Language Mapping With fMRI: Current Standards and Reproducibility
Clinical use of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new phenomenon, with only about 3 decades of collective experience. Nevertheless, task-based BOLD fMRI has been widely accepted for presurgical planning, over traditional methods, which are invasive and at times perilous. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of BOLD fMRI to make substantial clinical impact with respect to surgical planning and preoperative risk assessment, especially to localize the eloquent motor and visual areas. Reproducibility and repeatability of language fMRI are important in the ass...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neuroanatomical Considerations in Preoperative Functional Brain Mapping
Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for the presurgical assessment of eloquent cortex is increasingly relied upon by surgeons, neurologists, and radiologists. The utility of fMRI stems from the lack of correlation between topographic anatomy and functional anatomy. fMRI can noninvasively reveal the functional anatomy of a given individual thereby allowing the surgeon to choose the most appropriate surgical trajectory, attain the most complete resection, and offer the best chance of preserving function. This dissociation between function and topography is even more critical to understand when disease dis...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Fundamentals of Preoperative Task Functional Brain Mapping
Blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) imaging is gaining traction in the clinical realm as a measure for quantifying changes in regional blood flow in response to external stimuli. Through the evoked signal changes that are a consequence of hemoglobin's intrinsic paramagnetic properties, this technique allows for the statistical mapping of brain regions associated with a given task, which has broad applications in preneurosurgical planning for tumor resection. From an acquisition perspective, collection of BOLD data most commonly requires the use of echo planar imaging readout schemes. These sequences are currentl...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Pediatric Presurgical Functional MRI
This article discusses some of these challenges and how they can be overcome in successful application of this technique in pediatric patients. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The State of Resting State Networks
Functional MRI (fMRI) is currently used for pre-surgical planning, but is often limited to information on the motor and language systems. Resting state fMRI can provide more information on multiple other networks to the neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist; however, currently, these networks are not well known among clinicians. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an introduction to these networks for the clinician and to discuss how they could be used in the future for precise and individualized surgical planning. We provide a short introduction to resting state fMRI and discuss multiple currently accepted resting st...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Multinuclear MRI at Ultrahigh Fields
In this article, an overview of the current developments and research applications for non-proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHFs) is given. Due to technical and methodical advances, efficient MRI of physiologically relevant nuclei, such as 23Na, 35Cl, 37Cl, 39K, 17O, or 31P has become feasible and is of interest to obtain spatially and temporally resolved information that can be used for biomedical and diagnostic applications. Sodium (23Na) MRI is the most widespread multinuclear imaging method with applications ranging over all regions of the human body. 23Na MRI yields the second larg...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Parallel Transmission for Ultrahigh Field MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been driven toward ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHF) in order to benefit from correspondingly higher signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. Technological challenges associated with UHF, such as increased radiofrequency (RF) energy deposition and RF excitation inhomogeneity, limit realization of the full potential of these benefits. Parallel RF transmission (pTx) enables decreases in the inhomogeneity of RF excitations and in RF energy deposition by using multiple-transmit RF coils driven independently and operating simultaneously. pTx plays a fundamental role in UHF MRI by bringin...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Radiofrequency Coils for 7 Tesla MRI
Radiofrequency (RF) coils are an essential part of the magnetic resonance (MR) system. To exploit the inherently higher signal-to-noise ratio at ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHF), research sites were forced to build up expertise in RF coil development, as the number of commercially available RF coils were limited. In addition, an integrated transmit body RF coil, which is well-established at MR systems of lower field strength, is still missing at UHF due to technical and physical constraints. This review article provides a brief recapitulation of RF characteristics and RF coils in general to introduce terminology and RF-rela...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ultrahigh field MR Neuroimaging
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Musculoskeletal System at 7T: Morphological Imaging and Beyond
In 2017, a whole-body 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device was given regulatory approval for clinical use in both the EU and United States for neuro and musculoskeletal applications. As 7 Tesla allows for higher signal-to-noise , which results in higher resolution images than those obtained on lower-field-strength scanners, it has attracted considerable attention from the musculoskeletal field, as evidenced by the increasing number of publications in the last decade. Besides morphological imaging, the quantitative MR methods, such as T2, T2*, T1ρ mapping, sodium imaging, chemical-exchange saturation transfer, and...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Evolution of UHF Body Imaging in the Human Torso at 7T: Technology, Applications, and Future Directions
The potential value of ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy to biomedical research and in clinical applications drives the development of technologies to overcome its many challenges. The increased difficulties of imaging the human torso compared with the head include its overall size, the dimensions and location of its anatomic targets, the increased prevalence and magnitude of physiologic effects, the limited availability of tailored RF coils, and the necessary transmit chain hardware. Tackling these issues involves addressing notoriously inhomogeneous transmit B1 (B1+) fields, limitati...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Preface
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Postnatal Imaging Findings of Congenital Zika Syndrome: The Story of a Disease That is Still Being Written: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Neuroimaging and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Spine Metastasis
Historically, management options for spinal metastases include surgery for stabilization and decompression and/or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). EBRT is palliative in nature, as it lacks accurate targeting such that the prescribed radiation doses must be limited in order to maintain safety. Modern advancement in imaging and radiotherapy technology have facilitated the development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), which provides increased targeted precision for radiation delivery to tumors resulting in lower overall toxicity, particularly to regional structures such as the spinal cord and esophagus, wh...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Updates in the Neuoroimaging and WHO Classification of Primary CNS Gliomas: A Review of Current Terminology, Diagnosis, and Clinical Relevance From a Radiologic Prospective
As new advances in the genomics and imaging of CNS tumors continues to evolve, a standardized system for classification is increasingly essential to diagnosis and management. The molecular markers introduced in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors bring both practical and conceptual advances to the characterization of gliomas, strengthening the prognostic and predictive value of terminology while shedding light on the underlying mechanisms that drive biologic behavior. The purpose of this article is to provide a succinct overview of primary intracranial gliomas from a neuroradiologic prospective and according to the 5...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neuroimaging for Radiation Therapy of Brain Tumors
Delineating the gross tumor volume (GTV) is a core task within radiation treatment planning. GTVs must be precisely defined irrespective of the region involved, but even more so in a sensitive area such as the brain. As precision medicine cannot exist without precision imaging, the current article aims to discuss the various imaging modalities employed in the radiation treatment planning of brain tumors. Gliomas, meningiomas, and paragangliomas are some of the most challenging tumors and the advancement in diagnostic imaging can significantly contribute to their delineation. For gliomas, irradiation based on multiparametr...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Role of Particle Therapy for the Treatment of Skull Base Tumors and Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Radiation therapy (RT) is a mainstay in the interdisciplinary treatment of brain tumors of the skull base and brain. Technical innovations during the past 2 decades have allowed for increasingly precise treatment with better sparing of adjacent healthy tissues to prevent treatment-related side effects that influence patients’ quality of life. Particle therapy with protons and charged ions offer favorable kinetics with sharp dose deposition in a well-defined depth (Bragg-Peak) and a steep radiation fall-off beyond that maximum. This review highlights the role of particle therapy in the management of primary brain tumo...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

What Neuroradiologists Need to Know About Radiation Treatment for Neural Tumors
Radiation oncologists and radiologists have a unique and mutually dependent relationship. Radiation oncologists rely on diagnostic imaging to locate the tumor and define the treatment target volume, evaluation of response to therapy, and follow-up. Accurate interpretation of post-treatment imaging requires diagnostic radiologists to have a basic understanding of radiation treatment planning and delivery. There are various radiation treatment modalities such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic radiosurgery as well as different radiation modalities such as photons and pro...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Advanced Neuroimaging for Advanced Radiation Therapy
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - April 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Guest Editor Commentary Source Type: research

Hearing Loss From Congenital Zika Virus Infection
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Congenital Zika Syndrome: The Main Cause of Death and Correspondence Between Brain CT and Postmortem Histological Section Findings From the Same Individuals
In the present case series, the cause of death of infants diagnosed with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was lung disease (pneumonia and sepsis with massive pulmonary aspiration), probably secondary to dysphagia and reflux. The main findings in infants with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS who died were as follows: (1) calcification and hypoplasia of the lentiform nuclei, hypoplasia of the caudate nuclei, and calcification at the cortical-subcortical junction was noted in all cases (100%) and calcification of the caudate nuclei was noted in 66.7% of cases; (2) calcification in the brainstem and along the lateral wall of the lat...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ocular Manifestations and Visual Outcome in Children With Congenital Zika Syndrome
This article reviews the ocular manifestations of the CZS, addresses the visual outcomes of affected infants, and elucidates the early intervention protocols for visual improvement. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Hearing Loss From Congenital Zika Virus Infection
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Postnatal Imaging Findings of Congenital Zika Syndrome: The Story of a Disease That is Still Being Written
The recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of ZIKV infection are the detection of viral-RNA by molecular methods, detection of ZIKV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by serologic tests and the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for confirmation of positive IgM results, in pregnant women. In the acute phase of disease ZIKV may be detected in blood (whole blood, serum, plasma), urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and other fluids; in urine, the virus may be detected over a longer period, viz., 15–20 days from the onset of symptoms. An accurate laboratory diagnosis re...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Updated Imaging Findings in Congenital Zika Syndrome: A Disease Story That is Still Being Written
In congenital Zika virus syndrome (CZS), the most frequent radiological findings are calcifications in the cortical–white matter junction and malformations of cortical development (pachygyria or polymicrogyria, which occur predominantly in the frontal lobes, or a simplified gyral pattern), ventriculomegaly, enlargement of the cisterna magna and the extra-axial subarachnoid space, corpus callosum abnormalities, and reduced brain volume. This syndrome can also result in a decrease in the brainstem and cerebellum volumes and delayed myelination. Infants with CZS may show venous thrombosis and lenticulostriate vasculopat...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - February 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Ocular and Intracranial MR Imaging Findings in Abusive Head Trauma
Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a form of inflicted head injury. AHT is more frequent in 2-year-old or younger children. It is an important cause of neurological impairment and the major cause of death from head trauma in this age group. Brain magnetic resonance imaging allows the depiction of retinal hemorrhages, injured bridging veins, and identifying and localizing extra- and intra-axial bleeds, contusions, lacerations, and strokes. The diagnosis of AHT is a multidisciplinary team effort which includes a careful evaluation of social, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings. Notwithstanding, the introduction in the ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Childhood Medulloblastoma Revisited
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant solid tumor in childhood and the most common embryonal neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system. Several morphological variants are recognized: classic medulloblastoma, large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. Recent advances in transcriptome and methylome profiling of these tumors led to a molecular classification that includes 4 major genetically defined groups. Accordingly, the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization's Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System rec...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Imaging Review of Common and Rare Causes of Stroke in Children
Vascular injury is increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children (29 days to 18 years of age). Since vascular brain injury in children appears to be less common than in adults, the index of suspicion for vascular brain injury is usually lower. In this review article, we describe frequent and rare conditions underlying pediatric stroke including cardioembolic, viral, autoimmune, post-traumatic, and genetic etiologies. Furthermore, we provide a neuroimaging correlate for clinical mimics of pediatric stroke. This review highlights the role of multimodal noninvasive neuroimaging in the ea...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

The Rare Neurocutaneous Disorders: Update on Clinical, Molecular, and Neuroimaging Features
Phakomatoses, also known as neurocutaneous disorders, comprise a vast number of entities that predominantly affect structures originated from the ectoderm such as the central nervous system and the skin, but also the mesoderm, particularly the vascular system. Extensive literature exists about the most common phakomatoses, namely neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau and Sturge-Weber syndrome. However, recent developments in the understanding of the molecular underpinnings of less common phakomatoses have sparked interest in these disorders. In this article, we review the clinical features, current patho...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Imaging of Childhood Inflammatory Brain Diseases
Brain has been considered as an immune-privileged site for centuries owing to the presence of blood-brain barrier, absent lymphatic drainage, and antigen-presenting cells. However, the present prevailing concept is of immune surveillance where brain is continuously surveyed by immune cells. However, the presence of immune cells in central nervous system (CNS) brings the risk of inflammation and autoimmunity involving both T and B cell mediated pathways. These mechanisms form the underlying pathology in a wide spectrum of pediatric CNS diseases manifesting as acquired neurological deficits. Overlapping, heterogenous, and am...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Tubulinopathies
Mutations causing dysfunction of the tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins, otherwise known as tubulinopathies, are a group of recently described entities, that lead to complex brain malformations. An understanding of the fundamental principles of operation of the cytoskeleton and compounds in particular microtubules, actin, and microtubule-associated proteins, can assist in the interpretation of the imaging findings of tubulinopathies. Somewhat consistent morphological imaging patterns have been described in tubulinopathies such as dysmorphic basal ganglia—the hallmark (found in 75% of cases), callosal dysgen...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Synthetic Brain MRI: Review of Current Concepts and Future Directions
Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging is a novel imaging technique that allows generating multiple contrast-weighted images based on relaxivity measurements of tissue properties in a single acquisition using a multiecho, multidelay saturation recovery spin-echo sequence. The synthetic images can be generated postacquisition from the parametric tissue maps, which can be beneficial to reduce scan time and improve patient throughput. Based on relaxometry maps, synthetic magnetic resonance imaging can also perform brain tissue segmentation and myelin quantification without additional scan time. The quantitative analysis may hav...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - December 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Cerebellar Ataxia in Children: A Clinical and MRI Approach to the Differential Diagnosis
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Advances and Future Direction of Magnetic Resonance Elastography
The mechanical properties of soft tissues are closely associated with a variety of diseases. This motivates the development of elastography techniques in which tissue mechanical properties are quantitatively estimated through imaging. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a noninvasive phase-contrast MR technique wherein shear modulus of soft tissue can be spatially and temporally estimated. MRE has recently received significant attention due to its capability in noninvasively estimating tissue mechanical properties, which can offer considerable diagnostic potential. In this work, recent technology advances of MRE, its ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Quantifying Tumor Stiffness With Magnetic Resonance Elastography: The Role of Mechanical Properties for Detection, Characterization, and Treatment Stratification in Oncology
The viscoelastic properties of tissue are significantly altered with the development of tumors and these alterations can be assessed with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Accurate detection and characterization of malignant and benign lesions can be obtained by quantifying tumor stiffness, improving the specificity and diagnostic accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, MRE can be used to stratify patients for treatment based on risk of normal tissue toxicity and surgical considerations including consistency and adherence of the tumor to surrounding structures. MRE is a reliable reproducible ...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

New and Emerging Applications of Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Other Abdominal Organs
Increasing clinical experience and ongoing research in the field of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is leading to exploration of its applications in other abdominal organs. In this review, the current research progress of MRE in prostate, uterus, pancreas, spleen, and kidney will be discussed. The article will describe patient preparation, modified technical approach including development of passive drivers, modification of sequences, and inversion. The potential clinical application of MRE in the evaluation of several disease processes affecting these organs will be discussed. In an era of increasing adoption of mul...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Elastography of Liver: Current Update
The first clinical application of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was in the evaluation of chronic liver disease (CLD) for detection and staging of liver fibrosis. In the past 10 years, MRE has been incorporated seamlessly into a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver protocol worldwide. Liver MRE is a robust technique for evaluation of liver stiffness and is currently the most accurate noninvasive imaging technology for evaluation of liver fibrosis. Newer MRE sequences including spin-echo MRE and 3 dimensional MRE have helped in reducing the technical limitations of clinical liver MRE that is performed with...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Stiffness and Beyond: What MR Elastography Can Tell Us About Brain Structure and Function Under Physiologic and Pathologic Conditions
Brain magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was developed on the basis of a desire to “palpate by imaging” and is becoming a powerful tool in the investigation of neurophysiological and neuropathological states. Measurements are acquired with a specialized MR phase-contrast pulse sequence that can detect tissue motion in response to an applied external or internal excitation. The tissue viscoelasticity is then reconstructed from the measured displacement. Quantitative characterization of brain viscoelastic behaviors provides us an insight into the brain structure and function by assessing the mechanical rigidit...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Elastography: An Update
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - October 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Editorial/Introduction Source Type: research

Cerebellar Ataxia in Children: A Clinical and MRI Approach to the Differential Diagnosis
The cerebellum has long been recognized as a fundamental structure in motor coordination. Structural cerebellar abnormalities and diseases involving the cerebellum are relatively common in children. The not always specific clinical presentation of ataxia, incoordination, and balance impairment can often be a challenge to attain a precise diagnosis. Continuous advances in genetic research and moreover the constant development in neuroimaging modalities, particularly in the field of magnetic resonance imaging, have promoted a better understanding of cerebellar diseases and led to several modifications in their classification...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neuroimaging Findings in Lysosomal Disorders: 2018 Update
Lysosomal storage disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases characterized by defective function in one of the lysosomal enzymes. In this review paper, we describe neuroradiological findings and clinical characteristics of neuronopathic lysosomal disorders with a focus on differential diagnosis. New insights regarding pathogenesis and therapeutic perspectives are also briefly discussed. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Clinical and Neuroimaging Spectrum of Peroxisomal Disorders
Peroxisomes play vital roles in a broad spectrum of cellular metabolic pathways. Defects in genes encoding peroxisomal proteins can result in a wide array of disorders, depending upon the metabolic pathways affected. These disorders can be broadly classified into 2 main groups; peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) and single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. Peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies are result of dysfunction of a specific metabolic pathway, while PBDs are due to generalized peroxisomal dysfunction. Mutations in PEX1 gene are the most common cause of PBDs, accounting for two-thirds of cases. Peroxisomal fission defe...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of Mitochondrial Cytopathies
Mitochondrial diseases are a complex and heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that occur as a result of either nuclear DNA or mitochondrial DNA pathogenic variants, leading to a decrease in oxidative phosphorylation and cellular energy (ATP) production. Increasing knowledge about molecular, biochemical, and genetic abnormalities related to mitochondrial dysfunction has expanded the neuroimaging phenotypes of mitochondrial disorders. As a consequence of this growing field, the imaging recognition patterns of mitochondrial cytopathies are continually evolving. In this review, we describe the main neuroimaging characteris...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Macrocephaly: Solving the Diagnostic Dilemma
This article outlines the diverse etiologies of macrocephaly, delineates their clinical and radiographic features, and suggests a clinicoradiological algorithm for evaluation. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

Neurometabolic Disorders of the Newborn
We present a review of neurometabolic disorders specific to the newborns with a focus on how neuroimaging findings match their clinical presentation patterns. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - August 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

MR-Guided Functional Neurosurgery: Laser Ablation and Deep Brain Stimulation
Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is increasingly implemented for image-guided procedures in functional neurosurgery. iMRI facilitates accurate electrode implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS) and is currently an alternative method for DBS electrode targeting. The application of iMRI also allows for greater accuracy and precision in laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT). The expanding use of functional neurosurgical procedures makes safety and feasibility of iMRI important considerations, particularly in patients with comorbidities or complex medical histories. We review here the applications of iMRI a...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Invited Commentary Source Type: research

MR-Guided Liver Interventions
No abstract available (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Guest Editorial Source Type: research

MR-Guided Sclerotherapy for the Treatment of Low-Flow Vascular Malformations
Low-flow vascular malformations are congenital lesions that can occur throughout the body. Treatment of these lesions is indicated to ameliorate pain, cosmetic disfigurement, and functional impairment. The first-line treatment of low-flow vascular malformations is percutaneous sclerotherapy. Traditionally, sclerotherapy is performed with a combination of ultrasound and fluoroscopy. However, malformations that are deep in the abdomen and pelvis or are obscured by overlying fascia or scar may be difficult to be visualized with ultrasound and fluoroscopy. MR-guided sclerotherapy has emerged as an alternative modality that can...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

MR-Guided Prostate Interventions
We present a contemporary review of MR-guided techniques for prostatic interventions. (Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

MRI-Guided Interventions in Musculoskeletal System
Image-guided interventions in the musculoskeletal system require accurate detection and characterization of lesions involving bone and soft tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has superior soft tissue contrast resolution particularly in bone and soft tissues where computed tomography and ultrasonography have significant limitations. In addition, the multiplanar imaging capabilities of MRI facilitate targeting lesions and tracking interventional devices. Although conventional diagnostic MRI sequences suffer from motion sensitivity and prolonged imaging time, recently developed fast imaging sequences allow for rapid ac...
Source: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging - June 1, 2018 Category: Radiology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research