Immune checkpoint molecules. Possible future therapeutic implications in autoimmune diseases.

Immune checkpoint molecules. Possible future therapeutic implications in autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 2019 Sep 26;:102333 Authors: Huang C, Zhu HX, Yao Y, Bian ZH, Zheng YJ, Li L, Moutsopoulos HM, Gershwin ME, Lian ZX Abstract During host immune response, an initial and sufficient activation is required to avoid infection and cancer, yet an excessive activation bears the risk of autoimmune reactivity and disease development. This fastidious balance of the immune system is regulated by co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules, also known as immune checkpoints. Both excessive co-stimulation and insufficient co-inhibition can induce the activation and proliferation of autoreactive cells that may lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. During the last decade, a growing number of new immune checkpoint receptors and ligands have been discovered, providing an attractive approach to investigate their implication in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and their potential role as targets for effective therapeutic interventions. In this review, we focus on the roles and underlying mechanisms of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors and other molecules that function as immune checkpoints in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, type I diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. We also summarize previous and current clinical trials targeting these checkpoint p...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research

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Discussion MDSCs violently emerge in pathological conditions in an attempt to limit potentially harmful immune and inflammatory responses. Mechanisms supporting their expansion and survival are deeply investigated in cancer, in the perspective to reactivate specific antitumor responses and prevent their contribution to disease evolution. These findings will likely contribute to improve the targeting of MDSCs in anticancer immunotherapies, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. New evidence indicates that the expansion of myeloid cell differentiation in pathology is subject to fine-tuning, as its...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, herpes virus serological status and T cell, B cell, NK cell and monocyte populations were investigated in 251 ME/CFS patients, including 54 who were severely affected, and compared with those from 107 healthy participants and with 46 patients with Multiple Sclerosis. There were no differences in seroprevalence for six human herpes viruses between ME/CFS and healthy controls, although seroprevalence for the Epstein-Barr virus was higher in multiple sclerosis patients. Contrary to previous reports, no significant differences were observed in NK cell numbers, subtype proportions or in vitro responsiveness betwe...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was provided by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Manitoba Health Research Council. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References 1. Sprent J, Kishimoto H. The thymus and central tolerance. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. (2001) 356:609–16. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2001.0846 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar 2. Sakaguchi S, Wing K, Miyara M. Regulatory T cells - a brief history and perspective. ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017 Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Kassem Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Micheal Lichtbroun, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld Physical activity, by definition, is any skeletal muscle body movement that results in energy expenditure. In the last few decades, a plethora of scientific evidences have accumulated and confirmed the beneficial role of physical activity as a modifiable risk factor for a wide variety of chronic diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus and cancer, among others. Autoimmune diseases are a heterogeneous gr...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that afflicts an approximate 2.5 million patients world-wide, giving rise to multiple issues regarding quality of life and the potential for disability. Up to 15,000 people are newly diagnosed wit...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Exclusive Genetics Neurology Pathology Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2017 Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Kassem Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the liter...
Source: Autoimmunity Reviews - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Celastrol and Its Role in Controlling Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;928:267-289 Authors: Venkatesha SH, Moudgil KD Abstract Celastrol, a triterpenoid derived from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Celastrol has shown preventive/therapeutic effects in experimental models of several chronic diseases. These include, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis), neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheime...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Ten years ago, Mark Pischea, then a 42-year-old political consultant and father of five from Williamston, Michigan, was rushed to the hospital with severe stomach pain. Pischea was diagnosed with Crohn's disease, a chronic autoimmune condition that can cause extreme abdominal discomfort, weight loss, fatigue and fevers. For the next decade of his life, the formerly healthy husband and father lived in a constant cycle of flare-ups, surgery and recovery. After his fifth surgery, Pischea was bedridden for six weeks. At that point, he was told his only remaining options were a sixth surgery or the removal o...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Jennifer shared her “before” and “after” photos after just 3 weeks of following the Wheat Belly lifestyle: “I am 30. I have been dealing with health issues my whole life. About a month ago, I had to go to the ER for severe abdominal pain and nausea. I still don’t know all that is going on, but I do know the Wheat Belly diet is helping me to get better (docs haven’t been helpful thus far). “This is a pic of me before Wheat Belly on the left and 3 weeks after starting the diet. I have followed your Facebook and seen all the ‘before’ and ‘afters’ and wan...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly Success Stories abdominal pain gluten grains nausea Source Type: blogs
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