PARP Inhibition in Cancer: An Update on Clinical Development

AbstractPARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-cancer therapy; they take advantage of synthetic lethality and induce cell death by exploiting a defect in DNA repair. This class of medication was initially evaluated in patients with BRCA-associated tumors, but efficacy was also demonstrated in other populations. Since 2014, four PARP inhibitors have been approved in various indications: olaparib, niraparib, and rucaparib in high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and olaparib and talazoparib in metastatic breast cancer. The exact indications and study populations vary slightly between the different approvals in both disease states but there is significant overlap. PARP inhibitors continue to be investigated in ongoing clinical trials. In line with other targeted therapies, benefit appears to be strongest in a distinct population of patients with BRCA mutations or other defects in homologous recombination repair. Combination therapies, which include anti-angiogenesis agents and immunotherapy, show promise as a strategy to broaden efficacy for unselected patients. Initial studies of PARP inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy were limited by toxicity, but further studies are underway. To date, head-to-head trials comparing various PARP inhibitors have not been conducted, so questions remain in terms of choosing a PARP inhibitor to administer when indications overlap, as well as how to sequence these medications. Here we review both completed...
Source: Targeted Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsWomen revealed a willingness to undergo surgeries to achieve largest reduction in breast cancer risk, although this would not be recommended for a younger woman in her 20s. The goal of achieving the highest degree of cancer risk reduction is the primary driver for women withBRCA1 orBRCA2 mutations in selecting an intervention and a sequence of interventions, regardless of whether it is non-surgical or surgical.
Source: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to the characterization of the genetic background of breast cancer predisposition in the Brazilian population as a useful resource to discriminate between deleterious variants and VUS, thus enabling improvement in the preventive health care and clinical management of carriers. PMID: 32986223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Breast Cancer Source Type: research
In conclusion, it remains unclear if brain-specific regional and temporal changes occur in the expression of the different APP variants during AD progression. Since APP is also found in blood cells, assessing the changes in APP mRNA expression in peripheral blood cells from AD patients has been considering an alternative. However, again the quantification of APP mRNA in peripheral blood cells has generated controversial results. Brain APP protein has been analyzed in only a few studies, probably as it is difficult to interpret the complex pattern of APP variants and fragments. We previously characterized the soluabl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Chen P, Wang H, Li M, Yang L, Mou F, Singh B, He JY, Zhang W Abstract 6,12-Diphenyl-3,9-diazatetraasterane-1, 5, 7, 11-tetracarboxylate (DDTC) has been synthesized by the photodimerization of 4-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate. The potential of theercvantitumor activity and mechanism were investigated in vitro using MTT assay in human lung cancer cell line A549, ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and A2780, breast cancer cell line MCF-7, gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, colon cancer cell line HT29, prostate cancer cell line DU145, and liver cancer cell line SMMC7721. The results show that DDTC ca...
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Early detection would improve survival, but an effective diagnostic test does not exist. Novel biomarkers for early ovarian cancer diagnosis are therefore warranted. We performed intraoperative blood sampling from ovarian veins of stage I epithelial ovarian carcinomas and analyzed the serum proteome. Junction plakoglobin (JUP) was found to be elevated in venous blood from ovaries with malignancies when compared to those with benign disease. Peripheral plasma JUP levels were validated by ELISA in a multicenter international patient cohort. JUP was significantly incre...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Four new tetrahydroxanthone-chromanone heterodimers, usneaxanthones E-H (1-4) together with eleven known compounds (5-15) were isolated from lichen Usnea aciculifera Vain (Parmeliaceae). Their structures and absolute configurations, particularly the central and axial chiralities, were unambiguously demonstrated by a combination of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR, HRESIMS), electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments, and single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. The cytotoxicity of new compounds was evaluated on four human cancer cell lines including HCT116 colorectal cancer, MCF-7 breast cancer,...
Source: Fitoterapia - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Fitoterapia Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: LncRNA CASC15 has the potential to become a new therapeutic target or marker for a variety of tumors. PMID: 32962611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
(Institute of Cancer Research) A drug used to treat breast and ovarian cancer can extend the lives of some men with prostate cancer and should become a new standard treatment for the disease, concludes a major trial which is set to change clinical practice.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Andrzej Malinowski High levels of miRNA-103/107 are associated with poor outcomes in the case of breast cancer patients. MiRNA-103/107-DICER axis may be one of the key regulators of cancer aggressiveness. MiRNA-103/107 expression levels have never been related to patients’ clinicopathological data in epithelial ovarian cancer. We aimed to assess miRNA-103/107 expression levels in high grade serous ovarian cancer tissues. Expression levels of both miRNAs were related to the clinicopathological features and survival. We also evaluated expression levels of miRNA-103/107 and DICER in selected ovarian cancer ce...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ang The EVI1 gene encodes for a transcription factor with two zinc finger domains and is transcriptionally activated in a subset of myeloid leukemias. In leukemia, the transcriptional activation of EVI1 usually results from chromosomal rearrangements. Besides leukemia, EVI1 has also been linked to solid tumors including breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and colon cancer. The MDS1/EVI1 gene is encoded by the same locus as EVI1. While EVI1 functions as a transcription repressor, MDS1/EVI1 acts as a transcription activator. The fusion protein encoded by the AML1/MDS1/EVI1 chimeric gene, resulting from chromosomal...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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