Fat Quantification in the Abdomen

Abstract Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity. As such, noninvasive imaging-based methods of assessing hepatic steatosis are needed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are able to suggest the presence of hepatic steatosis based on imaging features, but are unable to accurately quantify hepatic fat content. Since Dixon's seminal work in 1984, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compute the signal fat fraction from chemical shift–encoded imaging, commonly implemented as out-of-phase and in-phase imaging. However, signal fat fraction is confounded by several factors that limit its accuracy and reproducibility. Recently, advanced chemical shift–encoded magnetic resonance imaging methods have been developed that address these confounders and are able to measure the proton density fat fraction, a standardized, accurate, and reproducible biomarker of fat content. The use of the...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing challenge to global public health. It is defined as the increased accumulation of hepatic triglyceride (>5%) in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption or other causes of liver disease. The NAFLD spectrum encompasses steatosis (non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFL) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an inflammatory form of the condition marked by the presence of hepatocyte damage and progressive fibrosis that may lead to cirrhosis.[1,2] Although NAFLD may occur in patients with normal weight, it is closely associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrom...
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as one of the leading liver diseases worldwide. NAFLD is characterised by hepatic steatosis and may progress to an inflammatory condition termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, (NASH), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It became evident in the last years that NAFLD pathophysiology is complex and involves diverse immunological and metabolic pathways. An association between intestinal signals (e.g. derived from the gut microbiota) and the development of obesity and its metabolic consequences such as NAFLD are increasingly recognized. Preclinical studies have sh...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 September 2019Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Mi Hye Kim, Jung Bae Seong, Jae-Won Huh, Yong Chul Bae, Hyun-Shik Lee, Dong-Seok LeeAbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most common chronic liver disease globally. NAFLD—which can develop into liver fibrosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma—is defined as an excess accumulation of fat caused by abnormal lipid metabolism and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatocytes. Recently, we reported that Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5) plays an essential role i...
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract The number of patients with chronic liver diseases is expected to decline due to progress in antivirus therapy, including direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C and nucleot(s)ide analogues for hepatitis B. On the other hand, the number of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) in the setting of metabolic syndrome has been increasing worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises in the setting of chronic hepatic inflammation and liver cirrhosis associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, the detailed clinical features of NAFLD/NASH and NAFLD/NASH-derived HCC ...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Thyroid hormones T3 and T4 (thyroxine) control a wide variety of effects related to development, differentiation, growth and metabolism, through the interaction with nuclear receptors. But thyroid hormones also produce nongenomic effects which typically start at the plasma membrane and are mediated mainly by integrin αvβ3, although also other receptors such as TRα and TRβ are able to elicit nongenomic responses. In the liver these effects of thyroid hormones appear to be particularly important. The liver is able to regenerate, but it is subject to pathologies that may lead to cancer, such as fibrosis,...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ute;zquez Carolina Guzmán Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a highly prevalent condition worldwide that increases the risk to develop liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, it is imperative to develop novel diagnostic tools that together with liver biopsy help to differentiate mild and advanced degrees of steatosis. Ex-vivo liver samples were collected from mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet for two or eight weeks, and from a control group. The degree of hepatic steatosis was histologically evaluated, and fat content was assessed by Oil-Red O staining. On the other hand, fl...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion EUS-GBD is safe and efficacious in managing cholecystitis in patients with Child-Pugh A and B cirrhosis who are non-operative candidates. Further studies are needed to determine optimal patient selection and procedural technique. [...] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text
Source: Endoscopy International Open - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Authors: Waluga M, Kukla M, Kotulski R, Zorniak M, Boryczka G, Kajor M, Ciupinska-Kajor M, Lekstan A, Olczyk P, Waluga E Abstract Omentin and vaspin are adipokines potentially considered in the development of liver pathology. Irisin is new myokin potentially participating in energy processes in the organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentration of these cytokines and the relationships of them with selected parameters of laboratory tests and of histopathological changes in selected chronic liver diseases: non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and alc...
Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research
The burden of chronic liver disease worldwide is substantial, with approximately 2 million deaths annually attributed to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma caused by viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), or alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), in addition to other important but less common chronic liver diseases.1 Despite widespread availability of accurate assays to diagnose viral hepatitis and effective therapies for hepatitis B and C, millions of individuals remain undiagnosed or have limited access to care worldwide.
Source: Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Abstract Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease, is characterized by accumulation of fat (>5% of the liver tissue), in the absence of alcohol abuse or other chronic liver diseases. Its prevalence is increasing because of obesity, metabolic syndrome or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD can cause liver inflammation and progress to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, cirrhosis or Hepatocellular Cancer (HCC). Nevertheless, Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in NAFLD/NASH patients. Current guidelines suggest the use of p...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research
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