Artificial activation of cancer cells to destroy them

(Far Eastern Federal University) This risky method of anti-cancer therapy was suggested by scientists of Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU). Their review of mechanisms for molecular activation of stem cells of gliomas (most widely-spread brain tumors) was approved for publishing in the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience journal.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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In this study, to improve our understanding of the role of ATP1A1 in the malignant phenotype and pathogenesis of GSCs, we evaluated ATP1A1 expression in GBMs of different grades and in two primary GSC lines established from human GBM tissues. We evaluated the role of ATP1A1 in GSC growth, its interactions with Src, and the activation of the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways. Our results revealed that ATP1A1 acts as an oncogene in our GSC models and targeting ATP1A1/Src may suppress GSC proliferation and growth. Materials and Methods Cell Isolation and Culture Human brain GBM tissues were from pathologically confirmed surgical spe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Chiu-Min Lin1†, Ching-Fang Yu2,3†, Hsueh-Ya Huang1,4, Fang-Hsin Chen2,3,5, Ji-Hong Hong2,3,5 and Chi-Shiun Chiang1,6,7* 1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Branch, Taoyuan, Taiwan 3Radiation Biology Research Center, Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 4Education &Medical Research National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan 5Department of Medical Imaging an...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, CAR-T treatment combined with intratumoral delivery of poly I:C resulted in synergistic antitumor activity. We thus provide a rationale to translate this immunotherapeutic strategy to solid tumors. Introduction Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be a new way to fight malignancies. In particular, T lymphocytes engineered to express chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have shown great promise in treating hematological malignancies (1). CD19-targeted CAR-T cells have been approved by FDA to treat relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
erger The Hedgehog/Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (HH/GLI) signaling pathway regulates self-renewal of rare and highly malignant cancer stem cells (CSC), which have been shown to account for the initiation and maintenance of tumor growth as well as for drug resistance, metastatic spread and relapse. Efficacious therapeutic approaches targeting CSC pathways, such as HH/GLI signaling in combination with chemo, radiation or immunotherapy are, therefore, of high medical need. Pharmacological inhibition of HH/GLI pathway activity represents a promising approach to eliminate malignant CSC. Clinically approved HH/GLI path...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
We examined the following three conditions: DMEM high glucose which contained 4.5 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum, DMEM low glucose which contained 1.0 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum. And, DMEM no glucose which contained 0.0 mg/ml glucose, independent of serum. DMEM is referred to as glucose “free,” however some glucose was actually present due to the FBS. The glucose concentration in the FBS used was 1.04 mg/ml. We calculate 0.0937 mg/ml glucose was present in the media under all conditions due to the addition of serum. Quantification of ROS Levels ROS are widely evaluated in tissue culture using di...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract In recent years, we have witnessed a significant increase in the amount of studies using Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) for cancer therapy, mostly as vectors for drug or gene delivery strategies. This is because of their intrinsic capacity of homing into tumor niches. However, the interactions between MSCs themselves and tumor cells is not fully understood, with contradictory results frequently being observed regarding their effects on cancer cell invasion and proliferation. This poses an important question of safety in respect to the application of these cells. The source of the MSC population used, as we...
Source: Biochimie - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research
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