What ’s the latest on estrogen use in post-menopausal women?

Estrogen is a miracle drug for many women who experience the drenching sweats, sexual dysfunction and frustrating brain betrayals associated with entering menopause. It comes in expensive patches, less expensive pills or injections, as well as vaginal creams or rings. It has gone in and out of favor with the medical community for decades. Estrogen is the main ingredient in most birth control pills and has been studied extensively in that context as well as in the setting of women whose ovaries have ceased to produce it as they age. It can increase the risk of migraines, blood clots in the legs or lungs; it can cause benign liver tumors and facial pigmentation. It causes growth of the endometrial cells that line the uterus and can increase benign and malignant tumors in that organ. Some breast cancer cells are sensitive to estrogen and can grow when they are exposed to it, so patients with breast cancer try to stay away from it. In addition to treating the annoying symptoms of menopause, it also increases bone strength and maintains a healthy vaginal lining. Continue reading ... Your patients are rating you online: How to respond. Manage your online reputation: A social media guide. Find out how.
Source: Kevin, M.D. - Medical Weblog - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Conditions OB/GYN Source Type: blogs

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Abstract DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to cytosine or adenine. DNA methylation can change the activity of the DNA molecule without changing the sequence. Methylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and it is a very important epigenetic modification event, which can regulate gene activity and influence a number of key processes such as genomic imprinting, cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Profiling DNA methylation across the genome is critical to understanding the influence of methylation in normal ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract This chapter addresses the problem of reconstructing regulatory networks in molecular biology by integrating multiple sources of data. We consider data sets measured from diverse technologies all related to the same set of variables and individuals. This situation is becoming more and more common in molecular biology, for instance, when both proteomic and transcriptomic data related to the same set of "genes" are available on a given cohort of patients.To infer a consensus network that integrates both proteomic and transcriptomic data, we introduce a multivariate extension of Gaussian graphical ...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Over the last several decades, multiple recurrent chromosomal amplifications and deletions have been detected in a large number of cancers. These regions of amplification and deletion can encompass a few to several hundred genes. Determining which of these genes is causing the outgrowth of the cancer is difficult. Complicating the analysis is the fact that several genes within the affected chromosomal region may cooperate to promote tumorigenesis. In this protocol we describe a method of chromosomal engineering in mice that allows modeling of chromosomal duplications and deficiencies. This method faithful...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Transposon mutagenesis has emerged as a powerful methodology for functionally annotating cancer genomes. Although in vivo transposon-mediated forward genetic screens have proven to be valuable for cancer gene identification, they are also time consuming and resource intensive. To facilitate the rapid and cost-effective identification of genes that regulate tumor-promoting pathways, we developed a complementary ex vivo transposon mutagenesis approach wherein human or mouse cells growing in culture are mutagenized and screened for the acquisition of specific phenotypes in vitro or in vivo, such as growth fa...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Since the advent of large-scale, detailed descriptive cancer genomics studies at the beginning of the century, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), labs around the world have been working to make this data useful. Data like these can be made more useful by comparison with complementary functional genomic data. One new example is the application of CRISPR/Cas9-based library screening for cancer-related traits in cell lines. Such screens can reveal genome-wide suppressors of tumorigenesis and metastasis. Here we describe the use of widely available lentiviral libraries for such screens in cultured cell l...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract In this protocol, pooled sgRNA libraries targeting thousands of genes are computationally designed, generated using microarray-based synthesis techniques, and packaged into lentiviral particles. Target cells of interest are transduced with the lentiviral sgRNA pools to generate a collection of knockout mutants-via Cas9-mediated genomic cleavage-and screened for a phenotype of interest. The relative abundance of each mutant in the population can be monitored over time through high-throughput sequencing of the integrated sgRNA expression cassettes. Using this technique, we outline strategies for the identif...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract The tissue engineering method of decellularization and recellularization has been successfully used in a variety of regenerative medicine applications. The protocols used to de/recellularize various organs and tissues are largely different. Here we describe a method to effectively engineer a bioartificial colon by completely removing original cells from human intestinal tissues followed by repopulating the acellular tissue matrix with cell cultures. This method provides a novel approach for human intestinal regeneration and can be used to identify potential cancer driver genes. PMID: 30542993 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Abstract Here we describe a method for identifying genes and genetic pathways responsible for chemoresistance in cancer cells. The method is based on generation and characterization of matched pairs of chemotherapy-sensitive/chemotherapy-resistant cancer cell lines. In this protocol we are using endometrial cancer cell lines treated with carboplatin and paclitaxel, which are first-line chemotherapies for gynecologic malignancies. The chemoresistant cells and their chemosensitive counterparts are used for downstream applications including bulk RNA-sequencing analysis to identify a set of genes and pathways that are...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
Johnson&Johnson developed a strategy in the 1970s to deal with a growing volume of research showing that talc miners had elevated rates of lung disease and cancer: Promote the positive, challenge the negative.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
ConclusionsAccumulation of molecular abnormalities may increase the susceptibility to inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients and play an important role in the development of chronic active gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and the intestinal type of gastric cancer. The severity of gastric mucosal damage correlates with the presence of mutations in the gastric mucosa and the age of patients.
Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
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