industrialized nation, in animal shelters or resource-limited locations, have prevalences similar to those seen in populations from other regions reviewed here. Conversely, subpopulations in Central America and the Caribbean have very low preva...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ketzis JK, Lucio-Forster A Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara prevalence in dogs and cats in Brazil.
Abstract I herein review published studies reporting the prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs and cats in Brazil. Based on data gathered from faecal examinations of approximately 38,940 dogs and 5600 cats from different Brazilian studies, the mean prevalence of Toxocara infection is 11.4% (range: 0.7-48.9%) in dogs and 16.7% (0.3-43.1%) in cats. These mean values based on faecal examinations should be interpreted with cautious, considering the obvious differences in terms of sample size, diagnostic tests and animal populations. Accordingly, necropsy investigations reveal higher mean prevalence values (21.9% fo...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dantas-Torres F Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Toxocara spp. in dogs and cats in South America (excluding Brazil).
ute;rrez JJ Abstract Toxocariasis is a worldwide anthropozoonosis caused by Toxocara spp. nematodes. High prevalences of the disease has been found in developing countries, particularly in regions with poor sanitary conditions. The definitive hosts of the nematodes are dogs and cats, which play a vital role in the transmission of this parasite as humans are considered a paratenic host. The epidemiology of the disease in South America is not clear as it is usually not diagnosed and is not a notifiable disease. This review summarizes information regarding prevalence reports of Toxocara spp. in dog and cats in South ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: López-Osorio S, Penagos-Tabares F, Chaparro-Gutiérrez JJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence of patent Toxocara spp. infections in dogs and cats in Europe from 1994 to 2019.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of patent Toxocara infections over the last 25 years did not show a distinct declining trend. Prevalence data provided by recent modern antigen tests showed much lower results than from older studies. Results from studies using less diverse methods and well-defined study-populations could provide more clarity. PMID: 32381226 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Overgaauw P, Nijsse R Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara prevalence in dogs, cats and the environment in Russia.
Abstract The toxocariasis incidence in Russia is relatively low (1.8 cases per 100,000 individuals) and the parasite is not a major healthcare concern. However, the proportion of primary hosts testing positive for the parasite is high and varies between 3% and 100% in dogs (on average 33%), and between 6% and 52% in cats. Higher prevalence was observed in Volga, Urals and Siberia regions. Levels of contamination of soil, children's playgrounds and sandboxes is also high, with up to 100% contamination rates determined in some studies, but more commonly prevalence of contamination around 40% was reported. There is a...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lukashev AN, Ruzina MN, Akhmadishina LV Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Canine Toxocariosis: Its prevalence, incidence and occurrence in the Indian subcontinent.
Abstract Toxocariosis is an important neglected tropical helminth disease of zoonotic significance for which canids are the definitive hosts. Dogs are also considered the sentinel host for the occurrence of T. canis infections in humans. Therefore, understanding its prevalence in canine population is imperative for any effective disease control in humans. A comprehensive review of literature on the prevalence of T. canis in canids was lacking from the Indian subcontinent which necessitated our efforts to compile available data published on this topic. Data on prevalence, incidence and occurrence of this helminths ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Lejeune M, Gnani Charitha V, Mathivathani C, Rayulu VC, Bowman DD Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Toxocara spp. in dogs and cats in mainland China, 2000-2019.
Abstract Toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis. Although some studies have reported the Toxocara prevalence in dogs and cats in mainland China, there is a lack of comprehensive analysis of these data. Here, we conducted the first systematic review based on relevant literatures published in Web of Science, PubMed and CNKI from January 2000 to July 2019 to assess the prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs and cats in mainland China. A total of 68 eligible papers were retrieved, including 24,490 dogs and 844 cats, with 17.34% (4246/24,490) Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs and 22.04% (186/844) Toxocara cat...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zheng WB, Zou Y, Liu GH, Zhu XQ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Prevalence of Toxocara in dogs and cats in Africa.
Abstract Dogs and cats have a close association with humans providing companionship; however, pets are reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens such as Toxocara. Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are small intestinal nematodes found in canids and felids, respectively. Infected pets shed thousands of eggs resulting in environmental contamination. Toxocara can infect a wide variety of paratenic hosts including humans, rodents, pigs and chickens. Paratenic hosts become infected by ingestion of the infective eggs containing the third stage larvae or ingestion of dormant larvae in animal tissues. Infected humans may develop vis...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chidumayo NN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara canis in Australia.
Abstract This review covers reports on prevalence Toxocara in dogs from 2000 to the present and views of the veterinary community as to the importance of it as a zoonosis within Australia. The contamination of soils in public areas with eggs of this parasite seems overall to be minimal for reasons related to required collection of faeces from pets and the use of routine deworming and combination dewormers associated with heartworm prevention. The potential of other canid hosts being sources of eggs is likely common, especially with the increasing red fox and wild dog populations in more urbanized environs. Human a...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jenkins DJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocariasis: A neglected infection for the Anthropocene epoch.
Abstract While ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection dominate global efforts to control human soil-transmitted helminth infections, a picture is unfolding to suggest that toxocariasis is now a fourth and perhaps equally important parasitic disease. Toxocara eggs are widespread in the environment and practically ubiquitous in the soils of many subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Human zoonotic infection is also highly prevalent in these areas, based on serologic studies to detect anti-Toxocara antibodies. The relevance of these findings to human and animal disease burden e...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hotez PJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Toxocara "omics" and the promises it holds for medicine and veterinary medicine.
Toxocara "omics" and the promises it holds for medicine and veterinary medicine. Adv Parasitol. 2020;109:89-108 Authors: Zheng WB, Zou Y, Zhu XQ, Liu GH Abstract Toxocariasis is one of the most neglected worldwide zoonoses that is caused by larval nematode parasites of the genus Toxocara, Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent, Toxocara cati, whose migration mechanism is still largely unknown. Fortunately, some advanced tools have been employed, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, to better understand the molecular biology and regulatory mechanisms of Toxocara. Using genomics ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zheng WB, Zou Y, Zhu XQ, Liu GH Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Preface.
PMID: 32381234 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 11, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Griffiths JK Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

A perspective on the discovery of selected compounds with anthelmintic activity against the barber's pole worm-Where to from here?
Abstract Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals worldwide. Anthelmintic treatment is central to controlling these worms, but widespread resistance to most of the commercially available anthelmintics for veterinary and agricultural use is compromising control, such that there is an urgency to discover new and effective drugs. The purpose of this article is to review information on parasitic nematodes, the treatment and control of parasitic nematode infections and aspects of discovering new anthelmintics in the context of anthelmintic resistance problems, and then to di...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jiao Y, Preston S, Hofmann A, Taki A, Baell J, Chang BCH, Jabbar A, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Taenia asiatica: Historical overview of taeniasis and cysticercosis with molecular characterization.
Abstract Asian Taenia is a human-infecting Taenia tapeworm known as Taenia asiatica following morphological examination of adult and larval stages of the tapeworm by Eom and Rim (1993). The life cycle of T. asiatica differs from that of T. saginata in its intermediate host (pigs versus cattle) as well as in the infected organs (liver versus muscle). T. asiatica can be differentiated from T. solium and T. saginata by examination of morphological characteristics such as the scolex, mature and gravid proglottids in the adult stage, and the scolex and bladder surface in the larval stage. T. asiatica has been identifie...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Eom KS, Rim HJ, Jeon HK Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Elucidating the molecular and developmental biology of parasitic nematodes: Moving to a multiomics paradigm.
Abstract In the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the sequencing, assembly, annotation and analyses of genomes and transcriptomes of parasitic worms of socioeconomic importance. This progress has somewhat improved our knowledge and understanding of these pathogens at the molecular level. However, compared with the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the areas of functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics of parasitic nematodes are still in their infancy, and there are major gaps in our knowledge and understanding of the molecular biology of parasitic nematodes....
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ma G, Wang T, Korhonen PK, Hofmann A, Sternberg PW, Young ND, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Zoonotic transmission of intestinal helminths in southeast Asia: Implications for control and elimination.
Abstract Intestinal helminths are extremely widespread and highly prevalent infections of humans, particularly in rural and poor urban areas of low and middle-income countries. These parasites have chronic and often insidious effects on human health and child development including abdominal problems, anaemia, stunting and wasting. Certain animals play a fundamental role in the transmission of many intestinal helminths to humans. However, the contribution of zoonotic transmission to the overall burden of human intestinal helminth infection and the relative importance of different animal reservoirs remains incomplet...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 16, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Betson M, Alonte AJI, Ancog RC, Aquino AMO, Belizario VY, Bordado AMD, Clark J, Corales MCG, Dacuma MG, Divina BP, Dixon MA, Gourley SA, Jimenez JRD, Jones BP, Manalo SMP, Prada JM, van Vliet AHM, Whatley KCL, Paller VGV Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

The structural organization of Giardia intestinalis cytoskeleton.
Abstract Giardia intestinalis, the causative agent of giardiasis, has complex cytoskeleton organization with structures involved in motility, adhesion, cell division, and cell differentiation. Microtubules are key components of the cytoskeleton and are the main elements of the ventral disc, median body, funis, in addition to four pairs of flagella. These cytoskeletal elements are basically stable microtubule arrangements. Although tubulins are the main proteins of these elements, molecular and biochemical analyses of Giardia trophozoites have revealed the presence of several new and not yet characterized proteins ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gadelha APR, Benchimol M, de Souza W Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of Giardia intestinalis: Intestinal epithelial cell interactions.
ml;rd S Abstract Giardia intestinalis is a unicellular protozoan parasite that infects the small intestines of humans and animals. Giardiasis, the disease caused by the parasite, occurs globally across socioeconomic boundaries but is mainly endemic in developing countries and particularly within young children, where pronounced effects manifests in a failure to thrive condition. The molecular pathogenesis of Giardia has been studied using in vitro models of human and rat intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and parasites from the two major human genotypes or assemblages (A and B). High-quality, genome sequencing of ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Emery-Corbin SJ, Grüttner J, Svärd S Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and post-infectious complications in giardiasis.
Abstract Giardia is an important cause of diarrhoea, and results in post-infectious and extra-intestinal complications. This chapter presents a state-of-the art of our understanding of how this parasite may cause such abnormalities, which appear to develop at least in part in Assemblage-dependent manner. Findings from prospective longitudinal cohort studies indicate that Giardia is one of the four most prevalent enteropathogens in early life, and represents a risk factor for stunting at 2 years of age. This may occur independently of diarrheal disease, in strong support of the pathophysiological significance of th...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 5, 2020 Category: Parasitology Authors: Allain T, Buret AG Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research