Sigma 1 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in retinal disease

Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Smith Sylvia B, Wang Jing, Cui Xuezhi, Mysona Barbara, Zhao Jing, Bollinger Kathryn EAbstractRetinal degenerative diseases are major causes of untreatable blindness worldwide and efficacious treatments for these diseases are sorely needed. A novel target for treatment of retinal disease is the transmembrane protein Sigma 1 Receptor (Sig1R). This enigmatic protein is an evolutionary isolate with no known homology to any other protein. Sig1R was originally thought to be an opioid receptor. That notion has been dispelled and more recent pharmacological and molecular studies suggest that it is a pluripotent modulator with a number of biological functions, many of which are relevant to retinal disease. This review provides an overview of the discovery of Sig1R and early pharmacologic studies that led to the cloning of the Sig1R gene and eventual elucidation of its crystal structure. Studies of Sig1R in the eye were not reported until the late 1990s, but since that time there has been increasing interest in the potential role of Sig1R as a target for retinal disease. Studies have focused on elucidating the mechanism(s) of Sig1R function in retina including calcium regulation, modulation of oxidative stress, ion channel regulation and molecular chaperone activity. Mechanistic studies have been performed in isolated retinal cells, such as Müller glial cells, microglial cells, o...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

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