Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Macroscopic and microscopic imaging modalities for diagnosis and monitoring of urogenital schistosomiasis
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:51-76. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.001. Epub 2021 Mar 11.ABSTRACTUrogenital schistosomiasis remains a major global challenge. Optimal management of this infection depends upon imaging-based assessment of sequelae. Although established imaging modalities such as ultrasonography, plain radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), narrow band imaging, and computerized tomography (CT) have been used to determine tissue involvement by urogenital schistosomiasis, newer refinements in associated technologies may lead to improvements in patient care. Moreover, application of investigational imaging metho...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Shelly Xie Eglal Shalaby-Rana Austin Hester Jared Honeycutt Chi-Ling Fu Deborah Boyett Wen Jiang Michael H Hsieh Source Type: research

Survival of metazoan parasites in fish: Putting into context the protective immune responses of teleost fish
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:77-132. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Apr 29.ABSTRACTDefence mechanisms of fish can be divided into specific and non-specific that act in concert and are often interdependent. Most fish in both wild and cultured populations are vulnerable to metazoan parasites. Endoparasitic helminths include several species of digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans. Although they may occur in large numbers, helminth infections rarely result in fish mortality. Conversely, some ectoparasites cause mass mortality in farmed fish. Given the importance of fish innate immunity, this review addr...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli Luisa Giari Giampaolo Bosi Source Type: research

Taking the strain out of onchocerciasis? A reanalysis of blindness and transmission data does not support the existence of a savannah blinding strain of onchocerciasis in West Africa
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:1-50. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.01.002. Epub 2021 Mar 3.ABSTRACTOnchocerciasis (also known as 'river blindness'), is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the (Simulium-transmitted) filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The occurrence of 'blinding' (savannah) and non-blinding (forest) parasite strains and the existence of corresponding, locally adapted Onchocerca-Simulium complexes were postulated to explain greater blindness prevalence in savannah than in forest foci. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) focused anti-vectoria...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Robert A Cheke Kirsty E Little Stephen Young Martin Walker Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis: From parasite biology and immunology to diagnosis and control
Adv Parasitol. 2021;112:133-217. doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2021.03.003. Epub 2021 Apr 8.ABSTRACTInfection with the pork tapeworm (Taenia solium) is responsible for a substantial global burden of disease, not only restricted to its impact on human health, but also resulting in a considerable economic burden to smallholder pig farmers due to pig cysticercosis infection. The life-cycle, parasitology and immunology of T. solium are complex, involving pigs (the intermediate host, harbouring the larval metacestode stage), humans (the definitive host, harbouring the adult tapeworm, in addition to acting as accidental intermediate host...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 24, 2021 Category: Parasitology Authors: Matthew A Dixon Peter Winskill Wendy E Harrison Maria-Gloria Bas áñez Source Type: research