Milestones of networking and global engagements for the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other Helminthic Zoonoses (RNAS+).
Abstract This paper introduces the three stages of development of the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other Helminthic Zoonoses (RNAS+), namely the preparatory stage, the strengthening stage and the expanding stage. Significant achievements have been made through the help of RNAS+, particularly on research on helminthiases. As scientists, researchers, academics work closer with control authorities, elimination of these diseases is slowly getting nearer and within reach. RNAS+, at present can boast of the following strengths: (i) strong collaboration in the regional research area with support from exp...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leonardo L, Bergquist R, Utzinger J, Willingham AL, Olveda R, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

From inspiration to translation: Closing the gap between research and control of helminth zoonoses in Southeast Asia.
Abstract Poverty magnifies limitations resulting from traditional biases and environmental risks in endemic areas. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Important for RNAS was networking across borders, not just on schistosomiasis but on the whole spectrum of endemic helminthiases, and this bore fruit in the form of the expansion of RNAS into the 'Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+)', which focuses on technical standardization, supporting the growth of research cap...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bergquist R, Leonardo L, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Challenges and way forward.
Abstract Schistosomiasis, helminthic zoonoses and NTDs constitute a considerable majority of the diseases of poverty in the world. The RNAS+ targeted zoonoses are not only problems to human and animal health, but also cause poverty in 1 billion poor livestock keepers as well as result in 2.3 billion cases of human illness and 1.7 million human deaths a year. The gaps in research of those targeted zoonoses are urgently addressed by identifying the research priority, fulfilled by improving the multisectoral cooperation and strengthening the interventions in the control programme. PMID: 31530393 [PubMed - in pro...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leonardo L, Bergquist R, Utzinger J, Li SZ, Venturina M, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Collaborative RNAS+ research: Priorities and outcomes.
Abstract Over the past 20 years, RNAS+ has been generating research results from highly collaborative projects meant to promote and advance understanding in various aspects of schistosomiasis. Epidemiological studies in endemic countries like the Philippines, the People's Republic of China (PR China), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and Cambodia clarified the role of reservoir hosts in transmission and the use of spatio-temporal methods such as remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) in surveillance of schistosomiasis. Morbidity studies proposed factors that might influence develop...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leonardo L, Bergquist R, Li SZ, Lv S, Khieu V, Sayasone S, Xu J, Olveda R, Utzinger J, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Needs and coordination mechanism for capacity building by the RNAS.
This article summarized the actual needs of capacity building among RNAS+ member countries and the working mechanism of capacity building during the last 20 years. The needs with respect to the RNAS+ target diseases are highly correlated with the research priorities, since most problems with regard to the performance of the national disease control programme in the member countries are connected with inadequate capacity in relation to implementation of innovative research, epidemiological investigations, laboratory performance; and sociological investigations. The capacity building arranged through RNAS+ platform includes ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhou XN, Leonardo L, Utzinger J, Lv S, Xu J, Willingham AL, Lu Y, McManus D, Li SZ, Venturina M, Olveda R, Bergquist R Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

From country control programmes to translational research.
Abstract From the time it was conceptualized in 1998 to the present, RNAS+ has largely concentrated on research that will generate results to facilitate control, prevention and elimination of its target diseases. Diagnostics has remained an active field of research in order to develop tools that are appropriate for each stage from the first efforts until attempts to block transmission. For example, with regard to schistosomiasis, chemotherapy has excellent impact on morbidity, while better diagnostics and vaccine research have been promoted to complement the other components of the control programme. The need for ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leonardo L, Bergquist R, Olveda R, Satrija F, Sripa B, Sayasone S, Khieu V, Willingham AL, Utzinger J, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Multi-disciplinary integration of networking through the RNAS+: Research on other target diseases.
Abstract In 2005, the network decided to increase its number of target diseases to include other helminthic zoonoses such as fascioliasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and cysticercosis and in the process expanding membership to include South Korea, Vietnam, Thailand and Japan. NTDs were eventually included as awareness is heightened on these diseases affecting poor and developing countries. Researches on clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis unravel the mechanism by which these diseases eventually predispose to cholangiocarcinoma. The liver cancer associated with these liver fluke infections necessi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leonardo L, Bergquist R, Li SZ, Lv S, Khieu V, Sayasone S, Xu J, Olveda R, Utzinger J, Sripa B, Satrija F, Tangkawattana S, Ullyartha H, Wai KT, Nguyen H, Zhou XN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Preface: Sustained cooperation on research and control of neglected tropical diseases among multisectors and multipartners across borders in Southeast Asia.
Abstract This special issue is going to introduce the origins of the "Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis (RNAS)" which can be traced back to 1996. RNAS was originally a collaboration of scientists from China and Philippines, and then expanded to Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan and Laos, with focusing on research and control of schistosomiasis japonica. However, at its fifth meeting in Bali, Indonesia in 2005, more countries such as Vietnam, Thailand and Korea were brought on board along with a string of neglected tropical diseases such as cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis, ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 20, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhou XN, Leonardo L, Bergquist R Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Leishmania tropica: What we know from its experimental models.
Abstract Leishmania tropica causes different forms of leishmaniasis in many parts of the world. Animal models can help to clarify the issues of pathology and immune response in L. tropica infections and can be applied to the control, prevention and treatment of the disease. The aim of this article is to summarize published data related to experimental models of this parasite, presenting an overview of the subject. We also present in brief the epidemiology, transmission and human manifestation of L. tropica infection. Mice, rats and hamsters have been used for experimental models of L. tropica infection. Main findi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rostamian M, Niknam HM Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

The cathepsin-like cysteine peptidases of trematodes of the genus Fasciola.
Abstract Fasciolosis caused by trematode parasites of the genus Fasciola is a global disease of livestock, particularly cattle, sheep, water buffalo and goats. It is also a major human zoonosis with reports suggesting that 2.4-17 million people are infected worldwide, and 91.1 million people currently living at risk of infection. A unique feature of these worms is their reliance on a family of developmentally-regulated papain-like cysteine peptidases, termed cathepsins. These proteolytic enzymes play central roles in virulence, infection, tissue migration and modulation of host innate and adaptive immune responses...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cwiklinski K, Donnelly S, Drysdale O, Jewhurst H, Smith D, De Marco Verissimo C, Pritsch IC, O'Neill S, Dalton JP, Robinson MW Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Echinococcosis transmission on the Tibetan Plateau.
Abstract Since the mid-1990s detailed studies and field investigations on the Tibetan Plateau have revealed human echinococcosis to be an under-reported major public health problem, particularly in the dominant pastoral communities in the eastern and central regions. Human prevalence surveys showed that cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by Echinococcus granulosus) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE, caused by Echinococcus multilocularis) are co-endemic with higher burdens of each disease than other endemic world regions. Epidemiological investigations identified some major risk factors for human CE and AE including d...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Craig PS, Giraudoux P, Wang ZH, Wang Q Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Diagnosis and drug resistance of human soil-transmitted helminth infections: A public health perspective.
ws ML Abstract Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a major public health problem globally, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged populations. Detection of STH infections is often challenging, requiring a combination of diagnostic techniques to achieve acceptable sensitivity and specificity, particularly in low infection-intensity situations. The microscopy-based Kato-Katz remains the most widely used method but has low sensitivity in the detection of, for instance, Strongyloides spp. infections, among others. Antigen/antibody assays can be more sensitive but are parasite species-spec...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mutombo PN, Man NWY, Nejsum P, Ricketson R, Gordon CA, Robertson G, Clements ACA, Chacón-Fonseca N, Nissapatorn V, Webster JP, McLaws ML Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

A new level of complexity in parasite-host interaction: The role of extracellular vesicles.
Abstract Humans and animals have co-existed with parasites in a battle of constant adaptation to one another. It is becoming increasingly clear that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play important roles in this co-existence and pathology. This chapter reviews the current research on EVs released by protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes with a special focus on EVs in parasite life cycles. The environmental changes experienced by the parasite during its life cycle is associated with distinct changes in EV release and content. The function of these EV seems to have a significant influence on parasite pathology an...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - April 30, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mardahl M, Borup A, Nejsum P Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

The Discovery of Helminth Life Cycles.
This article will try to pinpoint some of the key discoveries which turned out to be milestones for the elucidation of the secret life of helminths. PMID: 30878054 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Marti H Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Helminthiasis Epidemiology and Control: Scoring Successes and Meeting the Remaining Challenges.
Abstract Parasitic helminth infections remain a significant challenge to global health. These are highly prevalent diseases, affecting over 1 billion persons worldwide. Their prevalence is closely linked to the presence of severe poverty and its associated sub-standard housing and sanitation. The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in our understanding of the true disease burden of helminth infections, and there has been increasing momentum on the part of national and non-governmental developmental organizations for prevention and control of these diseases. The expansion in mass treatment programmes fo...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: King CH Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Community and Drug Distributor Perceptions and Experiences of Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: A Rapid Review of Qualitative Research.
This article presents findings from a rapid review of qualitative research conducted to inform decision makers about community and drug distributor perceptions and experiences of mass drug administration campaigns for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis. We focused on questions related to acceptability of the mass drug administration campaigns within these groups and their thoughts around the feasibility of planning and carrying out the campaigns. METHODS: We carried out a systematic search in five databases to identify potential studies. We included studies that focused on community members and drug distributors ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ames HMR, Zuske M, King JD, Steinmann P, Bosch-Capblanch X Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Mobile Phone Devices and Handheld Microscopes as Diagnostic Platforms for Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in Low-Resource Settings: A Systematic Review, Historical Perspective and Future Outlook.
Abstract The accurate, rapid, and cost-effective diagnosis of malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in low-resource settings may benefit by significant technological advances in handheld and mobile phone microscopy. We systematically review the available literature in this field and discuss the future directions in which these technologies may be applied. English-language studies from the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Sciences were searched through April 2018 for observational and interventional studies reporting diagnostic characteristics of handheld and mobile phone microscopy devices as compared to field-...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Vasiman A, Stothard JR, Bogoch II Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Is Opisthorchis viverrini Emerging in Cambodia?
t P Abstract Opisthorchis viverrini infection is widely prevalent in Southeast Asia. In Cambodia information on this helminth infection is scare. Recent reports suggest that O. viverrini is an emerging public health problem. We aimed to synthesize all information in relation to the infection, epidemiology, and morbidity of O. viverrini in Cambodia; from published as well as thus far unpublished sources. First reports on O. viverrini date back to 1995. In 2006 an O. viverrini initiative was launched by the national helminth control program. Since then O. viverrini has been reported in all - except two - provinces. ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Khieu V, Fürst T, Miyamoto K, Yong TS, Chai JY, Huy R, Muth S, Odermatt P Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Challenges and Lessons From Conducting A Paediatric Clinical Trial in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of the Praziquantel Oral Dispersible Tablets Phase II Study in C ôte d'Ivoire.
Challenges and Lessons From Conducting A Paediatric Clinical Trial in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of the Praziquantel Oral Dispersible Tablets Phase II Study in Côte d'Ivoire. Adv Parasitol. 2019;103:75-89 Authors: N'Goran E, David Aka NA, Ouattara M, Huber E, Bezuidenhout D, Kourany-Lefoll E, Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium Abstract The importance of implementing paediatric clinical trials for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in compliance with the Good Clinical Practices of the International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH-GCP) and other applicable regulatory and ethics guidelines is inc...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: N'Goran E, David Aka NA, Ouattara M, Huber E, Bezuidenhout D, Kourany-Lefoll E, Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Drug Combinations Against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections.
Abstract The soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura are common in areas with warm and moist climates with little access to adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene affecting the poorest populations. The current control strategy of the World Health Organization is preventive chemotherapy (PC), i.e., the administration of the two benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole) using single, oral doses to at risk populations without prior diagnosis. The recent success of PC is threatened by anthelmintic drug resistance and the low efficacy of the drugs against hookw...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 18, 2019 Category: Parasitology Authors: Moser W, Schindler C, Keiser J Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Opisthorchiasis and the Microbiome.
Abstract The liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini, O. felineus, and Clonorchis sinensis are closely related fish-borne trematodes endemic in East Asia, Eurasia, and Siberia. Following ingestion, the parasites locate to the biliary tree, where chronic infection frequently leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Infection with C. sinensis or O. viverrini is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Infection with O. felineus may also be carcinogenic. The mechanism(s) by which infection with these liver flukes culminates in CCA remain elusive, although they are likely to be mult...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Saltykova IV, Petrov VA, Brindley PJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Integrative EcoHealth/One Health Approach for Sustainable Liver Fluke Control: The Lawa Model.
Abstract The Lawa model is a successful integrative and sustainable means of controlling opisthorchiasis in Thailand. The model integrates the EcoHealth and One Health holistic approaches with systems thinking to target the interruption of Opisthorchis viverrini transmission. Using the six principles of EcoHealth and emphasizing the three domains of One Health (human-animal-ecosystem), the program targets each step of the parasite life cycle, thus maximizing the chances of interrupting the life cycle of the parasite. The main drivers of success are the village health volunteers and health-promoting hospitals,...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tangkawattana S, Sripa B Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

The Socioeconomic Burden of Cholangiocarcinoma Associated With Opisthorchis viverrini Sensu Lato Infection in Northeast Thailand: A Preliminary Analysis.
Abstract The northeast of Thailand, which is the poorest region of the country, has the highest incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) worldwide. This is associated with infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Although an estimated 20,000 people die every year of this disease, the socioeconomic impact of this mortality on the victims' family and the community in which he or she lived remains unknown. Here, we provide background information on the socioeconomic groups most effected by CCA and provide a qualitative estimate of the likely financial burden on the family and community. Most victims of CCA...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Khuntikeo N, Thinkhamrop B, Bundhamcharoen K, Andrews RH, Grundy-Warr C, Yongvanit P, Loilome W, Chamadol N, Kosuwan W, Sithithaworn P, Petney TN Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

RNA Interference as an Approach to Functional Genomics Genetic Manipulation of Opisthorchis viverrini.
Abstract The availability of genome and transcriptome data of the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini provides the foundation for exploration of gene function and its effect on host-parasite interactions and pathogenesis of O. viverrini-associated bile duct cancer. Functional genomics approaches address the function of DNA at levels of the gene, RNA transcript and protein product using informative manipulations of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, microbiome and metabolome. Advances in functional genomics for O. viverrini have thus far focused on RNA interference. The flukes have been transfected with...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Laha T, Brindley PJ, Suyapoh W, Suttiprapa S Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Opisthorchis viverrini Proteome and Host-Parasite Interactions.
Abstract The omics technologies have improved our understanding of the molecular events that underpin host-parasite interactions and the pathogenesis of parasitic diseases. In the last decade, proteomics and genomics in particular have been used to characterize the surface and secreted products of the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini and revealed important roles for proteins at the host-parasite interface to ensure that the flukes can migrate, feed and reproduce in a hostile environment. This review summarizes the advances made in this area, primarily focusing on discoveries enabled by the publ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Suttiprapa S, Sotillo J, Smout M, Suyapoh W, Chaiyadet S, Tripathi T, Laha T, Loukas A Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Immune Response to Opisthorchis viverrini Infection and Its Role in Pathology.
Abstract Human liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Mekong countries such as Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Myanmar with over 10 million infected through consumption of fish containing infective metacercariae. With no tissue migration phase and living entirely within the larger secondary (intrahepatic) bile ducts, liver flukes are only exposed to a biliary mucosal immune response, while their excretory and secretory products also stimulate chronic inflammation of biliary epithelium. Neither mucosal nor tissue immune responses appear to cause parasi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sripa B, Jumnainsong A, Tangkawattana S, Haswell MR Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Update on Pathogenesis of Opisthorchiasis and Cholangiocarcinoma.
Abstract Infection with the food-borne liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini causes cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Whereas the cause of CCA in the West remains obscure, the principal risk factor in Thailand is opisthorchiasis. Here, we review recent findings on the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and CCA focusing on helminth molecules/toxic metabolites, host-parasite interaction, endocytosis, immunopathology/inflammatory responses, free radical production, molecular genetic alterations, and multifactorial including coinfections driving to CCA development. PMID: 30442312 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - November 19, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sripa B, Tangkawattana S, Brindley PJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Taxonomy, Ecology and Population Genetics of Opisthorchis viverrini and Its Intermediate Hosts.
Abstract There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the systematics and ecology of Opisthorchis viverrini; however, this new knowledge has not only clarified but also complicated the situation. We now know that what was once considered to be a single species is, in fact, a species complex, with the individual species being confined to specific wetland areas. There is also a strong genetic association between the members of the O. viverrini species complex and their Bithynia snail intermediate hosts. Although this does not negate data collected before the recognition of this situation, it does le...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Petney TN, Andrews RH, Saijuntha W, Tesana S, Prasopdee S, Kiatsopit N, Sithithaworn P Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Opisthorchis viverrini Draft Genome - Biomedical Implications and Future Avenues.
Abstract Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease of major proportion, caused by the carcinogenic, Asian liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. This hepatobiliary disease is known to be associated with malignant cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) and affects millions of people in Southeast Asia. No vaccine is available, and only one drug (praziquantel) is routinely employed against the parasite. Despite technological advances, little is known about the molecular biology of the fluke itself and the disease complex that it causes in humans. The advent of high-throughput nucleic acid sequencing and bioinformatic t...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Young ND, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Opisthorchiasis-Induced Cholangiocarcinoma: How Innate Immunity May Cause Cancer.
Abstract Innate, inflammatory responses towards persistent Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection are likely to contribute to the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a liver cancer that is rare in the West but prevalent in Greater Mekong Subregion countries in Southeast Asia. Infection results in the infiltration of innate immune cells into the bile ducts and subsequent activation of inflammatory immune responses that fail to clear OV but instead may damage local tissues within the bile ducts. Not all patients infected with OV develop CCA, and so tumourigenesis may be dependent on multiple factors including th...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Edwards SW, Spofford EM, Price C, Wright HL, Salao K, Suttiprapa S, Sripa B Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Detection of Opisthorchis viverrini Sensu Lato in Human and Intermediate Hosts for Use in Control and Elimination Programs.
Abstract Opisthorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease, caused by infection with the fish-borne trematode Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato that afflicts more than 10million people in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The disease is characterized by a chronic infection that induces hepatobiliary inflammation, especially periductal fibrosis, which can be detected by ultrasonography. This chronic inflammation eventually leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a usually fatal bile duct cancer that develops in approximately 1% of O. viverrini-infected individuals. In Thailand alone, CCA k...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Saijuntha W, Duenngai K, Tangkawattana S, Petney TN, Andrews RH, Sithithaworn P Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection.
Abstract Opisthorchiasis in the Lower Mekong Subregion is a parasitic disease caused by the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. This parasite has a well-documented distribution in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Southern Vietnam. In this chapter, we describe the current knowledge of the epidemiology of O. viverrini infection, highlighting advances in control efforts made in the last four decades in Thailand and identifying ongoing gaps in our epidemiological knowledge which need to be filled to support efforts to permanently overcome the heavy morbidity and mortality burden caused by these parasites withi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Suwannatrai A, Saichua P, Haswell M Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Reservoir Animals and Their Roles in Transmission of Opisthorchis viverrini.
Abstract Although any fish-eating mammals could be potential definitive hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini, only a few, especially cats and dogs, are actually known reservoir hosts for this parasite. Both animals usually get infected via consuming raw or undercooked contaminated fish, fish dishes or food remains from households. The infected animals sustain parasite egg spread via open environment defecation. Cats are the most important reservoir with higher prevalence rates of O. viverrini infection than dogs in endemic areas. Usually Opisthorchis-infected animals do not exhibit apparent clinical symptoms or specifi...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tangkawattana S, Tangkawattana P Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Social Influence in Liver Fluke Transmission: Application of Social Network Analysis of Food Sharing in Thai Isaan Culture.
Abstract In northeastern Thai (Isaan) culture traditional raw fish dishes and raw fish-eating habits are common. Eating and sharing meals together among the community's members, especially relatives and neighbours, are a common practice in both daily life and social gathering events. Fish are a significant protein source and are associated with variety of traditional recipes. Cyprinid fish are one of the most preferred fish by Isaan villagers for daily consumption because they are accessible and affordable. Consumption of these fish probably causes the persistence of high endemicity of human liver fluke infection,...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - June 18, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Phimpraphai W, Tangkawattana S, Kasemsuwan S, Sripa B Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

An Important Milestone in Parasitology: Celebrating a Hundred Volumes of Advances in Parasitology.
Abstract Beginning in 1963, the founding rationale of Advances in Parasitology was to provide authentic, well-documented reviews by leading experts, about the progress being made in their area of specialism to inform the wider cadre of parasitologists, disseminating this information across allied disciplines and all users. Some 55 years later, the Series has accumulated over 667 published articles, with just over 650 authors contributing either alone or in collaboration, and has successfully served the parasitological needs of medical, veterinary and wildlife scientific communities with equity, notwithstanding tre...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Stothard JR, Rollinson D Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

100 Years of Mass Deworming Programmes: A Policy Perspective From the World Bank's Disease Control Priorities Analyses.
Abstract For more than 100 years, countries have used mass drug administration as a public health response to soil-transmitted helminth infection. The series of analyses published as Disease Control Priorities is the World Bank's vehicle for exploring the cost-effectiveness and value for money of public health interventions. The first edition was published in 1993 as a technical supplement to the World Bank's World Development Report Investing in Health where deworming was used as an illustrative example of value for money in treating diseases with relatively low morbidity but high prevalence. Over the second (200...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bundy DAP, Appleby LJ, Bradley M, Croke K, Hollingsworth TD, Pullan R, Turner HC, de Silva N Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Clonorchis sinensis and Clonorchiasis: The Relevance of Exploring Genetic Variation.
Abstract Parasitic trematodes (flukes) cause substantial mortality and morbidity in humans. The Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, is one of the most destructive parasitic worms in humans in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. Although C. sinensis infection can be controlled relatively well using anthelmintics, the worm is carcinogenic, inducing cholangiocarcinoma and causing major suffering in ~15 million people in Asia. This chapter provides an account of C. sinensis and clonorchiasis research-covering aspects of biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunity, diagnosis, treatment and contro...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang D, Young ND, Korhonen PK, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Exploring Structural and Physical Properties of Schistosome Eggs: Potential Pathways for Novel Diagnostics?
Abstract In this era of increasing demand for sensitive techniques to diagnose schistosomiasis, there is a need for an increased focus on the properties of the parasite eggs. The eggs are not only directly linked to the morbidity of chronic infection but are also potential key targets for accurate diagnostics. Eggs were the primary target of diagnostic tools in the past and we argue they could be the target of highly sensitive tools in the future if we focus on characteristics of their structure and shell surface that could be exploited for enhanced detection. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowle...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Candido RRF, Morassutti AL, Graeff-Teixeira C, St Pierre TG, Jones MK Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Parasite Dispersal From the Ornamental Goldfish Trade.
on KS Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, are immensely popular ornamental cyprinid fish, traded in more than 100 countries. For more than 500 years, human translocation has facilitated the spread of goldfish globally, which has enabled numerous and repeated introductions of parasite taxa that infect them. The parasite fauna assemblage of goldfish is generally well documented, but few studies provide evidence of parasite coinvasion following the release of goldfish. This review provides a comprehensive synopsis of parasites that infect goldfish in farmed, aquarium-held, native, and invasive popula...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Trujillo-González A, Becker JA, Hutson KS Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Human Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases: Heading Towards 2050.
Abstract By 2050 our civilized planet may be comprised predominantly of networked megacities embedded in warm subtropical and tropical climates, and under stress from climate change and catastrophic weather events. Urban slum areas in these cities, including those found in wealthier middle- and high-income nations (blue marble health), will be especially vulnerable to disease. Moreover, regional conflicts fought over shifting and limited resources, including water, will collapse health systems infrastructures to further promote disease emergence and reemergence. Thus while by 2050 we might congratulate ourselves f...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hotez PJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Climate Change and the Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Abstract Climate change is expected to impact across every domain of society, including health. The majority of the world's population is susceptible to pathological, infectious disease whose life cycles are sensitive to environmental factors across different physical phases including air, water and soil. Nearly all so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) fall into this category, meaning that future geographic patterns of transmission of dozens of infections are likely to be affected by climate change over the short (seasonal), medium (annual) and long (decadal) term. This review offers an introduction into t...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - May 15, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Booth M Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Parasites of the Giant Panda: A Risk Factor in the Conservation of a Species.
Abstract The giant panda, with an estimated population size of 2239 in the world (in 2015), is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by habitat loss, poor reproduction and limited resistance to some infectious diseases. Of these factors, some diseases caused by parasites are considered as the foremost threat to its conservation. However, there is surprisingly little published information on the parasites of the giant panda, most of which has been disseminated in the Chinese literature. Herein, we review all peer-reviewed publications (in English or Chinese language) and governmental documents...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 14, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wang T, Xie Y, Zheng Y, Wang C, Li D, Koehler AV, Gasser RB Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography of the Triatominae, Vectors of Chagas Disease.
Abstract In this chapter, we review and update current knowledge about the evolution, systematics, and biogeography of the Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)-true bugs that feed primarily on vertebrate blood. In the Americas, triatomines are the vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Despite declining incidence and prevalence, Chagas disease is still a major public health concern in Latin America. Triatomines occur also in the Old World, where vector-borne T. cruzi transmission has not been recorded. Triatomines evolved from predatory reduviid bugs, most likely in the New World, an...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 14, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Monteiro FA, Weirauch C, Felix M, Lazoski C, Abad-Franch F Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Expanding the Vector Control Toolbox for Malaria Elimination: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial gaps in the supporting evidence, several VCTs may be promising supplements to ITNs and IRS in appropriate settings. Strengthening operational capacity and research to implement underutilized VCTs, such as LSM and mosquito-proofed housing, using an adaptive, learning-by-doing approach, while expanding the evidence base for promising supplementary VCTs that are locally tailored, should be considered central to global malaria elimination efforts. PMID: 29530309 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Parasitology)
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 14, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Williams YA, Tusting LS, Hocini S, Graves PM, Killeen GF, Kleinschmidt I, Okumu FO, Feachem RGA, Tatarsky A, Gosling RD Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

The Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Epidemiology of Coccidia of Passerine Birds.
Abstract Coccidia are intracellular parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa that cause a range of pathologies collectively termed coccidiosis. Species of coccidia of commercial importance have been well studied, with the effect of other species on passerine birds receiving increasing attention. In this chapter, we review the literature on coccidia in passerines, with a particular focus on wild populations. The taxonomy and life cycle of passerine coccidia are covered, as is their impact on the health of passerines, their epidemiology and their role in parasite-mediated natural and sexual selection. Coccidia can pose a...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 14, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Knight A, Ewen JG, Brekke P, Santure AW Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Monogenean Parasite Cultures: Current Techniques and Recent Advances.
lez A Abstract Global expansion in fish production and trade of aquatic ornamental species requires advances in aquatic animal health management. Aquatic parasite cultures permit diverse research opportunities to understand parasite-host dynamics and are essential to validate the efficacy of treatments that could reduce infections in captive populations. Monogeneans are important pathogenic parasites of captured captive fishes and exhibit a single-host life cycle, which makes them amenable to in vivo culture. Continuous cultures of oviparous monogenean parasites provide a valuable resource of eggs, oncomiracidia (...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 14, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hutson KS, Brazenor AK, Vaughan DB, Trujillo-González A Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Anisakis and Anisakiasis: An Ecological and Evolutionary Road Map.
Abstract This review addresses the biodiversity, biology, distribution, ecology, epidemiology, and consumer health significance of the so far known species of Anisakis, both in their natural hosts and in human accidental host populations, worldwide. These key aspects of the Anisakis species' biology are highlighted, since we consider them as main driving forces behind which most of the research in this field has been carried out over the past decade. From a public health perspective, the human disease caused by Anisakis species (anisakiasis) appears to be considerably underreported and underestimated in many count...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - March 14, 2018 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mattiucci S, Cipriani P, Levsen A, Paoletti M, Nascetti G Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Measuring the Effect of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Cognitive Function in Children: Systematic Review and Critical Appraisal of Evidence.
es RJ Abstract Recently the role of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in children's cognitive developmental impairment has been under scrutiny. We conducted a systematic review of the evidence for associations between STH infections and cognitive function of children using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. We aimed to identify the domains of cognitive function in three age strata (
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 27, 2017 Category: Parasitology Authors: Owada K, Nielsen M, Lau CL, Clements ACA, Yakob L, Soares Magalhães RJ Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Advances in Spermatological Characters in the Digenea: Review and Proposal of Spermatozoa Models and Their Phylogenetic Importance.
ni Y Abstract The wide biodiversity and economic importance of digeneans have motivated a great deal of research in the last decade, focussing on their phylogenetic positions. Molecular research was instrumental for our understanding of phylogeny in the Digenea, but spermatological studies have also provided many results, which are potentially useful for phylogeny; however, the complete spermatological data set has never been reviewed in a whole phylogenetic perspective. Spermatological data are now available for more than 100 species, belonging to 15 superfamilies and 46 families. In this paper, we try to summari...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 27, 2017 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bakhoum AJS, Miquel J, Ndiaye PI, Justine JL, Falchi A, Bâ CT, Marchand B, Quilichini Y Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research

Life History, Systematics and Evolution of the Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886: Progress, Promises and Challenges Emerging From Molecular Studies.
Abstract Members of the Diplostomoidea mature in amniotes and employ vertebrates, annelids and molluscs as second intermediate hosts. Diplostomoid life cycles generally follow a three-host pattern typical of digeneans, but novelties have arisen in some species, including obligate four-host life cycles, vertical transmission, and intracellular parasitism. In this review, we summarize the basic biology of diplostomoids with reference to molecular studies, and present challenges, gaps and areas where molecular data could address long-standing questions. Our analysis of published studies revealed that most molecular s...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - September 27, 2017 Category: Parasitology Authors: Blasco-Costa I, Locke SA Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research