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The Abscopal Effect in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy: a Spontaneous Synergism Boosting Anti-tumor Immunity?
AbstractRadiotherapy is one of the main treatment strategies used in cancer. Aside from the local control of the disease, which is mediated by a direct cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, radiotherapy has also been shown to exert immune-mediated local and systemic effects. Radiotherapy can elicit anti-tumor responses in distant sites from the radiation field; this phenomenon is known as the abscopal effect and has been described in patients previously treated with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Considering that the efficacy of immunotherapy has been demonstrated only in a subset of patients —who often benefit with la...
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combining Ibrutinib with Chk1 Inhibitors Synergistically Targets Mantle Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines
ConclusionsThe pharmacological approach of simultaneously targeting cell cycle checkpoints (by Chk1 inhibitors) and pro-survival pathways (by ibrutinib) might offer a promising new therapeutic strategy for MCL patients. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immune Checkpoint Blockade: The New Frontier in Cancer Treatment
AbstractImmune checkpoint blockers have revolutionized cancer treatment in recent years. These agents are now approved for the treatment of several malignancies, including melanoma, squamous and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have demonstrated the significant impact of immunotherapy versus standard of care on patient outcomes, including durable response and extended survival. The use of immunotherapy-based combination therapy has been shown to further extend duration of response and survival. Immunotherapies function th...
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Alpha-Emitters and Targeted Alpha Therapy in Oncology: from Basic Science to Clinical Investigations
AbstractAlpha-emitters are radionuclides that decay through the emission of high linear energy transfer α-particles and possess favorable pharmacologic profiles for cancer treatment. When coupled with monoclonal antibodies, peptides, small molecules, or nanoparticles, the excellent cytotoxic capability of α-particle emissions has generated a strong interest in exploring targeted α-therapy in the pr e-clinical setting and more recently in clinical trials in oncology. Multiple obstacles have been overcome by researchers and clinicians to accelerate the development of targeted α-therapies, especially w...
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor Hypoxia As an Enhancer of Inflammation-Mediated Metastasis: Emerging Therapeutic Strategies
AbstractMetastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Recent research has implicated tumor inflammation as a promoter of metastasis. Myeloid, lymphoid, and mesenchymal cells in the tumor microenvironment promote inflammatory signaling amongst each other and together with cancer cells to modulate sustained inflammation, which may enhance cancer invasiveness. Tumor hypoxia, a state of reduced available oxygen present in the majority of solid tumors, acts as a prognostic factor for a worse outcome and is known to have a role in tumor inflammation through the regulation of inflammatory mediator signals in both canc...
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Treatment of EGFR T790M-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
AbstractThe treatment of lung cancer has changed dramatically with the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target sensitizing somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite remarkable initial responses, patients eventually develop progressive disease, with the most common cause of resistance to first-lineEGFR TKIs being the acquired T790M mutation. Various third-generationEGFR TKIs have been developed to specifically target this acquired mutation, of which osimertinib is currently the only approved agent. In addition, the eagerly anticipated data from the FLAURA study recently f...
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Induction chemotherapy with the EXTREME regimen in frail patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
ConclusionThis is the first study to report the use of the EXTREME regimen as induction chemotherapy, and although this IC was used in a very frail population, the majority completed the sequence with significant clinical benefit. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - February 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicles As miRNA Nano-Shuttles: Dual Role in Tumor Progression
AbstractTumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a pleiotropic role in cancer, interacting with target cells of the tumor microenvironment, such as fibroblasts, immune and endothelial cells. EVs can modulate tumor progression, angiogenic switch, metastasis, and immune escape. These vesicles are nano-shuttles containing a wide spectrum of miRNAs that contribute to tumor progression. MiRNAs contained in extracellular vesicles (EV-miRNAs) are disseminated in the extracellular space and are able to influence the  expression of target genes with either tumor suppressor or oncogenic functions, depending on both ...
Source: Targeted Oncology - January 26, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Biomarker-Driven Therapy in Metastatic Gastric and Esophageal Cancer: Real-Life Clinical Experience
ConclusionsOur findings demonstrated that implementing biomarker-driven analysis is feasible and could provide clinical benefit for a considerable proportion (~30%) of patients with metastatic gastric or esophageal cancer. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - January 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Modulating Tumor Immunology by Inhibiting Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO): Recent Developments and First Clinical Experiences
AbstractIndoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) catalyze the first rate-limiting step in the oxidative metabolism of compounds containing indole rings, including the transformation of the essential amino acidL-tryptophan toN-formyl-L-kynurenine. Through direct and indirect means, IDO exerts both tolerogenic and pro-inflammatory effects and has a profound immunoregulatory role in the tumor microenvironment. Although the role of IDO in mediating peripheral acquired immunologic tolerance has been known for some time, its role in tumorigenesis and the subversion of anti-tumor immunity have only r...
Source: Targeted Oncology - January 4, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Correction to: A Phase II Study Evaluating Combined Neoadjuvant Cetuximab and Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy and Concomitant Cetuximab in Locoregional Oesophageal Cancer Patients
AbstractErrors were subsequently identified in the article and the following corrections should be noted (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Retreatment with Vismodegib after Progression in Advanced Basal Cell Carcinoma: First-Time Report of a Single-Institution Experience
The objective of our report is to determine whether vismodegib is still active when used in BCC patients who progressed during a first vismodegib course (FVC). We conducted a retrospective study on six advanced BCC patients enrolled in a clinical trial (STEVIE, NCT01367665) who discontinued vismodegib due to PD and were then retreated with the same drug. All patients underwent intercurrent therapies between the FVC and the second vismodegib course (SVC). Disease control (complete response, CR; partial response, PR; and stable disease) was achieved in 100% and 80% of cases in FVC and SVC, respectively. The overall response ...
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of B-Cell Maturation Antigen in the Biology and Management of, and as a Potential Therapeutic Target in, Multiple Myeloma
AbstractB-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) was originally identified as a cell membrane receptor, expressed exclusively on late stage B-cells and plasma cells (PCs). Investigations of BCMA as a target for therapeutic intervention in multiple myeloma (MM) were initiated in 2007, using cSG1 as a naked antibody (Ab) as well as an Ab –drug conjugate (ADC) targeting BCMA, ultimately leading to ongoing clinical studies for previously treated MM patients. Since then, multiple companies have developed anti-BCMA-directed ADCs. Additionally, there are now three bispecific antibodies in development, which bind to both BCMA and CD...
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Incorporating DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors (DNMTis) in the Treatment of Genitourinary Malignancies: A Systematic Review
AbstractInhibition of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) has emerged as a novel treatment strategy in solid tumors. Aberrant hypermethylation in promoters of critical tumor suppressor genes is the basis for the idea that treatment with hypomethylating agents may lead to the restoration of a “normal” epigenome and produce clinically meaningful therapeutic outcomes. The aim of this review article is to summarize the current state of knowledge of DNMT inhibitors in the treatment of genitourinary malignancies. The efficacy of these agents in genitourinary malignancies was reported in a number of studies and suggests a ...
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Motivation for Launching a Cancer Metastasis Inhibition (CMI) Program
AbstractMetastatic cancers impose significant burdens on patients, affecting quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. Even during remission, microscopic metastases can lurk, but few therapies directly target tumor cell metastasis. Agents that interfere with this process would represent a new paradigm in cancer management, changing the ‘waiting game’ into a time of active prevention. These therapies could take multiple forms based on the pathways involved in the metastatic process. For example, a phenome-wide association study showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the geneTBXA2R is associated with in...
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Early Metabolic Change after Induction Chemotherapy Predicts Histologic Response and Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Cancer: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial
ConclusionEarly PET response after IC is prognostic, but subsequent PET changes (for example, after chemoradiation) are not prognostic. Early PET response might have the potential of predicting pCR. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Inhibiting CDK in Cancer Therapy: Current Evidence and Future Directions
AbstractCell cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of all cancers, resulting in uncontrolled proliferation. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), a family of proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, are frequently overexpressed or mutated in cancer. Hence, CDK-inhibiting drugs have been developed and evaluated as cancer therapeutics. Clinical trials have shown CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) to be relatively safe and effective, and these are now standard of care treatment for advanced hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Some CDK4/6i drugs are also able to cross the blood brain barrier and may, therefore, off...
Source: Targeted Oncology - December 7, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phase IB Trial of the Anti-Cancer Stem Cell DLL4-Binding Agent Demcizumab with Pemetrexed and Carboplatin as First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Non-Squamous NSCLC
ConclusionsThis study has identified a truncated dosing regimen and recommended phase II dose of demcizumab (5  mg/kg q3-weekly ×4) for subsequent clinical evaluation in combination with standard carboplatin and pemetrexed chemotherapy. NCT01189968. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phase II Study of Gemcitabine Plus Sirolimus in Previously Treated Patients with Advanced Soft-Tissue Sarcoma: a Spanish Group for Research on Sarcomas (GEIS) Study
ConclusionsThe combination of gemcitabine and sirolimus is an active treatment in STS. Further investigation is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01684449. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - November 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Treatment Landscape and New Opportunities of Molecular Targeted Therapies in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors
AbstractNeuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that originate from neuroendocrine stem cells and express both neural and endocrine markers. They are found in almost every organ, and while NENs are mostly associated with slow growth, complications due to the uncontrolled secretion of active peptides, and metastatic disease, may significantly impair the quality of life and can ultimately lead to the  death of affected individuals. Expanding knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, and proteomic landscapes of NENs has led to a better understanding of their molecular pathology and consequently...
Source: Targeted Oncology - November 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cetuximab/TPF/radiotherapy in oesophageal cancer
ConclusionsNeoadjuvant cetuximab/TPF followed by chemoradiotherapy in locoregional oesophageal carcinoma patients is feasible and offers a modest response rate in this trial. The results of combining trimodality neoadjuvant treatment with cetuximab are consistent with the literature.Registration: The study is registered atClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00733889). (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - November 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Antibody –Drug Conjugates for the Treatment of Solid Tumors: Clinical Experience and Latest Developments
AbstractAntibody –drug conjugates (ADCs) are complex immunoconjugates designed to selectively deliver toxic small molecules preferentially to cancer cells. These immunoconjugates consist of a monoclonal antibody - directed to a tumor antigen - and a cytotoxic agent that is conjugated to the antibody via a molecula r linker. Following the binding to a specific antigen on the surface of cancer cells, the conjugate is internalized and releases its cytotoxic payload to kill the malignant cell. ADCs that have gained regulatory approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include brentuximab vedotin for CD30-pos...
Source: Targeted Oncology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Acknowledgement to Referees
(Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - November 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Trastuzumab in Combination with FOLFIRI in Patients with Advanced HER2-Positive Gastro-Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: A Retrospective Multicenter AGEO Study
ConclusionsThis is the first western population-based study of FOLFIRI plus trastuzumab reporting a satisfactory safety profile and a potential efficacy in advanced HER2-positive gastric cancer. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comment on: “Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Harboring ALK Translocations: Clinical Characteristics and Management in a Real-Life Setting: a French Retrospective Analysis (GFPC 02–14 Study)”
(Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Author ’s Reply to Arnaud Uguen: “Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Harboring ALK Translocations: Clinical Characteristics and Management in a Real-Life Setting: a French Retrospective Analysis (GFPC 02–14 Study)”
(Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Multi-Arm Phase I Study of the PI3K/mTOR Inhibitors PF-04691502 and Gedatolisib (PF-05212384) plus Irinotecan or the MEK Inhibitor PD-0325901 in Advanced Cancer
ConclusionsFurther evaluations of gedatolisib are warranted in patients with advanced solid malignancies. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) in Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with the Second-Generation ALK Inhibitor Ceritinib
ConclusionThis study shows that monotherapy with an ALK inhibitor, such as ceritinib, in RMS, has no effect on ALK signaling. However, the synergistic effects of ceritinib and dasatinib are promising, most probably due to targeting of IGF1R and Src. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CEA Response and Depth of Response (DpR) to Predict Clinical Outcomes of First-Line Cetuximab Treatment for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
AbstractBackgroundThe decrease in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is faster and greater during cetuximab treatment than bevacizumab treatment and correlates with prolonged survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who receive cetuximab.ObjectiveWe investigated if the degree of change in the CEA value can serve as a diagnostic tool for predicting survival, as well as tumor regression in mCRC patients treated with cetuximab combined regimen as first-line treatment.Patients and MethodsAssociations among the CEA decrease, depth of response (DpR), and clinical outcomes were evaluated in 113 patients wit...
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 24, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparative Safety of Targeted Therapies for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer between Elderly and Younger Patients: a Study Using the International Pharmacovigilance Database
This study aimed to compare, according to age, the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of targeted therapies used for mCRC in real life.Patients and MethodsAn extraction of VigiBase, which contains World Health Organization individual case safety reports (ICSRs), was performed. All ADR reports with aflibercept, bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, or regorafenib used in CRC were considered. For all drugs, chi-square tests were used to compare frequencies of serious ADRs between patients aged ≥75 and
Source: Targeted Oncology - October 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Current Landscape of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase ( ALK ) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Emerging Treatment Paradigms and Future Directions
AbstractTumorigenic rearrangements in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) account for 3 –7% of all non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Treatment with targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has shown impressive clinical responses. Crizotinib was the first agent approved for front-line therapy ofALK-rearranged NSCLC after it demonstrated superiority to chemotherapy in response rate, duration of response, and progression-free survival. However, eventually all patients progress on crizotinib therapy, with the central nervous system (CNS) being the most common site, which served as the impetus for the development of mor...
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Pathway Targeting in Cancer: Role of the IGF Axis and Opportunities for Future Combination Studies
AbstractDespite a strong preclinical rationale for targeting the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in cancer, clinical studies of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)-targeted monotherapies have been largely disappointing, and any potential success has been limited by the lack of validated predictive biomarkers for patient enrichment. A large body of preclinical evidence suggests that the key role of the IGF axis in cancer is in driving treatment resistance, via general proliferative/survival mechanisms, interactions with other mitogenic signaling networks, and class-specific mechanisms such as DNA damage repair. Consequently, comb...
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dose and Schedule Selection of the Oral Proteasome Inhibitor Ixazomib in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma: Clinical and Model-Based Analyses
ConclusionsThese analyses support a favorable benefit –risk profile for weekly ixazomib 4.0 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of 28-day cycles, which was selected for the phase III TOURMALINE registration program.Trial Registration NumbersClinicalTrials.gov NCT00932698, NCT00963820, NCT01217957, NCT01564537 (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Bevacizumab in Colorectal Cancer: Current Role in Treatment and the Potential of Biosimilars
This article reviews the current role of bevacizumab in the management of mCRC, the possible barriers associated with diminished access to bevacizumab, and the potential bevacizumab biosimilars in development. How biosimilars may impact the treatment of mCRC is also discussed. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Phase II Multicentre, Open-Label, Proof-of-Concept Study of Tasquinimod in Hepatocellular, Ovarian, Renal Cell, and Gastric Cancers
ConclusionsThis study failed to demonstrate clinical activity of tasquinimod in heavily pre-treated patients with advanced hepatocellular, ovarian, renal cell, and gastric cancer.Trial registrationNCT01743469. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of Imatinib on the Fertility of Male Patients with Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia in the Chronic Phase
ConclusionsThese results suggest that imatinib crosses the blood-testis barrier and reduces sperm density, sperm count, survival rates, and activity in CML-CP patients. However, imatinib did not affect the structure of reproductive organs or sex hormone levels. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 8, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Validation of a Simple Scoring System to Predict Sorafenib Effectiveness in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
AbstractBackgroundSorafenib is recommended for the treatment of advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nonetheless, it is expensive, effective in few patients, and may cause significant adverse effects. Therefore, accurate selection of patients is needed. In a previous study, we constructed a simple scoring system to predict patients ’ outcomes based on the occurrence of sorafenib adverse effects.ObjectiveThe present study aimed to validate this scoring system in a real-life cohort of HCC patients.Patients and MethodsClinical records of 279 outpatients treated with sorafenib in eight Italian centers were retr...
Source: Targeted Oncology - August 3, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Harboring ALK Translocations: Clinical Characteristics and Management in a Real-Life Setting: a French Retrospective Analysis (GFPC 02 –14 Study)
ConclusionThe results of this real-life analysis suggest that the prognosis of NSCLC patients with theALK translocation may be better than that of the overall NSCLC population, but the outcomes were poorer than those ofALK+ NSCLC patients included in clinical studies. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 31, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Is 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Receptor Expression a Potential Achilles ’ Heel of CD44+ Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells?
(Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 26, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Combination of Testosterone and White Blood Cell Count as a Predictive Factor of Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer
ConclusionsA high WBC and lymphocyte count combined with normal testosterone levels increases the overall mortality of patients treated with radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer within the first 6 –7 years post-treatment. Validation in larger cohorts is necessary. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 15, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Osimertinib: A Review in T790M-Positive Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
AbstractOsimertinib (Tagrisso ™) is an oral, CNS-active, third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that targetsEGFR TKI-sensitizing mutations and, crucially, the T790M mutation that often underlies acquired resistance to EGFR TKI therapy. Osimertinib has been approved in numerous countries for use in patients with T790M-positive advanced NSCLC. In the pivotal, international AURA3 trial in patients with T790M-positive advanced NSCLC who had disease progression after EGFR TKI therapy, osimertinib treatment significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS; primary end...
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The pan-Bcl2 Inhibitor AT101 Activates the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway and Causes DNA Damage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem-Like Cells
ConclusionsAT101 effectively eliminates LSCs in vitro through the induction of DNA damage and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. AT101 is effective towards leukemic cells from patients with adverse prognostic factors, suggesting that AT101 could have the potential as an alternative salvage therapy for the treatment of relapsed and refractory AML. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 14, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of Nintedanib Plus Docetaxel in Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma: Complementary and Exploratory Analyses of the Phase III LUME-Lung 1 Study
AbstractBackgroundNintedanib is a triple angiokinase inhibitor approved with docetaxel for adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung cancer after first-line chemotherapy (FLT). In the phase III LUME-Lung 1 study, overall survival (OS) was significantly longer with nintedanib/docetaxel than with placebo/docetaxel in all adenocarcinoma patients and those with time from start of FLT (TSFLT)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 12, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

EGFR Mutation Testing of non-squamous NSCLC: Impact and Uptake during Implementation of Testing Guidelines in a Population-Based Registry Cohort from Northern New Zealand
AbstractBackgroundSince 2013, clinical practice guidelines recommendEGFR mutation testing of non-squamous NSCLC to select advanced-stage patients for first-line treatment using EGFR-TKIs.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine population-based trends in the real-world uptake and impact in routine practice of these recently updated testing guidelines.Patients and MethodsA population-based observational study was conducted of notifications to the New Zealand Cancer Registry of patients eligible forEGFR testing diagnosed in northern New Zealand between January 2010 and April 2014. The main study variable wasEGFR mutation testing. Main...
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 11, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting FGFR in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
This article reviews FGFR aberrations and the clinical data involving selective and multikinase FGFR inhibitors in squamous cell lung cancer. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 6, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pooled Analysis of Clinical Outcome of Patients with Chemorefractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated within Phase I/II Clinical Studies Based on Individual Biomarkers of Susceptibility: A Single-Institution Experience
ConclusionsThis single-institution retrospective study indicates that in a heavily pretreated population approximately 4% of mCRC tumors display a potential actionable molecular context suitable for therapeutic intervention. Application of molecular selection is challenging but improves clinical outcome even in later lines of treatment. (Source: Targeted Oncology)
Source: Targeted Oncology - July 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Overview of Cancer Stem Cells and Stemness for Community Oncologists
AbstractAdvances in cancer research in the past have led to an evolving understanding of cancer pathogenesis and the development of novel drugs that significantly improve patient outcomes. However, many patients still encounter treatment resistance, recurrence, or metastasis and eventually die from progressing disease. Experimental evidence indicates that a subpopulation of cancer cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs), possess “stemness” properties similar to normal stem cells, including self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferative potential. These stemness properties are lost during differentiation and ar...
Source: Targeted Oncology - June 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pazopanib: a Review in Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma
AbstractPazopanib (Votrient ®), an orally administered multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that predominantly inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, −2 and −3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α and -β, and the stem cell factor receptor c-Kit, is approved in the EU, the USA and other countri es for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In randomized controlled trials in patients with advanced, predominantly clear-cell RCC, pazopanib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with placebo in both treatment-naïve and cytokine-pr...
Source: Targeted Oncology - June 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Novel Therapies for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Are We Finally Breaking the Deadlock?
AbstractAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is one of the best studied malignancies, and significant progress has been made in understanding the clinical implications of its disease biology. Unfortunately, drug development has not kept pace, as the ‘7+3’ induction regimen remains the standard of care for patients fit for intensive therapy 40 years after its first use. Temporal improvements in overall survival were mostly confined to younger patients and driven by improvements in supportive care and use of hematopoietic stem cell transplant ation. Multiple forms of novel therapy are currently in clinical trials and are...
Source: Targeted Oncology - June 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ixazomib: A Review in Relapsed and/or Refractory Multiple Myeloma
AbstractThe oral proteasome inhibitor ixazomib (Ninlaro®) is approved in the USA, EU and Japan in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who have received at least one prior therapy. In adults with relapsed and/or refractory MM who had received one to three prior therapies, progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly prolonged in patients who received the ixazomib- versus placebo-based triple therapy in the pivotal, global TOURMALINE-MM1 trial and its regional expansion (China continuation study). A significantly longer time to progression and fav...
Source: Targeted Oncology - June 28, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research