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Neuron types in brain are defined by gene activity shaping their communication patterns
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) In a major step forward, scientists at CSHLtoday publish a discovery about the molecular-genetic basis of neuronal cell types. Neurons are the basic building blocks that wire up brain circuits supporting mental activities and behavior. The study, which involves sophisticated computational analysis of the messages transcribed from genes that are active in a neuron, points to patterns of cell-to-cell communication as the core feature that makes possible rigorous distinctions among neuron types across the mouse brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mitochondria drive cell survival in times of need
(McGill University) McGill University researchers have discovered a mechanism through which mitochondria, the energy factory of our body's cells, play a role in preventing cells from dying when the cells are deprived of nutrients - a finding that points to a potential target for next-generation cancer drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Heat-loving Australian ants believe in diversity, hint 74 species new to science
(Pensoft Publishers) A genus of Australian ants, many of whose members prefer to forage in blistering temperatures of up to 50 ° C (122 ° F), is revised to include 74 new species. The ants include seed-eaters, ant and termite raiders, 'honeypot ants' that store nectar and honeydew, and numerous others whose biology is not yet understood. Some are bizarre: one species has eyes like inverted ice-cream cones. The revision is published in the open-access journal ZooKeys. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Football helmet smartfoam signals potential concussions in real time
(Brigham Young University) While football-related concussions have been top of mind in recent years, people have struggled to create technology to accurately measure them in real time.BYU mechanical engineering Ph.D. student Jake Merrell and a team of researchers across three BYU departments have developed and tested a nano composite smartfoam that can be placed inside a football helmet (and pads) to more accurately test the impact and power of hits. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

DNA discovery could help shed light on rare childhood disorder
(University of Edinburgh) Fresh analysis of how our cells store and manage DNA when they undergo cell division could give valuable insights into a rare developmental condition known as Cornelia de Lange syndrome. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Obese dogs helped by 'effective' weight loss trials
(University of Liverpool) On average overweight dogs lose an average of 11 percent of their body weight when enrolled on a weight loss trial according to researchers who have conducted the largest international multi-center weight study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Penn First in world to treat patient with new radiation technology
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Doctors at Penn Medicine have become the first in the world to treat a patient with a new treatment platform designed to streamline the way therapeutic radiation is delivered to cancer patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Production of key diabetes cells can be improved
(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) In the future diabetics might benefit from getting insulin-regulating beta cells transplanted into their body because their own beta cells are destroyed or less functional. However, according to new stem cell research at the University of Copenhagen, the current way of producing beta cells from stem cells has significant shortfalls. The beta cells produced have some features resembling alpha cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Whole food diet may help prevent colon cancer, other chronic conditions
(Penn State) A diet that includes plenty of colorful vegetables and fruits may contain compounds that can stop colon cancer and inflammatory bowel diseases in pigs, according to an international team of researchers. Understanding how these compounds work on a molecular level could be an initial step toward finding treatments for people with cancer, they added. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Rapid hepatitis C testing may help better screen young adults
(Boston Medical Center) Routine and rapid hepatitis C virus testing among young adults who use injection drugs improves life expectancy and may provide a good use of limited resources, according to new research out of Boston Medical Center, in partnership with the Boston Public Health Commission. The findings are published online ahead of print in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Cannabis, 'Spice' -- better think twice
(University of Tsukuba) Marijuana is the most commonly abused drug in the world, and the advent of synthetic cannabinoids creates additional challenges to the society because of their higher potency and ability to escape drug detection screenings. Scientists from Japanese sleep institute have a warning for the society about a danger coming from cannabinoid abuse. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New study on reasons for low rates of blood glucose monitoring in type 2 diabetes in China
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Researchers in China who assessed self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) behavior among nearly 19,000 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with oral medications reported very low SMBG rates both before and after the patients began treatment with basal insulin, although the data showed an increase in mean SMBG frequency after six months and the percentage of patients who never monitored their blood glucose decreased. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Pelvic Floor Society statement -- use of mesh surgeries for constipation & rectal prolapse
(Wiley) In light of ongoing concerns by the media and the public surrounding the use of mesh in women with pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence, the Pelvic Floor Society has issued a consensus statement addressing the use of mesh for the treatment of constipation and rectal prolapse (via a surgical procedure called ventral mesh rectopexy, or VMR). (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

18 additional chairs for TU Dresden
(Technische Universit ä t Dresden) TUD has been granted funding for all 18 proposed tenure track chairs as part of the Federal and State government programme for the promotion of young researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study links brain inflammation to suicidal thinking in depression
(Elsevier) Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased brain levels of a marker of microglial activation, a sign of inflammation, according to a new study in Biological Psychiatry by researchers at the University of Manchester. Dr. Talbot and colleagues found that the increase in the inflammatory marker was present specifically in patients with MDD who were experiencing suicidal thoughts, pinning the role of inflammation to suicidality rather than a diagnosis of MDD itself. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

UTSA puts stake in the ground in battle against brain disease
(University of Texas at San Antonio) Making a bold commitment to develop groundbreaking approaches for treating brain diseases and injuries, The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) has assembled a world-class research enterprise, comprised of 40 of the nation's leading brain health researchers, dedicated to conquering the greatest mysteries of the brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Drug combination may improve impact of immunotherapy in head and neck cancer
(University of California - San Diego) Checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy has been shown to be very effective in recurrent and metastatic head and neck cancer but only in a minority of patients. University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers may have found a way to double down on immunotherapy's effectiveness. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Flu vaccine used in elderly may benefit middle-aged adults with chronic conditions
(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) Expanding the high-dose influenza vaccine recommendation to include middle-aged adults with chronic health conditions may make economic sense and save lives. The findings may justify for clinical trials of the high-dose and new recombinant trivalent influenza vaccines in 50- to 64-year-old adults with chronic illnesses, such as heart or lung disease, diabetes, or cancer, to determine if they do provide considerably better protection than the currently recommended standard dose quadrivalent vaccine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Health center services at risk if Congress fails to renew funding
(George Washington University) Community health centers all over the country could suffer catastrophic losses, resulting in site closures, job and economic losses, and a disruption in health care access for 9 million people. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NAM special publication on how health clinicians can counter opioid epidemic
(National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) Halting the opioid epidemic requires aggressive action across multiple dimensions, including informed, active, and determined front-line leadership from health clinicians working in every setting throughout the nation, says a new National Academy of Medicine (NAM) special publication developed at the request of the National Governors Association to assist the nation's governors as they work with clinicians to counter the opioid crisis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

International conference on molecular targets & cancer therapeutics to be Held Oct. 26-30
(American Association for Cancer Research) The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the National Cancer Institute, and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) will host their annual International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics Oct. 26-30 at the Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Investigators may unlock mystery of how staph cells dodge the body's immune system
(Cedars-Sinai Medical Center) For years, medical investigators have tried and failed to develop vaccines for a type of staph bacteria associated with the deadly superbug MRSA. But a new study by Cedars-Sinai investigators shows how staph cells evade the body's immune system, offering a clearer picture of how a successful vaccine would work. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study shows diet and exercise improve treatment outcomes for obese pediatric cancer patients
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Diet and exercise may improve treatment outcomes in pediatric cancer patients, according to a study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Children's Cancer Hospital. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Premature births cost health plans $6 billion annually
(University of Utah) A new study estimates employer-sponsored health plans spent at least $6 billion extra on infants born prematurely in 2013 and a substantial portion of that sum was spent on infants with major birth defects. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Higher manganese levels in children correlate with lower IQ scores, UC study finds
(University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center) A study led by environmental health researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine finds that children in East Liverpool, Ohio with higher levels of Manganese (Mn) had lower IQ scores. The research appears online in the journal NeuroToxicology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Binge drinking in college may lower chances of landing a job after college
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) Heavy drinking six times a month reduces the probability that a new college graduate will land a job by 10 percent, according to a Tel Aviv University researcher. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Finding a natural defense against clogged arteries
(Joslin Diabetes Center) Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have identified an unexpected natural protective factor against chronic inflammation that drives cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Oxytocin turns up the volume of your social environment
(University of California - Davis) A new study from UC Davis shows that the so-called 'love hormone' oxytocin can intensify negative as well as positive experiences. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NYU College of Dentistry approved for $13 million research funding award by PCORI
(New York University) A research team at New York University College of Dentistry has been approved for a $13.3 million funding award by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) to study cavity prevention, quality of life, and school performance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Epilepsy drugs may have damaging effects on children's bones
(Wiley) In a study published in Epilepsia, young people taking anti-epileptic drugs experienced elevated rates of bone fractures and had reductions in tibial bone mineral density and lower limb muscle force. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Nora Volkow to receive Andrew Carnegie Prize in Mind and Brain Sciences
(Carnegie Mellon University) Carnegie Mellon University will award the fifth annual Andrew Carnegie Prize in Mind and Brain Sciences to Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Volkow pioneered the use of brain imaging to investigate the toxic effects and addictive properties of abusable drugs, and her work has been instrumental in demonstrating that drug addiction is a disease of the human brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Are weight loss drugs the next tool to combat cocaine addiction?
(Boston Medical Center) Boston Medical Center's (BMC) psychiatry team is studying a drug called lorcaserin, which targets the brain's serotonin receptors and could help reduce cocaine cravings as well as dampen the rewards associated with taking cocaine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Oxidative stress produces damage linked with increased risk of preterm birth
This study is currently available in The American Journal of Pathology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Immune cells may heal bleeding brain after strokes
(NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) By studying rodents, researchers showed that instead of attacking germs, some neutrophils may help heal the brain after an intracerebral hemorrhage, a form of stroke caused by ruptured blood vessels. The study suggests that two neutrophil-related proteins may play critical roles in protecting the brain from stroke-induced damage and could be used as treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

UTA computer scientist earns grant to combine methods to better analyze brain image data
(University of Texas at Arlington) Junzhou Huang, an associate professor in the Computer Science and Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Arlington, will use a $210,000 National Science Foundation grant to explore how to combine the two methods to more accurately predict the outcome of future data. Chao Chen at the City University of New York is co-principal investigator on the project. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Faulty cell signaling derails cerebral cortex development, could it lead to autism?
(University of North Carolina Health Care) As the embryonic brain develops, a complex cascade of cellular events occur, starting with progenitors -- the originating cells that generate neurons and spur proper cortex development. If this cascade malfunctions then the brain can develop abnormally. Eva Anton's lab at UNC has shown how the deletion of the protein APC in progenitor leads to massive disruption of brain development and the Wnt protein pathway, which previously was linked to genes associated with autism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

University researchers awarded grant for non-invasive system to detect atrial fibrillation
(Rochester Institute of Technology) A team of engineers and clinicians at Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Rochester Medical Center received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to develop a non-contact, video recording technology to detect the presence of atrial fibrillation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New $5.4 million grant to JAX funds studies of 'cognitive resilience' to Alzheimer's disease
(Jackson Laboratory) A new five-year grant totaling $5,382,423 to Jackson Laboratory (JAX) Assistant Professor Catherine Kaczorowski will fund research to explore why some people with a family history of Alzheimer's disease, and even brain changes associated with the disease, nevertheless manage to maintain their cognitive capabilities (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

3-D printed brain allows surgeons to practice
(University of Connecticut) The first time a young surgeon threads a wire into a stroke victim's chest and neck and fishes a blood clot out of the brain may be one of the most harrowing moments in her career. Using brain scans and a 3-D printer, a UConn Health radiologist and a medical physicist made a life-size model of the arteries and will make the pattern freely available to any doctor who requests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

JDR special issue on orofacial clefting and dental and craniofacial anomalies
(International& American Associations for Dental Research) The International and American Associations for Dental Research (IADR/AADR) have published a special issue in the Journal of Dental Research (JDR) on orofacial clefting and dental and craniofacial anomalies. Topics in this special issue range from tooth number and root formation, human and animal genetic studies on orofacial clefting, reviews that prioritize the variants most likely to cause disease, the pathways required for palatogenesis, experimental articles on the periderm and drug therapy articles that rescue cleft palate in mutant mice. (Source: EurekAle...
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Shedding light on brain activity
(University of California - Santa Barbara) UCSB is named a National Science Foundation Neurotechnology Hub for optical brain imaging (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Bio-inspired approach to RNA delivery
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A team of MIT chemical engineers, inspired by the way that cells translate their own mRNA into proteins, has designed a synthetic delivery system that is four times more effective than delivering mRNA on its own. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Crohn's & Colitis Congress offers reporters access to leading IBD research
(American Gastroenterological Association) The Crohn's& Colitis Foundation and the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) are partnering to co-sponsor the first-ever Crohn's& Colitis Congress, ™ which will take place in Las Vegas in January 2018.The Crohn's& Colitis Congress is the premier conference for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) health-care professionals and researchers. It brings state-of-the-art comprehensive care together with the latest research to advance prevention, treatment and cures for IBD patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

MDI Biological Laboratory study finds immune system is critical to regeneration
(Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory) The answer to the question of why some organisms can regenerate major body parts while others, such as humans, cannot may lie with the body's innate immune system, according to a new study of heart regeneration in the Mexican salamander by James Godwin, Ph.D., of the MDI Biological Laboratory. Godwin found that formation of new heart muscle tissue after a heart attack is dependent on the presence of macrophages, a type of white blood cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Latest health reform proposal jeopardizes care for us all as we age
(American Geriatrics Society) Graham-Cassidy bill - newest proposal in a line of legislation to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act will harm access to key health services for older Americans, families, caregivers, and healthcare professionals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Concussions in adolescence linked with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis
(Wiley) A new study published in the Annals of Neurology found a link between head trauma in adolescence, particularly if repeated, with a raised risk of later developing multiple sclerosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study: US women report diverse preferences related to sexual pleasure
(Indiana University) A recently published paper in the Journal of Sex& Marital Therapy finds that US women report a diversity of preferences related to sexual pleasure and orgasm. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Obesity may adversely affect sperm quality
(Wiley) The journal Andologia has published the first report of abnormal sperm parameters in obese men based on computer aided sperm analysis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Certain bone deficits may increase fracture risk in individuals with diabetes
(Wiley) Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased fracture risk despite normal or high bone mineral density. In a new study published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, modest deficits in cortical bone -- the dense outer surface of bone that forms a protective layer around the internal cavity -- were demonstrated in older adults with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Radavirsen performs well in early influenza trial
(Wiley) A phase 1 clinical trial published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology found that radavirsen--an antisense oligomer that inhibits the production of certain influenza proteins -- is safe and well-tolerated in healthy individuals. Additional studies on radavirsen's potential as a treatment for influenza are warranted. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news