Voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels of neurons in the vertebrate retina
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Matthew J. Van Hook, Scott Nawy, Wallace B. ThoresonAbstractIn this review, we summarize studies investigating the types and distribution of voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels in the different classes of retinal neurons: rods, cones, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, interplexiform cells, and ganglion cells. We discuss differences among cell subtypes within these major cell classes, as well as differences among species, and consider how different ion channels shape the responses of different neurons. For...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 11, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneal nerves in health and disease
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Mouhamed A. Al Aqaba, Virinder K. Dhillon, Imran Mohammed, Dalia G. Said, Harminder S. DuaAbstractThe cornea is the most sensitive structure in the human body. Corneal nerves adapt to maintain transparency and contribute to corneal health by mediating tear secretion and protective reflexes and provide trophic support to epithelial and stromal cells. The nerves destined for the cornea travel from the trigeminal ganglion in a complex and coordinated manner to terminate between and within corneal epithelial cells with which the...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Deep learning in ophthalmology: The technical and clinical considerations
This article describes global eye disease burden, unmet needs and common conditions of public health importance for which AI and DL systems may be applicable. Technical and clinical aspects to build a DL system to address those needs, and the potential challenges for clinical adoption are discussed. AI, ML and DL will likely play a crucial role in clinical ophthalmology practice, with implications for screening, diagnosis and follow up of the major causes of vision impairment in the setting of ageing populations globally. (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Immune privilege in corneal transplantation
Publication date: Available online 20 April 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Junko Hori, Takefumi Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Keino, Pedram Hamrah, Kazuichi MaruyamaAbstractCorneal transplantation is the most successful solid organ transplantation performed in humans. The extraordinary success of orthotopic corneal allografts, in both humans and experimental animals, is related to the phenomenon of “immune privilege”. Inflammation is self-regulated to preserve ocular functions because the eye has immune privilege. At present, three major mechanisms are considered to provide immune privilege in ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 21, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal oximetry: Metabolic imaging for diseases of the retina and brain
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Einar Stefánsson, Olof Birna Olafsdottir, Thorunn S. Eliasdottir, Wouter Wehmeijer, Anna Bryndis Einarsdottir, Toke Bek, Thomas Lee Torp, Jakob Grauslund, Thor Eysteinsson, Robert Arnar Karlsson, Karel Van Keer, Ingeborg Stalmans, Evelien Vandewalle, Margarita G. Todorova, Martin Hammer, Gerhard Garhöfer, Leopold Schmetterer, Martin Šín, Sveinn Hakon HardarsonAbstractRetinal oximetry imaging of retinal blood vessels measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. The imaging technology is non-invasive ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 69Author(s): (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 11, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Human vitreous in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: Characterization and translational implications
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Imtiaz M. Nawaz, Sara Rezzola, Anna Cancarini, Andrea Russo, Ciro Costagliola, Francesco Semeraro, Marco PrestaAbstractDiabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of visual impairment in the working-age population. DR is a progressive eye disease caused by long-term accumulation of hyperglycaemia-mediated pathological alterations in the retina of diabetic patients. DR begins with asymptomatic retinal abnormalities and may progress to advanced-stage proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), characterized by neova...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - April 2, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Photoreceptor cell replacement in macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa: A pluripotent stem cell-based approach
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Giuliana Gagliardi, Karim Ben M'Barek, Olivier GoureauAbstractThe human retina fails to regenerate and cell-based therapies offer options for treatment of blinding retinal diseases, such as macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The last decade has witnessed remarkable advances in generation of retinal cells and retinal tissue from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The development of 3D culture systems allowing generation of human retinal organoids has substantially increased the access to human material f...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - March 16, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Retinal capillary perfusion: Spatial and temporal heterogeneity
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Dao-Yi Yu, Stephen J. Cringle, Paula K. Yu, Chandrakumar Balaratnasingam, Andrew Mehnert, Marinko V. Sarunic, Dong An, Er-Ning SuAbstractThe central role of the cardiovascular system is to maintain adequate capillary perfusion. The spatially and temporally heterogeneous nature of capillary perfusion has been reported in some organs. However, such heterogeneous perfusion properties have not been sufficiently explored in the retina. Arguably, spatial and temporal heterogeneity of capillary perfusion could be more predomi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2019Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 68Author(s): (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - January 23, 2019 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Insights into photoreceptor ciliogenesis revealed by animal models
This report will update the reader on late developments in photoreceptor ciliogenesis and transition zone formation, specifically in mouse photoreceptors, focusing on early events in photoreceptor ciliogenesis. The connecting cilium, an elongated and narrow structure through which all outer segment proteins and membrane components must traffic, functions as a gate that controls access to the outer segment. Here we will review genes and their protein products essential for basal body maturation and for CC/TZ genesis, sorted by phenotype. Emphasis is given to naturally occurring mouse mutants and gene knockouts that interfer...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - December 25, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

On the origin of proteins in human drusen: The meet, greet and stick hypothesis
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Arthur A. Bergen, Swati Arya, Céline Koster, Matthew G. Pilgrim, Dagmara Wiatrek-Moumoulidis, Peter van der Spek, Stefanie M. Hauck, Camiel J.F. Boon, Eszter Emri, Alan J. Stewart, Imre LengyelAbstractRetinal drusen formation is not only a clinical hallmark for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but also for other disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and renal diseases. The initiation and growth of drusen is poorly understood. Attention has focused on lipids and minerals, but relatively ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - December 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Paul G. McMenamin, Daniel Saban, Samantha J. DandoAbstractIn the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditio...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - December 13, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Posterior staphyloma in pathologic myopia
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Jost B. JonasAbstractA posterior staphyloma is an outpouching of a circumscribed region of the posterior fundus and has been considered a hallmark of pathologic myopia. Occurring in highly myopic eyes, it is histologically characterized by a relatively abrupt scleral thinning starting at the staphyloma edge, a pronounced de-arrangement of scleral collagen fibrils and a marked choroidal thinning, which is the most marked at the staphyloma edge and which occurs in addition to the axial elongation-associ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - December 9, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Wnt Signaling in vascular eye diseases
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Zhongxiao Wang, Chi-Hsiu Liu, Shuo Huang, Jing ChenAbstractThe Wnt signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in vascular morphogenesis in various organs including the eye. Wnt ligands and receptors are key regulators of ocular angiogenesis both during the eye development and in vascular eye diseases. Wnt signaling participates in regulating multiple vascular beds in the eye including regression of the hyaloid vessels, and development of structured layers of vasculature in the retina. Loss-of-function mutations in Wnt signa...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - December 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Reconsidering the central role of mucins in dry eye and ocular surface diseases
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Christophe Baudouin, Maurizio Rolando, Jose M. Benitez Del Castillo, Elisabeth M. Messmer, Francisco C. Figueiredo, Murat Irkec, Gysbert Van Setten, Marc LabetoulleAbstractMucins are key actors in tear film quality and tear film stability. Alteration of membrane-bound mucin expression on corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells and/or gel-forming mucin secretion by goblet cells (GCs) promotes in ocular surface diseases and dry eye disease (DED). Changes in the mucin layer may lead to enhanced tear evaporation eventual...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 23, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Return of function after CNS axon regeneration: Lessons from injury-responsive intrinsically photosensitive and alpha retinal ganglion cells
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Martin Berry, Zubair Ahmed, Ann LoganAbstractThis review addresses issues relating to the survival and axon regeneration of both intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) and αRGC, and possible ensuing patterns of functional recovery after optic nerve crush, all of which are broadly relevant to recovery from injury in the central nervous system (CNS) as whole. Although much needs to be clarified about the connectivity, function and patterns of myelination of regenerated CNS axons, the results of...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 18, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corneal pain and experimental model development
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Tina B. McKay, Yashar Seyed-Razavi, Chiara E. Ghezzi, Gabriela Dieckmann, Thomas J.F. Nieland, Dana M. Cairns, Rachel E. Pollard, Pedram Hamrah, David L. KaplanAbstractThe cornea is a valuable tissue for studying peripheral sensory nerve structure and regeneration due to its avascularity, transparency, and dense innervation. Somatosensory innervation of the cornea serves to identify changes in environmental stimuli at the ocular surface, thereby promoting barrier function to protect the eye against injury or infection....
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Transplantation of photoreceptors into the degenerative retina: Current state and future perspectives
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Sylvia J. Gasparini, Sílvia Llonch, Oliver Borsch, Marius AderAbstractThe mammalian retina displays no intrinsic regenerative capacities, therefore retinal degenerative diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or retinitis pigmentosa (RP) result in a permanent loss of the light-sensing photoreceptor cells. The degeneration of photoreceptors leads to vision impairment and, in later stages, complete blindness. Several therapeutic strategies have been developed to slow down or prevent further retinal...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 14, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Biomechanics of the human lens and accommodative system: Functional relevance to physiological states
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Kehao Wang, Barbara K. PierscionekAbstractThe ability of the human lens to accommodate is mediated by the ciliary muscle and zonule; the manifest optical power changes depend on the shape and material properties of the lens. The latter are difficult to measure with accuracy and, given the dynamic aspects of accommodation and the ageing of cells and tissues, the biomechanics of the lens is neither fixed nor constant. A range of techniques have been developed to measure both ageing trends and spatial variations in the me...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 67Author(s): (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Stemming retinal regeneration with pluripotent stem cells
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Zi-Bing Jin, Mei-Ling Gao, Wen-Li Deng, Kun-Chao Wu, Sunao Sugita, Michiko Mandai, Masayo TakahashiAbstractCell replacement therapy is a promising treatment for irreversible retinal cell death in diverse diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), Stargardt's disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and glaucoma. These diseases are all characterized by the degeneration of one or two retinal cell types that cannot regenerate spontaneously in humans. Aberrant retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can be observed ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Metabolomics in the study of retinal health and disease
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Inês Laíns, Mari Gantner, Salome Murinello, Jessica A. Lasky-Su, Joan W. Miller, Martin Friedlander, Deeba HusainAbstractMetabolomics is the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the metabolites (small molecules 
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Myopic maculopathy: Current status and proposal for a new classification and grading system (ATN)
Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Jorge Ruiz-Medrano, Javier A. Montero, Ignacio Flores-Moreno, Luis Arias, Alfredo García-Layana, José M. Ruiz-MorenoAbstractMyopia is a highly frequent ocular disorder worldwide and pathologic myopia is the 4th most common cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries. Pathologic myopia is especially common in East Asian countries. Ocular alterations associated with pathologic myopia, especially those involving the macular area—defined as myopic maculopathy—are the leading causes of vi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - November 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The role of placental growth factor (PlGF) and its receptor system in retinal vascular diseases
Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Tine Van Bergen, Isabelle Etienne, Fiona Cunningham, Lieve Moons, Reinier O. Schlingemann, Jean H.M. Feyen, Alan StittAbstractPlacental growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Upon binding to VEGF- and neuropilin-receptor sub-types, PlGF modulates a range of neural, glial and vascular cell responses that are distinct from VEGF-A. As PlGF expression is selectively associated with pathological angiogenesis and inflammation, its blockade does not affect the healthy vasculat...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 30, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

ELOVL4: Very long-chain fatty acids serve an eclectic role in mammalian health and function
Publication date: Available online 25 October 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Blake R. Hopiavuori, Robert E. Anderson, Martin-Paul AgbagaAbstractELOngation of Very Long chain fatty acids-4 (ELOVL4) is an elongase responsible for the biosynthesis of very long chain (VLC, ≥C28) saturated (VLC-SFA) and polyunsaturated (VLC-PUFA) fatty acids in brain, retina, skin, Meibomian glands, and testes. Fascinatingly, different mutations in this gene have been reported to cause vastly different phenotypes in humans. Heterozygous inheritance of seven different mutations in the coding sequence and 5’ u...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 26, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Immune regulation in the aging retina
Publication date: Available online 20 October 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Mei Chen, Chang Luo, Jiawu Zhao, Gayathri Devarajan, Heping XuAbstractThe retina is an immune privileged tissue, which is protected from external and internal insults by its blood-retinal barriers and immune suppressive microenvironment. Apart from the avoidance and tolerance strategies, the retina is also protected by its own defense system, i.e., microglia and the complement system. The immune privilege and defense mechanisms work together to maintain retinal homeostasis. During aging, the retina is at an increased ri...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 20, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

3D cell-laden polymers to release bioactive products in the eye
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Gorka Orive, Edorta Santos-Vizcaino, Jose Luis Pedraz, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Julia E. Vela Ramirez, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Ali Khademhosseini, Nicholas A. Peppas, Dwaine F. EmerichAbstractMillions of people worldwide suffer from debilitating, progressive, and often permanent loss of vision without any viable treatment options. The complex physiological barriers of the eye contribute to the difficulty in developing novel therapies by limiting our ability to deliver therapeutics in a sustained and controlled manner; e...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 19, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The clinical relevance of visualising the peripheral retina
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Nicola Quinn, Lajos Csincsik, Erin Flynn, Christine Curcio, Szilard Kiss, SriniVas R. Sadda, Ruth Hogg, Tunde Peto, Imre LengyelAbstractRecent developments in imaging technologies now allow the documentation, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of peripheral retinal lesions. As wide field retinal imaging, capturing both the central and peripheral retina up to 200° eccentricity, is becoming readily available the question is: what is it that we gain by imaging the periphery? Based on accumulating evidence it is cl...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - October 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Presbyopia: Effectiveness of correction strategies
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): James S. Wolffsohn, Leon N. DaviesAbstractPresbyopia is a global problem affecting over a billion people worldwide. The prevalence of unmanaged presbyopia is as high as 50% of those over 50 years of age in developing world populations due to a lack of awareness and accessibility to affordable treatment, and is even as high as 34% in developed countries. Definitions of presbyopia are inconsistent and varied, so we propose a redefinition that states “presbyopia occurs when the physiologically normal age-related re...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

New concepts in the diagnosis and management of choroidal metastases
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Thibaud Mathis, Pauline Jardel, Olivier Loria, Benoit Delaunay, Anh-minh Nguyen, Francesco Lanza, Carlo Mosci, Jean-Pierre Caujolle, Laurent Kodjikian, Juliette ThariatAbstractThe most frequent site of ocular metastasis is the choroid. The occurrence of choroidal metastases has increased steadily due to the longer survival of metastatic patients and the improvement of diagnostic tools. Fundoscopy, ultrasonography, and fluorescein angiography are now complemented by indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence t...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 66Author(s): (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 16, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells for modelling genetic retinal dystrophies
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Leah P. Foltz, Dennis O. CleggAbstractThe human retina is a highly complex tissue that makes up an integral part of our central nervous system. It is astonishing that our retina works seamlessly to provide one of our most critical senses, and it is equally devastating when a disease destroys a portion of the retina and robs people of their vision. After decades of research, scientists are beginning to understand retinal cells in a way that can benefit the millions of individuals suffering from inherited blindness. Thi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The peripheral eye: A neurogenic area with potential to treat retinal pathologies?
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Marta Fernández-Nogales, Verónica Murcia-Belmonte, Holly Yu Chen, Eloísa HerreraAbstractNumerous degenerative diseases affecting visual function, including glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa, are produced by the loss of different types of retinal cells. Cell replacement therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for treating these and other retinal diseases. The retinal margin or ciliary body (CB) of mammals has been proposed as a potential source of cells to be used in degenerative conditions affe...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - September 8, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Gene therapy for visual loss: Opportunities and concerns
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Jia Hui Lee, Jiang-Hui Wang, Jinying Chen, Fan Li, Thomas L. Edwards, Alex W. Hewitt, Guei-Sheung LiuAbstractMany clinical trials using gene therapy have shown significant therapeutic benefits and exceptional safety records. Increasing evidence is verifying the long sought-after promise that gene therapy will genetically ‘cure’ some severely disabling diseases. In particular, the first gene therapy bioproduct for RPE65-associated Leber's congenital amaurosis, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Adminis...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 29, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adaptive optics imaging of the human retina
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Stephen A. Burns, Ann E. Elsner, Kaitlyn A. Sapoznik, Raymond L. Warner, Thomas J. GastAbstractAdaptive Optics (AO) retinal imaging has provided revolutionary tools to scientists and clinicians for studying retinal structure and function in the living eye. From animal models to clinical patients, AO imaging is changing the way scientists are approaching the study of the retina. By providing cellular and subcellular details without the need for histology, it is now possible to perform large scale studies as well as to und...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 28, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to molecular genetics and emerging therapies for retinitis pigmentosa: Basic research and clinical perspective progress in retinal and eye research (2018) Vol 63,107-131
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Marina França Dias, Kwangsic Joo, Jessica A. Kemp, Silvia Ligório Fialho, Armando da Silva Cunha, Se Joon Woo, Young Jik Kwon (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 12, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Neurotrophic keratopathy
Publication date: Available online 23 April 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Harminder S. Dua, Dalia G. Said, Elisabeth M. Messmer, Maurizio Rolando, Jose M. Benitez-del-Castillo, Parwez N. Hossain, Alex J. Shortt, Gerd Geerling, Mario Nubile, Francisco C. Figueiredo, Saaeha Rauz, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Paolo Rama, Christophe BaudouinAbstractNeurotrophic Keratopathy (NK) refers to a condition where corneal epitheliopathy leading to frank epithelial defect with or without stromal ulceration (melting) is associated with reduced or absent corneal sensations. Sensory nerves serve nociceptor and trophi...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 3, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence in retina
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Amir Sadeghipour, Bianca S. Gerendas, Sebastian M. Waldstein, Hrvoje BogunovićAbstractMajor advances in diagnostic technologies are offering unprecedented insight into the condition of the retina and beyond ocular disease. Digital images providing millions of morphological datasets can fast and non-invasively be analyzed in a comprehensive manner using artificial intelligence (AI). Methods based on machine learning (ML) and particularly deep learning (DL) are able to identify, localize and quantif...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 2, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Sigma 1 receptor: A novel therapeutic target in retinal disease
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Smith Sylvia B, Wang Jing, Cui Xuezhi, Mysona Barbara, Zhao Jing, Bollinger Kathryn EAbstractRetinal degenerative diseases are major causes of untreatable blindness worldwide and efficacious treatments for these diseases are sorely needed. A novel target for treatment of retinal disease is the transmembrane protein Sigma 1 Receptor (Sig1R). This enigmatic protein is an evolutionary isolate with no known homology to any other protein. Sig1R was originally thought to be an opioid receptor. That notion has been dispelled and...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - August 1, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

OCT angiography and evaluation of the choroid and choroidal vascular disorders
Publication date: Available online 27 July 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Enrico Borrelli, David Sarraf, K. Bailey Freund, Srinivas R. SaddaAbstractThe recent introduction of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has remarkably expanded our knowledge of the choroid through in vivo investigation of the anatomical and pathological features of this important vascular layer. New insights elucidating the morphological features of the choroid, in both physiological and pathological conditions, indicate that this vascular structure plays a crucial role in many chorioretinal disorders. In this...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 28, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy: Application to age-related macular degeneration and vascular diseases
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Michel Paques, Serge Meimon, Florence Rossant, David Rosenbaum, Sarah Mrejen, Florian Sennlaub, Kate GrieveAbstractAdaptive optics (AO)-enhanced en face retinal imaging, termed here AO ophthalmoscopy (AOO) has reached a level of robustness which fuels its increasing use in research and clinical centers. Here we will review the contribution of clinical AOO to the understanding and monitoring of 1) age-related macular degeneration and 2) vascular diseases. The main contributions of AOO to the phenotyping of AMD are a better ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 65Author(s): (Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research)
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 17, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of Keratoconus: The intriguing therapeutic potential of Prolactin-inducible protein
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Rabab Sharif, Sashia Bak-Nielsen, Jesper Hjortdal, Dimitrios KaramichosAbstractKeratoconus (KC) is the most common ectatic corneal disease, with clinical findings that include discomfort, visual disturbance and possible blindness if left untreated. KC affects approximately 1:400 to 1:2000 people worldwide, including both males and females. The aetiology and onset of KC remains a puzzle and as a result, the ability to treat or reverse the disease is hampered. Sex hormones are known to play a role in the maintenance of the s...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 13, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Real-world outcomes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors
We describe the development of global registries, in particular the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry that originated in Australia, the United Kingdom AMD Electronic Medical Records User Group and the IRIS registry in the USA. Real-world observations relating to efficacy, safety and resource utilisation of intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular AMD are then summarised. Novel observations that would have been challenging to identify in a clinical trial setting are then highlighted, including the risk of late disease reactivation, outcomes in second versus first treated eyes, and the increased risk of posterior capsu...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Personalised genome editing – The future for corneal dystrophies
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): C.B. Tara Moore, Kathleen A. Christie, John Marshall, M. Andrew NesbitAbstractThe potential of personalised genome editing reaching the clinic has come to light due to advancements in the field of gene editing, namely the development of CRISPR/Cas9. The different mechanisms of repair used to resolve the double strand breaks (DSBs) mediated by Cas9 allow targeting of a wide range of disease causing mutations. Collectively, the corneal dystrophies offer an ideal platform for personalised genome editing; the majority of co...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective strategies for retinal disease
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Machelle T. Pardue, Rachael S. AllenAbstractDiseases that affect the eye, including photoreceptor degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, affect 11.8 million people in the US, resulting in vision loss and blindness. Loss of sight affects patient quality of life and puts an economic burden both on individuals and the greater healthcare system. Despite the urgent need for treatments, few effective options currently exist in the clinic. Here, we review research on promising neuroprotective strategies that promot...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

The immunopathogenesis of chronic and relapsing autoimmune uveitis – Lessons from experimental rat models
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchAuthor(s): Maria Diedrichs-Möhring, Ulrike Kaufmann, Gerhild WildnerAbstractAutoimmune diseases usually follow a relapsing-remitting or a chronic progressive course. To understand the underlying immunopathogenesis we investigated experimental Lewis rat models displaying both disease types, which were only dependent on the autoantigen peptide used for immunization. Retinal S-Antigen-peptide PDSAg induces chronic, monophasic disease, whilst interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP)-peptide R14 causes a spontaneously r...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Genotype-functional-phenotype correlations in photoreceptor guanylate cyclase (GC-E) encoded by GUCY2D
Publication date: March 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 63Author(s): Dror Sharon, Hanna Wimberg, Yael Kinarty, Karl-Wilhelm KochAbstractThe GUCY2D gene encodes for the photoreceptor guanylate cyclase GC-E that synthesizes the intracellular messenger of photoreceptor excitation cGMP and is regulated by intracellular Ca2+-sensor proteins named guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Over 140 disease-causing mutations have been described so far in GUCY2D, 88% of which cause autosomal recessive Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) while heterozygous missense mutations cause autosomal dominant cone-r...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of macular edema: Beyond the surface
Publication date: March 2018Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, Volume 63Author(s): Alejandra Daruich, Alexandre Matet, Alexandre Moulin, Laura Kowalczuk, Michaël Nicolas, Alexandre Sellam, Pierre-Raphaël Rothschild, Samy Omri, Emmanuelle Gélizé, Laurent Jonet, Kimberley Delaunay, Yvonne De Kozak, Marianne Berdugo, Min Zhao, Patricia Crisanti, Francine Behar-CohenAbstractMacular edema consists of intra- or subretinal fluid accumulation in the macular region. It occurs during the course of numerous retinal disorders and can cause severe impairment of central vision. Major causes of macular ...
Source: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research