Underlying Mechanisms of Psychological Interventions in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Image-Guided Radiology Procedures
Positive patient care and healthcare facility outcomes are associated with using various psychological interventions during magnetic resonance imaging and interventional radiology procedures. Interventions such as hypnosis, relaxation, guided imagery, and empathic communication can improve anxiety, pain, and hemodynamic stability during procedures, as well as improve claustrophobia and anxiety during magnetic resonance imaging. Little is understood as to the potential underlying mechanisms of how these interventions operate and contribute to positive outcomes. Thus, this article seeks to address that question by integratin...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Radiotherapy: A Comprehensive Review
This article reviews the fundamental principles and the experience with the wide spectrum of CAM in radiation oncology—a field that shares many parallels with radiology, such as prevalence of imaging, procedural requirements, and cooperation demanded from patients. CAM is defined as “approaches and practices that are typically not part of conventional medical care,” and includes the use of mind- and body-based practices (eg, meditation, massage, acupuncture), natural products (eg, herbs, vitamins, minerals), and other interventions. Supplements are used frequently to alleviate side effects of therapy and...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Reducing Cardiac Radiation Dose From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy With Breath Hold Training and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
This article discusses physical training and psychotherapeutic integrative health approaches, applied to radiation oncology, to leverage and augment the gains enabled by advanced technology-based high-precision radiation treatment in breast cancer. Such combinations of advanced technologies with training and cognitive integrative health interventions hold the promise to provide simple feasible and low-cost means to improve patient experience, emotional outcomes and quality of life, while optimizing patient performance for advanced imaging-guided treatment procedures – paving the way to improve cardiac outcomes in bre...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Communication and Team Interactions to Improve Patient Experiences, Quality of Care, and Throughput in MRI
This article discusses several patient-centered aspects of radiology practice that emphasize interpersonal interactions. Patient education and prescan communication represent 1 way to increase patients’ awareness of what to expect during MRI and therefore mitigate anticipatory anxiety. Some patient interaction strategies to promote relaxation or calming effects are also discussed. Staff teamwork and staff training in communication and interpersonal skills are also described, along with literature evidence of effectiveness with respect to patient satisfaction and productivity endpoints. Attention to how radiologists, ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Prevalence and Financial Impact of Claustrophobia, Anxiety, Patient Motion, and Other Patient Events in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Claustrophobia, other anxiety reactions, excessive motion, and other unanticipated patient events in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) not only delay or preclude diagnostic-quality imaging but can also negatively affect the patient experience. In addition, by impeding MRI workflow, they may affect the finances of an imaging practice. This review article offers an overview of the various types of patient-related unanticipated events that occur in MRI, along with estimates of their frequency of occurrence as documented in the available literature. In addition, the financial implications of these events are discussed from a mi...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Human Touch for High-Tech Imaging and Imaging-Guided Procedures: Integrative Medicine Strategies for Patient-Centered Nonpharmacologic Approaches: Part 1: Challenges for High-Tech Imaging and Procedures: How Can Integrative Medicine Impact Quality and Operations?
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Deep Learning AI Applications in the Imaging of Glioma
This manuscript will review emerging applications of artificial intelligence, specifically deep learning, and its application to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Current deep learning approaches, commonly convolutional neural networks (CNNs), that take input data from MR images to grade gliomas (high grade from low grade) and predict overall survival will be shown. There will be more in-depth review of recent articles that have applied different CNNs to predict the genetics of glioma on pre-operative MR images, specifically 1p19q codeletion, MGMT promoter, and IDH mutations, whi...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Emerging Techniques in Imaging of Glioma Microenvironment
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been the cornerstone of imaging of brain tumors in the past 4 decades. Conventional MRI remains the workhorse for neuro-oncologic imaging, not only for basic information such as location, extent, and navigation but also able to provide information regarding proliferation and infiltration, angiogenesis, hemorrhage, and more. More sophisticated MRI sequences have extended the ability to assess and quantify these features; for example, permeability and perfusion acquisitions can assess blood-brain barrier disruption and angiogenesis, diffusion techniques can assess cellularity and infiltra...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Immunotherapy and Response Assessment in Malignant Glioma: Neuro-oncology Perspective
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest form of brain cancer and recurs uniformly. Despite aggressive treatment with maximal safe surgical resection, adjuvant radiation with temozolomide chemotherapy, and alternating electrical field therapy, median survival for newly diagnosed GBM remains (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Updates in Pediatric Malignant Gliomas
Malignant gliomas constitute a smaller portion of brain tumors in children compared with adults. Nevertheless, they can be devastating tumors with poor prognosis. Recent advances and improved understanding of the genetic and molecular characterization of pediatric brain tumors, including those of malignant gliomas, have led to the reclassification of many pediatric brain tumors and new entities have been defined. In this paper, we will present some of the more recent characterization and pertinent changes in pediatric high-grade gliomas, along with the conventional and advanced imaging features associated with these entiti...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Adult Glioma WHO Classification Update, Genomics, and Imaging: What the Radiologists Need to Know
Recent advances in the understanding of the genetic makeup of gliomas have led to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis and classification of these tumors. Driven by these changes, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced an update to its classification system of central nervous system (CNS) tumors in 2016. The updated glioma classification system incorporates molecular markers into tumor subgrouping, which has been shown to better correlate with tumor biology and behavior as well as patient prognosis than the previous purely histology-based classification system. Familiarity with this new classification scheme, the indi...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Update: MRI in Malignant Glioma
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Introduction Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity in Neurodegenerative Disorders
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Prostate Cancer: Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron-emission Tomography/Computed Tomography or Positron-emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Staging
Positron-emission tomography (PET) with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been increasingly used to image prostate cancer in the last decade. In the staging setting several studies have already been published suggesting PSMA PET can be a valuable tool. They, however, did not translate into recommendations by guidelines. Both PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging have been investigated in the staging setting, showing higher detection rate of prostate cancer lesions over the conventional imaging work-up and some studies already showed an impact on disease management. The aim of this...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment After Therapy in Prostate Cancer
This article will focus on postprocedural magnetic resonance imaging after different forms of local therapy in patients with prostate cancer. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Uncommon Prostate Malignant Neoplasms
Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common prostate cancer; however, there are several other malignant neoplasms that radiologists should be familiar with. The histological classification of malignant prostate neoplasms includes epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors, neuroendocrine tumors, hematolymphoid tumors, and stromal tumors. Knowledge of the main clinical and prostate magnetic resonance imaging features of uncommon tumors beyond adenocarcinoma is important for radiologists to enlarge their diagnostic ability and guide referring physician regarding the appropriate patient workup. The aim of this review article is to...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Prostate Adenocarcinoma: Detection and Staging
Prostate cancer (PCa) is common among men worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The detection of PCa has historically followed a stepwise process of prostate-specific antigen screening followed with systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), utilizing a set of sequences to assess morphology and function, has gained clinical acceptance to detect, characterize, and stage PCa. The Prostate Imaging – Reporting and Data System has helped facilitate the standardization of reporting across institutions and increased adoption of this method. In this review, we will...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Prostate Benign Diseases
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used in the detection, localization, and staging of prostate cancer. Because of its excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplane imaging, it can be also very useful in the evaluation of benign prostate diseases. Prostatic benign disorders have a high prevalence, vastly represented by benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. On the contrary, benign prostatic neoplasms are extremely rare, represented by multilocular cystadenoma, leiomyomas, hemangioma, and granular cell tumor, although these uncommon tumors have been most encountered due to widespread use of MRI. C...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Radiogenomics of Late-onset Alzheimer Disease
Radiogenomics, defined as the integrated analysis of radiologic imaging and genetic data, is a well-established tool shown to augment neuroimaging in the clinical diagnosis, prognostication, and scientific study of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). Early work using candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified genetic variation in APOE, BIN1, CLU, and CR1 as key modifiers of brain structure and function using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). More recently, polygenic risk scores used in conjunction with MRI and positron emission tomography have shown great promise as a risk-stratification tool for clinical...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Functional Connectivity in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia
Neurodegenerative disorders are a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Onset is typically insidious and clinical symptoms of behavioral change, memory loss, or cognitive dysfunction may not be evident early in the disease process. Efforts have been made to discover biomarkers that allow for earlier diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, to initiate treatment that may slow the course of clinical deterioration. Neuronal dysfunction occurs earlier than clinical symptoms manifest. Thus, assessment of neuronal function using functional brain imaging has been examined as a potential biomarker. While most early ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Overview of MR Imaging Volumetric Quantification in Neurocognitive Disorders
This review article provides a general overview on the various methodologies for quantifying brain structure on magnetic resonance images of the human brain. This overview is followed by examples of applications in Alzheimer dementia and mild cognitive impairment. Other examples will include traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative dementias. Finally, an overview of general principles for protocol acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging for volumetric quantification will be discussed along with the current choices of FDA cleared algorithms for use in clinical practice. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Clinical Use of Integrated Positron Emission Tomography-Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Dementia Patients
This report describes the practical benefits and challenges of using integrated FDG-PET-MRI to support the clinical diagnosis of various dementias. Over the past 7 years, we have performed integrated FDG-PET-MRI on>1500 patients with possible cognitive impairment or dementia. The FDG-PET and MRI protocols are the same as current conventions, but are obtained simultaneously over 25 minutes. An additional Dixon MRI sequence with superimposed bone atlas is used to calculate PET attenuation correction. A single radiologist interprets all imaging data and generates 1 report. The most common positive finding is concordant tem...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Placental MRI: Developing Accurate Quantitative Measures of Oxygenation
The Human Placenta Project has focused attention on the need for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based techniques to diagnose and monitor placental function throughout pregnancy. The hope is that the management of placenta-related pathologies would be improved if physicians had more direct, real-time measures of placental health to guide clinical decision making. As oxygen alters signal intensity on MRI and oxygen transport is a key function of the placenta, many of the MRI methods under development are focused on quantifying oxygen transport or oxygen content of the placenta. For example, measurements from bl...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Developmental Pathoconnectomics and Advanced Fetal MRI
Developmental pathoconnectomics is an emerging field that aims to unravel the events leading to and outcome from disrupted brain connectivity development. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology enables the portrayal of human brain connectivity before birth and has the potential to offer novel insights into normal and pathological human brain development. This review gives an overview of the currently used MRI techniques for connectomic imaging, with a particular focus on recent studies that have successfully translated these to the in utero or postmortem fetal setting. Possible mechanisms of how pathologies, ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Challenges and Opportunities in Connectome Construction and Quantification in the Developing Human Fetal Brain
The white matter structure of the human brain undergoes critical developmental milestones in utero, which we can observe noninvasively using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. In order to understand this fascinating developmental process, we must establish the variability inherent in such a challenging imaging environment and how measurable quantities can be transformed into meaningful connectomes. We review techniques for reconstructing and studying the brain connectome and explore promising opportunities for in utero studies that could lead to more accurate measurement of structural properties and allow for m...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

In Utero Diffusion MRI: Challenges, Advances, and Applications
In utero diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides unique opportunities to noninvasively study the microstructure of tissue during fetal development. A wide range of developmental processes, such as the growth of white matter tracts in the brain, the maturation of placental villous trees, or the fibers in the fetal heart remain to be studied and understood in detail. Advances in fetal interventions and surgery furthermore increase the need for ever more precise antenatal diagnosis from fetal MRI. However, the specific properties of the in utero environment, such as fetal and maternal motion, increased field-of-vi...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Fetal Echoplanar Imaging: Promises and Challenges
Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been gaining increasing interest in both clinical radiology and research. Echoplanar imaging (EPI) offers a unique potential, as it can be used to acquire images very fast. It can be used to freeze motion, or to get multiple images with various contrast mechanisms that allow studying the microstructure and function of the fetal brain and body organs. In this article, we discuss the current clinical and research applications of fetal EPI. This includes T2*-weighted imaging to better identify blood products and vessels, using diffusion-weighted MRI to investigate connections of the ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Fetal Cardiac MRI: A Review of Technical Advancements
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an appealing technology for fetal cardiovascular assessment. It can be used to visualize fetal cardiac and vascular anatomy, to quantify fetal blood flow, and to quantify fetal blood oxygen saturation and hematocrit. However, there are practical limitations to the use of conventional MRI for fetal cardiovascular assessment, including the small size and high heart rate of the human fetus, the lack of conventional cardiac gating methods to synchronize data acquisition, and the potential corruption of MRI data due to maternal respiration and unpredictable fetal movements. In this review, we...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Language Mapping With fMRI: Current Standards and Reproducibility
Clinical use of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new phenomenon, with only about 3 decades of collective experience. Nevertheless, task-based BOLD fMRI has been widely accepted for presurgical planning, over traditional methods, which are invasive and at times perilous. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of BOLD fMRI to make substantial clinical impact with respect to surgical planning and preoperative risk assessment, especially to localize the eloquent motor and visual areas. Reproducibility and repeatability of language fMRI are important in the ass...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical Considerations in Preoperative Functional Brain Mapping
Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the presurgical assessment of eloquent cortex is increasingly relied upon by surgeons, neurologists, and radiologists. The utility of fMRI stems from the lack of correlation between topographic anatomy and functional anatomy. fMRI can noninvasively reveal the functional anatomy of a given individual thereby allowing the surgeon to choose the most appropriate surgical trajectory, attain the most complete resection, and offer the best chance of preserving function. This dissociation between function and topography is even more critical to understand when disease dis...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Fundamentals of Preoperative Task Functional Brain Mapping
Blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) imaging is gaining traction in the clinical realm as a measure for quantifying changes in regional blood flow in response to external stimuli. Through the evoked signal changes that are a consequence of hemoglobin's intrinsic paramagnetic properties, this technique allows for the statistical mapping of brain regions associated with a given task, which has broad applications in preneurosurgical planning for tumor resection. From an acquisition perspective, collection of BOLD data most commonly requires the use of echo planar imaging readout schemes. These sequences are currentl...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Pediatric Presurgical Functional MRI
This article discusses some of these challenges and how they can be overcome in successful application of this technique in pediatric patients. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The State of Resting State Networks
Functional MRI (fMRI) is currently used for pre-surgical planning, but is often limited to information on the motor and language systems. Resting state fMRI can provide more information on multiple other networks to the neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist; however, currently, these networks are not well known among clinicians. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an introduction to these networks for the clinician and to discuss how they could be used in the future for precise and individualized surgical planning. We provide a short introduction to resting state fMRI and discuss multiple currently accepted resting st...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Multinuclear MRI at Ultrahigh Fields
In this article, an overview of the current developments and research applications for non-proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHFs) is given. Due to technical and methodical advances, efficient MRI of physiologically relevant nuclei, such as 23Na, 35Cl, 37Cl, 39K, 17O, or 31P has become feasible and is of interest to obtain spatially and temporally resolved information that can be used for biomedical and diagnostic applications. Sodium (23Na) MRI is the most widespread multinuclear imaging method with applications ranging over all regions of the human body. 23Na MRI yields the second larg...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Parallel Transmission for Ultrahigh Field MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been driven toward ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHF) in order to benefit from correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. Technological challenges associated with UHF, such as increased radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition and RF excitation inhomogeneity, limit realization of the full potential of these benefits. Parallel RF transmission (pTx) enables decreases in the inhomogeneity of RF excitations and in RF energy deposition by using multiple-transmit RF coils driven independently and operating simultaneously. pTx plays a fundamental role in UHF MRI by bringin...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Radiofrequency Coils for 7 Tesla MRI
Radiofrequency (RF) coils are an essential part of the magnetic resonance (MR) system. To exploit the inherently higher signal-to-noise ratio at ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHF), research sites were forced to build up expertise in RF coil development, as the number of commercially available RF coils were limited. In addition, an integrated transmit body RF coil, which is well-established at MR systems of lower field strength, is still missing at UHF due to technical and physical constraints. This review article provides a brief recapitulation of RF characteristics and RF coils in general to introduce terminology and RF-rela...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ultrahigh field MR Neuroimaging
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System at 7T: Morphological Imaging and Beyond
In 2017, a whole-body 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device was given regulatory approval for clinical use in both the EU and United States for neuro and musculoskeletal applications. As 7 Tesla allows for higher signal-to-noise , which results in higher resolution images than those obtained on lower-field-strength scanners, it has attracted considerable attention from the musculoskeletal field, as evidenced by the increasing number of publications in the last decade. Besides morphological imaging, the quantitative MR methods, such as T2, T2*, T1ρ mapping, sodium imaging, chemical-exchange saturation transfer, and...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Evolution of UHF Body Imaging in the Human Torso at 7T: Technology, Applications, and Future Directions
The potential value of ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy to biomedical research and in clinical applications drives the development of technologies to overcome its many challenges. The increased difficulties of imaging the human torso compared with the head include its overall size, the dimensions and location of its anatomic targets, the increased prevalence and magnitude of physiologic effects, the limited availability of tailored RF coils, and the necessary transmit chain hardware. Tackling these issues involves addressing notoriously inhomogeneous transmit B1 (B1+) fields, limitati...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Preface
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Postnatal Imaging Findings of Congenital Zika Syndrome: The Story of a Disease That is Still Being Written: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Neuroimaging and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Spine Metastasis
Historically, management options for spinal metastases include surgery for stabilization and decompression and/or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). EBRT is palliative in nature, as it lacks accurate targeting such that the prescribed radiation doses must be limited in order to maintain safety. Modern advancement in imaging and radiotherapy technology have facilitated the development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which provides increased targeted precision for radiation delivery to tumors resulting in lower overall toxicity, particularly to regional structures such as the spinal cord and esophagus, wh...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Updates in the Neuoroimaging and WHO Classification of Primary CNS Gliomas: A Review of Current Terminology, Diagnosis, and Clinical Relevance From a Radiologic Prospective
As new advances in the genomics and imaging of CNS tumors continues to evolve, a standardized system for classification is increasingly essential to diagnosis and management. The molecular markers introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors bring both practical and conceptual advances to the characterization of gliomas, strengthening the prognostic and predictive value of terminology while shedding light on the underlying mechanisms that drive biologic behavior. The purpose of this article is to provide a succinct overview of primary intracranial gliomas from a neuroradiologic prospective and according to the 5...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neuroimaging for Radiation Therapy of Brain Tumors
Delineating the gross tumor volume (GTV) is a core task within radiation treatment planning. GTVs must be precisely defined irrespective of the region involved, but even more so in a sensitive area such as the brain. As precision medicine cannot exist without precision imaging, the current article aims to discuss the various imaging modalities employed in the radiation treatment planning of brain tumors. Gliomas, meningiomas, and paragangliomas are some of the most challenging tumors and the advancement in diagnostic imaging can significantly contribute to their delineation. For gliomas, irradiation based on multiparametr...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Role of Particle Therapy for the Treatment of Skull Base Tumors and Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Radiation therapy (RT) is a mainstay in the interdisciplinary treatment of brain tumors of the skull base and brain. Technical innovations during the past 2 decades have allowed for increasingly precise treatment with better sparing of adjacent healthy tissues to prevent treatment-related side effects that influence patients’ quality of life. Particle therapy with protons and charged ions offer favorable kinetics with sharp dose deposition in a well-defined depth (Bragg-Peak) and a steep radiation fall-off beyond that maximum. This review highlights the role of particle therapy in the management of primary brain tumo...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

What Neuroradiologists Need to Know About Radiation Treatment for Neural Tumors
Radiation oncologists and radiologists have a unique and mutually dependent relationship. Radiation oncologists rely on diagnostic imaging to locate the tumor and define the treatment target volume, evaluation of response to therapy, and follow-up. Accurate interpretation of post-treatment imaging requires diagnostic radiologists to have a basic understanding of radiation treatment planning and delivery. There are various radiation treatment modalities such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery as well as different radiation modalities such as photons and pro...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Advanced Neuroimaging for Advanced Radiation Therapy
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Guest Editor Commentary Source Type: research

Hearing Loss From Congenital Zika Virus Infection
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Congenital Zika Syndrome: The Main Cause of Death and Correspondence Between Brain CT and Postmortem Histological Section Findings From the Same Individuals
In the present case series, the cause of death of infants diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was lung disease (pneumonia and sepsis with massive pulmonary aspiration), probably secondary to dysphagia and reflux. The main findings in infants with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS who died were as follows: (1) calcification and hypoplasia of the lentiform nuclei, hypoplasia of the caudate nuclei, and calcification at the cortical-subcortical junction was noted in all cases (100%) and calcification of the caudate nuclei was noted in 66.7% of cases; (2) calcification in the brainstem and along the lateral wall of the lat...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ocular Manifestations and Visual Outcome in Children With Congenital Zika Syndrome
This article reviews the ocular manifestations of the CZS, addresses the visual outcomes of affected infants, and elucidates the early intervention protocols for visual improvement. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research